https://preterhuman.net/docs/api.php?action=feedcontributions&user=Netfreak&feedformat=atomHigher Intellect Documents - User contributions [en]2021-04-16T13:38:28ZUser contributionsMediaWiki 1.35.0https://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=VOYAGER_NEPTUNE_SCIENCE_SUMMARY&diff=1855VOYAGER NEPTUNE SCIENCE SUMMARY2021-04-15T00:15:06Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> VOYAGER NEPTUNE SCIENCE SUMMARY In the summer of 1989, NASA's Voyager 2 became the first spacecraft to observe the planet Neptune, its final planetary target..."</p>
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<div><pre><br />
VOYAGER NEPTUNE SCIENCE SUMMARY<br />
<br />
<br />
In the summer of 1989, NASA's Voyager 2 became the<br />
first spacecraft to observe the planet Neptune, its final<br />
planetary target. Passing about 4,950 kilometers (3,000 miles)<br />
above Neptune's north pole, Voyager 2 made its closest approach<br />
to any planet since leaving Earth 12 years ago. Five hours<br />
later, Voyager 2 passed about 40,000 kilometers (25,000 miles)<br />
from Neptune's largest moon, Triton, the last solid body the<br />
spacecraft will have an opportunity to study. <br />
Neptune is one of the class of planets -- all of them<br />
beyond the asteroid belt -- known as gas giants; the others in<br />
this class are Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. These planets are<br />
about 4 to 12 times greater in diameter than Earth. They have no<br />
solid surfaces but possess massive atmospheres that contain<br />
substantial amounts of hydrogen and helium with traces of other<br />
gases.<br />
Voyager 2 is one of twin spacecraft launched more than<br />
a decade ago to explore the outer solar system. Between them,<br />
these spacecraft have explored four giant planets, 48 of their<br />
moons, and their unique systems of rings and magnetic fields. <br />
Voyager 1, launched September 5, 1977, visited Jupiter<br />
in 1979 and Saturn in 1980. It is now leaving the solar system,<br />
rising above the ecliptic plane at an angle of about 35 degrees,<br />
at a rate of about 520 million kilometers a year.<br />
Voyager 2, launched August 20, 1977, visited Jupiter in<br />
�<br />
1979, Saturn in 1981 and Uranus in 1986 before making its closest<br />
approach to Neptune on August 25, 1989. Voyager 2 traveled 12<br />
years at an average velocity of 19 kilometers a second (about<br />
42,000 miles an hour) to reach Neptune, which is 30 times farther<br />
from the Sun than Earth is. Voyager observed Neptune almost<br />
continuously from June to October 1989. Now Voyager 2 is also<br />
headed out of the solar system, diving below the ecliptic plane<br />
at an angle of about 48 degrees and a rate of about 470 million<br />
kilometers a year.<br />
Both spacecraft will continue to study ultraviolet<br />
sources among the stars, and their fields and particles detectors<br />
will continue to search for the boundary between the Sun's<br />
influence and interstellar space. If all goes well, we will be<br />
able to communicate with the two spacecraft for another 25 to 30<br />
years, until their nuclear power sources can no longer supply<br />
enough electrical energy to power critical subsystems.<br />
<br />
BACKGROUND<br />
Astronomers have studied Neptune since September 23,<br />
1846, when Johann Gottfried Galle, of the Berlin Observatory, and<br />
Louis d'Arrest, an astronomy student, discovered the eighth<br />
planet on the basis of mathematical predictions by Urbain Jean<br />
Joseph Le Verrier. Similar predictions were made independently<br />
by John Couch Adams. (Galileo Galilei had seen Neptune during<br />
several nights of observing Jupiter, in January 1613, but didn't<br />
realize he was seeing a new planet.) Still, any knowledge and<br />
understanding of Neptune was limited by the astronomer's abilityto see the distant object, almost 4.5 billion kilometers (2.8<br />
billion miles) from Earth.<br />
Scarcely a month after Galle and d'Arrest first saw<br />
Neptune, British astronomer William Lassell spotted a satellite<br />
orbiting the planet and named it Triton. Triton, almost the size<br />
of Earth's Moon, is the only large satellite in the solar system<br />
to circle a planet in a retrograde direction -- in a direction<br />
opposite to the rotation of the planet. That phenomenon led some<br />
astronomers to surmise that Neptune had captured Triton as it<br />
traveled through space several billion years ago.<br />
In 1949, astronomer Gerard Kuiper discovered Nereid,<br />
the second of Neptune's escorts. Nereid is only about 340<br />
kilometers (210 miles) in diameter and is so far from Neptune<br />
that it requires 360 days to make one orbit -- only five days<br />
less than Earth takes to travel once around the Sun.<br />
In 1981, astronomers leaped at an infrequent<br />
opportunity: A star would pass behind Neptune so that observers<br />
could measure the starlight and how it changed as it passed<br />
through the upper layer of Neptune's atmosphere. That would<br />
provide clues to its structure.<br />
But the star's light winked off and on before Neptune<br />
passed in front of it. Similar measurements were obtained during<br />
the mid-1980s. Astronomers concluded that some material (perhaps<br />
like that of the rings of Saturn) orbits Neptune, and was<br />
responsible for occasional blockage of the star's light. In each<br />
observed event, astronomers saw that the ring or rings did not<br />
appear to completely encircle the planet -- rather, each appeared<br />
�<br />
to be an arc segment of a ring.<br />
The laws of physics say that, with nothing else acting <br />
upon them, rings must orbit a planet at about the same distance<br />
from the center all the way around. Ring material, if<br />
unrestrained, will tend to disperse uniformly around the planet.<br />
In order to have "ring arcs," scientists thought that some<br />
objects -- perhaps small satellites -- must shepherd the arcs,<br />
keeping them in their place by gravity.<br />
Earth-based telescopic observations of Neptune over the <br />
last few years showed tantalizing hints of dynamic cloud<br />
structures on the distant planet, from which scientists could <br />
estimate the speed of winds circling the planet. <br />
Against that background, Voyager's scientists prepared <br />
for the first encounter of Neptune, perhaps the only close-up <br />
look at Neptune in the lifetime of many of us. What they found<br />
will force scholars to rewrite the astronomy textbooks, and<br />
scientists to adjust their views of the solar system's other<br />
giant planets.<br />
<br />
NEPTUNE<br />
Nearly 4.5 billion kilometers (3 billion miles) from<br />
the Sun, Neptune orbits the Sun once in 165 years, and therefore <br />
has made not quite a full circle around the Sun since it was <br />
discovered. With an equatorial diameter of 49,528 kilometers <br />
(30,775 miles), Neptune is the smallest of our solar system's <br />
gas giants. Even so, its volume could hold nearly 60 Earths. <br />
Neptune is the densest of the four giant planets, about 64 percent heavier than if it were composed entirely of water. <br />
The most obvious feature of the planet in Voyager<br />
pictures is its blue color, the result of methane in the<br />
atmosphere. Methane preferentially absorbs the longer<br />
wavelengths of sunlight (those near the red end of the spectrum). <br />
What are left to be reflected are colors at the blue end of the<br />
spectrum.<br />
While methane is not the only constituent in Neptune's<br />
atmosphere, it is one of the most important. Methane cycles<br />
through the atmosphere like this:<br />
* Solar ultraviolet radiation destroys methane high in<br />
Neptune's atmosphere by converting it to hydrocarbons such as<br />
ethane, acetylene and haze particles of more complex polymers.<br />
* The haze particles sink to the cold lower<br />
stratosphere, where they freeze and become ice particles.<br />
* The hydrocarbon ice particles gently fall into the<br />
warmer troposphere, where they evaporate back into gases.<br />
* The hydrocarbon gases mix deeper into the atmosphere<br />
where the temperature and pressure are higher, mix with hydrogen<br />
gas and regenerate methane.<br />
* Buoyant, convective methane clouds then rise great<br />
distances to the base of the stratosphere or higher, returning<br />
methane vapor to the stratosphere.<br />
Throughout the process there is no net loss of methane<br />
in Neptune's atmosphere.<br />
Neptune is a dynamic planet, even though it receives<br />
only 3 percent as much sunlight as Jupiter does. Several large,<br />
�<br />
dark spots are reminiscent of Jupiter's hurricane-like storms. <br />
The largest spot is big enough for Earth to fit neatly inside it. <br />
Designated the "Great Dark Spot" by its discoverers, the feature<br />
appears to be an anticyclone similar to Jupiter's Great Red Spot. <br />
Neptune's Great Dark Spot is comparable in size, relative to the<br />
planet, and at the same latitude (the Great Dark Spot is at 22<br />
degrees south latitude) as Jupiter's Great Red Spot. However,<br />
Neptune's Great Dark Spot is far more variable in size and shape<br />
than its Jupiter counterpart. Bright, wispy "cirrus-type" clouds<br />
overlaying the Great Dark Spot at its southern and northeastern<br />
boundaries may be analogous to lenticular clouds that form over<br />
mountains on Earth.<br />
At about 42 degrees south, a bright, irregularly<br />
shaped, eastward-moving cloud circles much faster than does the<br />
Great Dark Spot, "scooting" around Neptune in about 16 hours. <br />
This "scooter" may be a cloud plume rising between cloud decks.<br />
Another spot, designated "D2" by Voyager's scientists,<br />
is located far to the south of the Great Dark Spot, at 55 degrees<br />
south. It is almond-shaped, with a bright central core, and<br />
moves eastward around the planet in about 16 hours.<br />
Voyager also measured heat radiated by Neptune's<br />
atmosphere. The atmosphere above the clouds is hotter near the<br />
equator, cooler in the mid-latitudes and warm again at the south<br />
pole. Temperatures in the stratosphere were measured to be 750<br />
kelvins (900 degrees F), while at the 100 millibar pressure<br />
level, they were measured to be 55 K (-360 degrees F). Heat<br />
appears to be caused, at least in part, by convection in theatmosphere that results in compressional heating: Gases rise in<br />
the mid-latitudes where they cool, then drift toward the equator<br />
and the pole, where they sink and are warmed.<br />
Long, bright clouds, reminiscent of cirrus clouds on<br />
Earth, can be seen high in Neptune's atmosphere. They appear to<br />
form above most of the methane, and consequently are not blue.<br />
At northern low latitudes (27 degrees north), Voyager<br />
captured images of cloud streaks casting their shadows on cloud<br />
decks estimated to be about 50 to 100 kilometers (30 to 60 miles)<br />
below. The widths of these cloud streaks range from 50 to 200<br />
kilometers (30 to 125 miles), and the widths of the shadows range<br />
from 30 to 50 kilometers (20 to 30 miles). Cloud streaks were<br />
also seen in the southern polar regions (71 degrees south), where<br />
the cloud heights were about 50 kilometers (30 miles). <br />
Most of the winds on Neptune blow in a westward<br />
direction, which is retrograde, or opposite to the rotation of<br />
the planet. Near the Great Dark Spot, there are retrograde winds<br />
blowing up to 1500 miles an hour -- the strongest winds measured<br />
on any planet, including windy Saturn.<br />
<br />
THE MAGNETIC ENVIRONMENT<br />
The character of Neptune's magnetic field is important<br />
because it helps scientists understand what goes on deep in the<br />
planet's interior.<br />
To have a magnetic field, scientists believe, a planet<br />
must fulfill these conditions:<br />
�<br />
* There must be a region within the planet that is<br />
liquid;<br />
* The region must also be electrically conducting; <br />
* There must be an energy source that sets the region<br />
in motion and then keeps it moving.<br />
Neptune's magnetic field is tilted 47 degrees from the<br />
planet's rotation axis, and is offset at least 0.55 radii (about<br />
13,500 kilometers or 8,500 miles) from the physical center. The<br />
dynamo electric currents produced within the planet, therefore,<br />
must be relatively closer to the surface than for Earth, Jupiter<br />
or Saturn. The field strength at the surface varies, depending<br />
on which hemisphere is being measured, from a maximum of more<br />
than 1 gauss in the southern hemisphere to a minimum of less than<br />
0.1 gauss in the northern. (Earth's equatorial magnetic field at<br />
the surface is 0.32 gauss.) Because of its unusual orientation<br />
and the tilt of the planet's rotation axis, Neptune's magnetic<br />
field goes through dramatic changes as the planet rotates in the<br />
solar wind.<br />
Voyager's first indication of the Neptunian magnetic<br />
field was the detection of periodic radio emissions from the<br />
planet. The spacecraft crossed the bow shock, the outer edge of<br />
the field that stands ahead of the planet like a shield in the<br />
solar wind, as a shock wave stands out before a supersonic<br />
airplane, at 7:38 a.m. August 24, and shortly thereafter entered<br />
the planet's magnetosphere. Voyager 2 remained within the<br />
magnetosphere for about 38 hours, or slightly more than two<br />
planetary rotations, before passing once again into the solarwind.<br />
Because Neptune's magnetic field is so highly tilted,<br />
and the timing of the encounter was such that the south magnetic<br />
pole was very nearly pointed at the Sun, Voyager 2 flew into the<br />
southern cusp of the magnetosphere, providing scientists a unique<br />
opportunity to observe this region of a gigantic magnetic field.<br />
Magnetospheric scientists compared Neptune's field with<br />
that of Uranus, which is tilted 59 degrees from the rotation<br />
axis, with a center that is offset by 0.3 Uranus radii. After<br />
Voyager 2 passed Uranus in January 1986, some scientists thought<br />
they might have seen the planet as its magnetic field was<br />
reversing direction. Others found it difficult to believe such a<br />
coincidence just happened as Voyager passed through the<br />
neighborhood. Scientists have no definite answers yet, but think<br />
that the tilt may be characteristic of flows in the interiors of<br />
both Uranus and Neptune and unrelated to either the high tilt of<br />
Uranus' rotation axis or possible field reversals at either<br />
planet.<br />
Neptune's magnetic field polarity is the same as those<br />
of Jupiter and Saturn, and opposite to that of Earth.<br />
Neptune's magnetic field provided another clue to the<br />
planet's structure and behavior. Observers on Earth hadn't been<br />
able to determine the length of a Neptunian day. Cloud motions<br />
are a poor indicator of the rotation of the bulk of the planet,<br />
since they are affected by strong winds and vary substantially<br />
with latitude. The best telescopic estimate was a rotation<br />
period of approximately 18 hours. The best indicator of the<br />
�<br />
internal rotation period of the planet is periodic radio waves<br />
generated by the magnetic field. Voyager's planetary radio<br />
astronomy instrument measured these periodic radio waves, and<br />
determined that the rotation rate of the interior of Neptune is<br />
16 hours, 7 minutes.<br />
Voyager detected auroras, similar to the northern and<br />
southern lights on Earth, in Neptune's atmosphere. The auroras<br />
on Earth occur when energetic particles strike the atmosphere as<br />
they spiral down the magnetic field lines. But because of<br />
Neptune's complex magnetic field, the auroras are extremely<br />
complicated processes that occur over wide regions of the planet,<br />
not just near the planet's magnetic poles. The auroral power on<br />
Neptune is weak, estimated at about 50 million watts, compared to<br />
100 billion watts on Earth.<br />
<br />
TRITON<br />
The largest of Neptune's eight known satellites, Triton<br />
is different from all other icy satellites Voyager has studied.<br />
About three-quarters the size of Earth's Moon, Triton circles<br />
Neptune in a tilted, circular, retrograde orbit (opposite to the<br />
direction of the planet's rotation), completing an orbit in 5.875<br />
days at an average distance of 330,000 kilometers (205,000 miles)<br />
above Neptune's cloud tops. Triton shows evidence of a<br />
remarkable geologic history, and Voyager 2 images show active<br />
geyser-like eruptions spewing invisible nitrogen gas and dark<br />
dust particles several kilometers into space.<br />
Triton has a diameter of about 2,705 kilometers (1,680<br />
miles) and a mean density of about 2.066 grams per cubic<br />
centimeter (the density of water is 1.0 gram per cubic<br />
centimeter). This means Triton contains more rock in its<br />
interior than the icy satellites of Saturn and Uranus do.<br />
The relatively high density and the retrograde orbit<br />
offer strong evidence that Triton did not originate near Neptune,<br />
but is a captured object. If that is the case, tidal heating<br />
could have melted Triton in its originally eccentric orbit, and<br />
the satellite might even have been liquid for as long as one<br />
billion years after its capture by Neptune.<br />
While scientists are unsure of the details of Triton's<br />
history, icy volcanism is undoubtedly an important ingredient.<br />
To understand what is happening on Triton, one must<br />
ask, "How cold is cold? How soft is soft? How young is young?" <br />
Water ice, whose melting point is 0 degrees Celsius (32 degrees<br />
Fahrenheit), deforms more easily and rapidly on Earth than rock<br />
does, but becomes almost as rigid as rock at the extremely low<br />
temperatures found on Triton, more than 4.5 billion kilometers<br />
from the Sun. Most of the geologic structures on Triton's<br />
surface are likely formed of water ice, because nitrogen and<br />
methane ice are too soft to support much of their own weight.<br />
On the other hand, nitrogen and methane, which form a<br />
thin veneer on Triton, turn from ice to gas at less than 100<br />
degrees above absolute zero. Most of the geologically recent<br />
eruptions at those low cryogenic temperatures are due to the<br />
nitrogen and methane on Triton. <br />
�<br />
Evidence that such eruptions occur was found in Voyager<br />
images of several geyser-like volcanic vents that were apparently<br />
spewing nitrogen gas laced with extremely fine, dark particles. <br />
The particles are carried to altitudes of 2 to 8 kilometers (1 to<br />
5 miles) and then blown downwind before being deposited on<br />
Triton's surface.<br />
An extremely thin atmosphere extends as much as 800<br />
kilometers (500 miles) above Triton's surface. Tiny nitrogen ice<br />
particles may form thin clouds a few kilometers above the<br />
surface. Triton is very bright, reflecting 60 to 95 percent of<br />
the sunlight that strikes it (by comparison, Earth's Moon<br />
reflects 11 percent). <br />
The atmospheric pressure at Triton's surface is about<br />
14 microbars, a mere 1/70,000th the surface pressure on Earth. <br />
Temperature at the surface is about 38 kelvins (-391 degrees F),<br />
the coldest surface of any body yet visited in the solar system. <br />
At 800 kilometers (500 miles) above the surface, the temperature<br />
is 95 kelvins (-290 degrees F).<br />
Despite remarkable differences between Triton and the<br />
other icy satellites in the solar system, photographs reveal<br />
terrain that is reminiscent of Ariel (a satellite of Uranus),<br />
Enceladus (a satellite of Saturn), and Europa, Ganymede and Io<br />
(satellites of Jupiter). Even a few reminders of Mars, such as<br />
polar caps and wind streaks, can be seen on Triton's surface.<br />
Triton appears to have the same general size, density,<br />
temperature and chemical composition as Pluto (the only outer<br />
planet not yet visited by any spacecraft), and will probably beour best model of Pluto for a long time to come.<br />
<br />
SMALL SATELLITES<br />
In addition to the previously known satellites Triton<br />
and Nereid, Voyager 2 found six more satellites orbiting Neptune,<br />
for a total of eight known satellites. The new objects have not<br />
yet been named, a task for the International Astronomical Union<br />
(IAU), but were given temporary designations that tell the year<br />
of discovery, the planet they are associated with and the order<br />
of discovery; for example, 1989N1 was the first satellite of<br />
Neptune found that year. The final new body was designated<br />
1989N6.<br />
Nereid was discovered in 1948 through Earth-based<br />
telescopes. Little is known about Nereid, which is slightly<br />
smaller than 1989N1. Voyager's best photos of Nereid were taken<br />
from about 4.7 million kilometers (2.9 million miles), and show<br />
that its surface reflects about 14 percent of the sunlight that<br />
strikes it, making it somewhat more reflective than Earth's Moon,<br />
and more than twice as reflective as 1989N1. Nereid's orbit is<br />
the most eccentric in the solar system, ranging from about<br />
1,353,600 km (841,100 miles) to 9,623,700 km (5,980,200 mi).<br />
* 1989N1, like all six of Neptune's newly discovered<br />
small satellites, is one of the darkest objects in the solar<br />
system -- "as dark as soot" is not too strong a description. <br />
Like Saturn's satellite, Phoebe, it reflects only 6 percent of<br />
the sunlight that strikes it. 1989N1 is about 400 kilometers<br />
(250 miles) in diameter, larger than Nereid. It wasn't<br />
�<br />
discovered from Earth because it is so close to Neptune that it<br />
is lost in the glare of reflected sunlight. It circles Neptune<br />
at a distance of about 92,800 kilometers (57,700 miles) above the<br />
cloud tops, and completes one orbit in 26 hours, 54 minutes. <br />
Scientists say it is about as large as a satellite can be without<br />
being pulled into a spherical shape by its own gravity.<br />
* 1989N2 is only about 48,800 kilometers (30,300 miles)<br />
from Neptune, and circles the planet in 13 hours, 18 minutes. <br />
Its diameter is about 190 kilometers (120 miles).<br />
* 1989N3, only 27,700 kilometers (17,200 miles) from<br />
Neptune's clouds, orbits every 8 hours. Its diameter is about<br />
150 kilometers (90 miles).<br />
* 1989N4 lies 37,200 kilometers (23,100 miles) from<br />
Neptune. 1989N4, diameter 180 kilometers (110 miles), completes<br />
an orbit in 10 hours, 18 minutes.<br />
* 1989N5 appears to be about 80 kilometers (50 miles)<br />
in diameter. It orbits Neptune in 7 hours, 30 minutes about<br />
25,200 kilometers (15,700 miles) above the cloud tops.<br />
* 1989N6, the last satellite discovered, is about 54<br />
kilometers (33 miles) in diameter and orbits Neptune about 23,200<br />
kilometers (14,400 miles) above the clouds in 7 hours, 6 minutes.<br />
1989N1 and its tiny companions are cratered and<br />
irregularly shaped -- they are not round -- and show no signs of<br />
any geologic modifications. All circle the plant in the same<br />
direction as Neptune rotates, and remain close to Neptune's<br />
equatorial plane.<br />
<br />
<br />
THE RINGS AND "RING ARCS"<br />
As Voyager 2 approached Neptune, scientists had been<br />
working on theories of how partial rings, or "ring arcs," could<br />
exist. Most settled for the concept of shepherding satellites<br />
that "herd" ring particles between them, keeping the particles<br />
from either escaping to space or falling into the planet's<br />
atmosphere. This theory had explained some new phenomena<br />
observed in the rings of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus. <br />
When Voyager 2 was close enough, its cameras<br />
photographed three bright patches that looked like ring arcs. <br />
But closer approach, higher resolution and more computer<br />
enhancement of the images showed that the rings do, in fact, go<br />
all the way around the planet.<br />
The rings are so diffuse, and the material in them so<br />
fine, that Earthbound astronomers simply hadn't been able to<br />
detect the full rings. (Based on Voyager's findings, one Earth-<br />
based observation of the ring arcs is now attributed to the<br />
passage of a small satellite through the ring area.)<br />
Late in the encounter, the scientists were able to sort<br />
out the number of rings and a preliminary nomenclature:<br />
* The "Main Ring" (officially known as 1989N1R,<br />
following the IAU convention) orbits Neptune about 38,100<br />
kilometers (23,700 miles) above the cloud tops. The main ring<br />
contains three separate regions where the material is brighter<br />
and denser, and explains most of the sightings or "ring arcs." <br />
Several Voyager photographs show what appear to be clumps <br />
�<br />
embedded in the rings. Scientists are not sure what causes the<br />
material to clump.<br />
* The "Inner Ring" (1989N2R) -- about 28,400 kilometers<br />
(17,700 miles) above the cloud tops.<br />
* An "Inside Diffuse Ring" (1989N3R) -- a complete ring<br />
located about 17,100 kilometers (10,600 miles) from Neptune's <br />
cloud tops. Some scientists suspect that this ring may extend<br />
all the way down to Neptune's cloud tops.<br />
* An area called "the Plateau," a broad, diffuse sheet<br />
of fine material just outside the so-called "Inner Ring."<br />
The material varies considerably in size from ring to<br />
ring. The largest proportion of fine material -- approximately<br />
the size of smoke particles, is in the Plateau. All other rings<br />
contain a greater proportion of larger material.<br />
Both Voyagers have now completed all of the planetary<br />
encounters on their itinerary, but both still have work to do. <br />
Voyager 1 is heading out of the solar system, climbing above the<br />
ecliptic plane in which the planets orbit the Sun. Voyager 2 is<br />
also outbound, traveling below that plane. Both are searching<br />
for the heliopause, a boundary that marks the end of the solar<br />
wind and the beginning of interstellar space. Assuming both<br />
spacecraft remain healthy, flight controllers expect to be able<br />
to operate the spacecraft for another 25 to 30 years,<br />
investigating magnetic fields and particles in interplanetary and<br />
interstellar space, and observing ultraviolet sources among the<br />
stars.<br />
The Voyager Project is managed by the Jet Propulsion<br />
Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications. <br />
##### <br />
12-20-89 DB/AMS<br />
</pre><br />
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[[Category:Space]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=VOYAGER_JUPITER_SCIENCE_SUMMARY&diff=1854VOYAGER JUPITER SCIENCE SUMMARY2021-04-02T08:14:03Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> FACT SHEET: VOYAGER JUPITER SCIENCE SUMMARY NASA launched the two Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune in the late summer of 1977. Voyager..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
FACT SHEET: VOYAGER JUPITER SCIENCE SUMMARY<br />
<br />
NASA launched the two Voyager spacecraft to Jupiter,<br />
Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune in the late summer of 1977. Voyager<br />
1's closest approach to Jupiter occurred March 5, 1979. Voyager<br />
2's closest approach was July 9, 1979.<br />
Photography of Jupiter began in January 1979, when<br />
images of the brightly banded planet already exceeded the best<br />
taken from Earth. Voyager 1 completed its Jupiter encounter in<br />
early April, after taking almost 19,000 pictures and many other<br />
scientific measurements. Voyager 2 picked up the baton in late<br />
April and its encounter continued into August. They took more<br />
than 33,000 pictures of Jupiter and its five major satellites.<br />
Although astronomers had studied Jupiter from Earth for<br />
several centuries, scientists were surprised by many of Voyager 1<br />
and 2's findings. They now understand that important physical,<br />
geological, and atmospheric processes go on - in the planet, its<br />
satellites, and magnetosphere - that were new to observers.<br />
Discovery of active volcanism on the satellite Io was<br />
probably the greatest surprise. It was the first time active<br />
volcanoes had been seen on another body in the solar system. It<br />
appears that activity on Io affects the entire Jovian system. Io<br />
appears to be the primary source of matter that pervades the<br />
Jovian magnetosphere -- the region of space that surrounds the<br />
planet, primarily influenced by the planet's strong magnetic<br />
field. Sulfur, oxygen, and sodium, apparently erupted by Io'svolcanoes and sputtered off the surface by impact of high-energy<br />
particles, were detected at the outer edge of the magnetosphere.<br />
Particles of the same material are present inside Io's<br />
orbit, where they accelerate to more than 10 percent of the speed<br />
of light. It is clear to scientists from a comparison of data<br />
from Pioneers 10 and 11 (which flew past Jupiter in late 1973 and<br />
1974) and the Voyagers that something changed in the four and<br />
one-half years between the Pioneer and Voyager encounters.<br />
It is not entirely clear just how far-reaching those<br />
changes are, or what brought them about. They may be related to<br />
Ionian activity. It is difficult to imagine, however, that at<br />
least some of Io's volcanoes were not erupting when the Pioneers<br />
flew past; it is also, the Voyager scientists say, difficult to<br />
believe the Pioneers' instruments failed to see magnetospheric<br />
concentrations of sulfur detected by both Voyager spacecraft<br />
(Voyager 1 saw greater concentrations than Voyager 2).<br />
Here is a summary of the more important science results<br />
from the Voyager encounters with Jupiter:<br />
JUPITER'S ATMOSPHERE<br />
Atmospheric features of broadly different sizes appear<br />
to move with uniform velocities. That suggests that mass motion<br />
(movement of material) and not wave motion (movement of energy<br />
through a relatively stationary mass) was being observed.<br />
Rapid brightening of features in the atmosphere was<br />
followed by spreading of cloud material. That is probably the<br />
result of disturbances that trigger convective (upwelling and<br />
�<br />
downwelling) activity.<br />
A pattern of east-to-west winds extends as far poleward<br />
as 60 degrees north and south, roughly similar to the pattern<br />
seen in more temperate areas where belts and zones are visible. <br />
Previous investigations led scientists to believe the near-polar<br />
regions (above 45 degrees latitude) are dominated by convective<br />
upwelling and downwelling. Voyager showed they apparently are<br />
not, at least up to 60 degrees latitude, and probably to 75.<br />
Material associated with the Great Red Spot, Jupiter's<br />
most prominent atmospheric feature, moves in a counter-clockwise<br />
(anticyclonic) direction. At the outer edge, material appears to<br />
rotate in four to six days; near the center, motions are small<br />
and nearly random in direction.<br />
Small spots appear to interact with the Great Red Spot<br />
and with each other.<br />
Voyager instruments observed auroral emissions, similar<br />
to Earth's northern lights, in the polar regions, in ultraviolet<br />
and visible light. Pioneer 10 and 11 didn't see the ultraviolet<br />
emissions during their encounters. The auroral emissions appear<br />
to be related to material from Io that spirals along magnetic<br />
field lines to fall into Jupiter's atmosphere.<br />
Voyager also saw cloud-top lightning bolts, similar to<br />
superbolts in Earth's high atmosphere.<br />
Atmospheric temperature at 5 to 10 millibars (1/200th<br />
to 1/100th Earth's surface atmospheric pressure) is about 160<br />
Kelvins (-170 degrees Fahrenheit). An inversion layer -- a warmregion above a cold layer, similar to the phenomenon that traps<br />
smog in the Los Angeles Basin -- exists near the 150-millibar<br />
level. (Pressure at Earth's surface is about 1,000 millibars.)<br />
The Voyagers observed ionospheric temperatures that<br />
changed with altitude, reaching about 1,100 Kelvins (1,500<br />
degrees Fahrenheit). That was also not observed by Pioneers 10<br />
and 11, and Voyager scientists believe they are witnessing large<br />
temporal or spatial changes in the ionosphere of Jupiter.<br />
The Voyagers measured helium in the upper atmosphere;<br />
its percentage compared to hydrogen is important to understand<br />
composition and history of the atmosphere -- and the primordial<br />
cloud of which the Sun and planets formed. Relative abundance of<br />
helium to hydrogen is about 11 percent by volume.<br />
SATELLITES AND RING<br />
Voyager 1 identified nine currently active (erupting)<br />
volcanoes on Io, probably driven by tidal heating. Many more are<br />
suspected. Voyager 2 observed eight of the nine; the largest<br />
shut down by the time Voyager 2 arrived at Jupiter. Plumes from<br />
the volcanoes reach more than 300 kilometers (190 miles) above<br />
the surface. The material was being ejected at velocities up to<br />
1.05 kilometers a second (2,300 miles an hour). By comparison,<br />
ejection velocities at Mount Etna, one of Earth's most explosive<br />
volcanoes, hit 50 meters a second (112 miles an hour). Volcanism<br />
is associated with heating of Io by tidal pumping. Europa and<br />
Ganymede, two large satellites nearby, perturb Io in its orbit<br />
and Jupiter pulls Io back again. The pumping action causes tidal<br />
�<br />
bulging up to 100 meters (330 feet) on Io's surface, compared<br />
with typical tidal bulges on Earth of one meter (three feet).<br />
Voyager 1 measured the temperature of a large hot spot<br />
on Io associated with a volcanic feature. While the surrounding<br />
terrain has a temperature of about 130 Kelvins (-230 degrees<br />
Fahrenheit), the hot spot's temperature is about 290 Kelvins (60<br />
degrees Fahrenheit). Scientists believe the hot spot may be a<br />
lava lake, although the temperature indicates the surface is not<br />
molten; it is, at least, reminiscent of lava lakes on Earth.<br />
Europa displayed a large number of intersecting linear<br />
features in the distant, low-resolution photos from Voyager 1. <br />
Scientists at first believed the features might be deep cracks,<br />
caused by crustal rifting or tectonic processes. Closer, high-<br />
resolution photos by Voyager 2, however, left scientists puzzled: <br />
The features were so lacking in topographic relief that they<br />
"might have been painted on with a felt marker," one scientist<br />
commented. There is a possibility that Europa may be internally<br />
active due to tidal heating at a level one-tenth or less that of<br />
Io. Models of Europa's interior show that beneath a thin crust<br />
(5 kilometers or 3 miles) of water ice, Europa may have oceans as<br />
deep as 50 kilometers (30 miles) or more.<br />
Ganymede turned out to be the largest satellite in the<br />
solar system. Before the Voyager encounters, astronomers thought<br />
that Saturn's satellite, Titan, was the largest. Ground-based<br />
observations of Titan, of necessity, had included its substantial<br />
atmosphere. Voyager measurements of Ganymede showed it is largerthan Titan. Ganymede had two distinct terrain types --- cratered<br />
and grooved, telling scientists that Ganymede's entire, ice-rich<br />
crust has been under tension from global tectonic processes.<br />
Callisto has an ancient, heavily cratered crust, with<br />
remnant rings of enormous impact basins. The largest craters<br />
apparently were erased when the ice-laden crust flowed during<br />
geologic time; almost no topographic relief is apparent in ghost<br />
remnants of the impact basins, identifiable only by their light<br />
color and surrounding subdued rings of concentric ridges.<br />
Amalthea is elliptical: 270 kilometers (170 miles) by<br />
165 kilometers (105 miles) by 150 kilometers (95 miles). It is<br />
about 10 times larger than Mars' larger satellite, Phobos, and<br />
has 1,000 times the volume.<br />
Voyager discovered a ring around Jupiter. Its outer<br />
edge is 129,000 kilometers (80,000 miles) from the center of the<br />
planet, and, though the brightest portion is only about 6,000<br />
kilometers (4,000 miles) wide, ring material may extend another<br />
50,000 kilometers (30,000 miles) downward to the top of Jupiter's<br />
atmosphere. Evidence also suggests that diffuse ring material<br />
extends as far out as the orbit of Amalthea. The ring is no more<br />
than 30 kilometers (20 miles) thick. Thus Jupiter joins Saturn,<br />
Uranus, and Neptune as a ringed planet -- although each ring<br />
system is unique and distinct from the others.<br />
Two new satellites, Adrastea and Metis, only about 40<br />
kilometers (25 miles) in diameter, orbit just outside the ring. <br />
A third new satellite, Thebe, diameter about 80 kilometers (50<br />
�<br />
miles), was discovered between the orbits of Amalthea and Io.<br />
MAGNETOSPHERE<br />
An electric current of 5 million amperes was detected<br />
in the flux tube that flows between Jupiter and Io, five times<br />
stronger than predicted. Voyager did not fly through the flux<br />
tube, as planned, since the stronger current had twisted the tube<br />
7,000 kilometers (4,300 miles) from the predicted location.<br />
The Voyagers saw ultraviolet emissions from doubly and<br />
triply ionized sulfur and doubly ionized oxygen. Pioneers 10 and<br />
11 did not detect them, so hot plasma evidently was not present<br />
in 1973 and 74. The sulfur comes from Io's volcanoes.<br />
Plasma-electron densities in some regions of the Io<br />
torus (an inner-tube-shaped ring of matter in the region of Io's<br />
orbit) exceeded 4,500 per cubic centimeter.<br />
A cold plasma, rotating with Jupiter, lies inside six<br />
Jupiter radii (430,000 kilometers or 270,000 miles) from the<br />
planet. Ions of sulfur, oxygen, and sulfur dioxide were found.<br />
High-energy trapped particles were also detected near<br />
Jupiter, with enhanced abundances of oxygen, sodium, and sulfur.<br />
Kilometric radio emissions were coming from Jupiter. <br />
The emissions, in the frequency range from 10 kilohertz to 1<br />
megahertz, may result from plasma oscillations in the Io torus.<br />
Plasma flows in the dayside outer magnetosphere; the<br />
plasma rotates with the planet every 10 hours.<br />
Voyager 1 saw evidence of a transition from closed<br />
magnetic field lines to a magnetotail on the antisolar side ofJupiter. Although such a magnetotail was never in serious doubt,<br />
its existence had not been confirmed before.<br />
Voyager 2 observations during its Jupiter-to-Saturn<br />
cruise showed the magnetotail extends at least to the orbit of<br />
Saturn, 650 million kilometers (400 million miles) away.<br />
Scientists interpreted whistler emissions as lightning<br />
whistlers in the atmosphere. Lightning was suspected, and it has<br />
been proven, from the emissions and detection of bolts; lightning<br />
is a major energy source for many activities on Jupiter.<br />
Voyager also measured radio spectral arcs (from about 1<br />
megahertz to more than 30 megahertz) in patterns that correlate<br />
with Jovian longitude.<br />
Both Voyagers continued on to encounters with Saturn. <br />
Voyager 1 is bound out of the solar system. Voyager 2 completed<br />
encounters with Uranus (in January 1986) and Neptune (in August<br />
1989). It is now also leaving the solar system.<br />
The next mission to Jupiter will be Galileo, launched<br />
in 1989. Galileo, an orbiter and an atmospheric probe, will<br />
continue the exploration of Jupiter begun by the Pioneers and<br />
continued by the Voyagers. Both the missions are managed for<br />
NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.<br />
#####<br />
5/7/90DB<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Space]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Ginenthal_on_Venus%27_Surface_Phenomena&diff=1853Ginenthal on Venus' Surface Phenomena2021-04-02T08:13:16Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> From: news@fedfil.UUCP (news) Newsgroups: talk.origins Subject: Ginenthal on Venus' Surface Phenomena Message-ID: <200@fedfil.UUCP> Date: 12 Jan 93 05:30:44 GMT Organiza..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
From: news@fedfil.UUCP (news)<br />
Newsgroups: talk.origins<br />
Subject: Ginenthal on Venus' Surface Phenomena<br />
Message-ID: <200@fedfil.UUCP><br />
Date: 12 Jan 93 05:30:44 GMT<br />
Organization: HTE<br />
Lines: 788<br />
<br />
<br />
The following is from Charles Ginenthal's article, "THE SURFACE OF<br />
VENUS", AEON III/I, winter 92/93. Ginenthal appears to not be hung up<br />
over copyrights, as some catastrophist authors have been, and if this<br />
article (of mine) begins to look like large-scale plagiarism, you can<br />
relax; Mr. G. himself told me it was cool. He, like myself, is<br />
primarily concerned that this information simply gets out. I have<br />
removed all footnotes from the following material... anybody that<br />
serious can subscribe to AEON. Comments of mine will begin all the<br />
way to the left.<br />
<br />
<br />
"In 1950, Immanuel Velikovsky claimed that the testimony of<br />
ancient peoples from all parts of the globe described<br />
Venus as a giant, brilliant comet. Based on Velikovsky's<br />
analysis of this data he drew the conclusion that Venus was<br />
a newborn planet in the early cool-down stage of its<br />
development. Therefore, if his understanding of the<br />
evidence was correct then Venus' surface should exhibit<br />
all the conditions of a world that was very recently molten<br />
and is most likely still volcanic and geologically active.<br />
<br />
Thus we have Velikovsky on record with a correct prediction of what we<br />
would actually find on Venus as early as 1950. Ginenthal notes that ten<br />
years later, establishment science was still in the woods:<br />
<br />
<br />
"In 1985, Dr. Lawrence Colin, Chief of the Space<br />
Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center and<br />
coeditor of Venus, wrote:<br />
<br />
<br />
'Our knowledge of Venus was still seriously limited in the<br />
early 1960s prior to mankind's first rendezvous by spacecraft.<br />
In 1961 competing views of Venus could be classified in seven<br />
broad categories:<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
1. moist, swampy, teeming with life.<br />
2. warm, enveloped by a global carbonic-acid ocean.<br />
<br />
3. cool, Earth-like, with surface water and a dense ionosphere.<br />
<br />
4. water, massive precipitating clouds of water droplets with<br />
intense lightning.<br />
<br />
5. cold, polar regions with ice caps 10 kilometers thick<br />
and a hot equatorial region far above the boiling point<br />
of water.<br />
<br />
6. hot, dusty, dry, windy global desert. extremely hot<br />
and cloudy, with molten lead and zinc puddles at the<br />
equator, seas of bromine, butyric acid and phenols at the<br />
poles.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
'From this list it is not obvious that scientists were all<br />
describing the same planet. For those who are impatient<br />
about the outcome, speculation 6 appears to represent<br />
most closely what we now think Venus is like.<br />
<br />
The source from Colin and others are cited as to the state of<br />
establishment knowledge of Venus as of 1960/61.<br />
<br />
<br />
"Nowhere was it ever suggested by establishment<br />
scientists that Venus would be found to be a<br />
volcanic cauldron covered by immense lava flows. In<br />
fact, as recent as 1989, Isaac Asimov, the late<br />
popular science writer, remarked:<br />
<br />
'For years astronomers had believed that Venus was a<br />
geologically dead place. Although quakes, volcanoes and<br />
other activity surely wracked the planet at one time,<br />
it seemed certain that Venus was quiet today.<br />
<br />
Due to the 5+ billion year age of the system no doubt. If earth in no<br />
way resembles a solid sea of lava, there would be no reason to suspect<br />
that an entirely similar sister planet the same age would.<br />
<br />
<br />
"Therefore, if Velikovsky's analysis of the ancient<br />
testimony is correct the observations by the Magellan<br />
spacecraft should not only contradict the previous models<br />
of the Venusian surface but should also show<br />
overwhelming evidence of recent stupendous volcanism on a<br />
surface that appears to be pristine.<br />
<br />
"One of the first indications of this excessive volcanism was<br />
presented in May 1990 in the Journal of Geophysical Research which<br />
analyzed the sulfur content of the Venusian clouds.<br />
There Na Y. Chan et al. state:<br />
<br />
'Results of recent International Ultraviolet Explorer<br />
(IUE) observations of Venus made on January 20, 1987,<br />
and April 2 and 3, 1988, along with a re-analysis of<br />
the 1979 observations ... are presented. The observations<br />
indicate that the amount of sulfur dioxide at the cloud<br />
tops of Venus declined by a factor of 8 +- 4 from<br />
380 +- 70 ppb [parts per billion] to 50 +- 20 ppb in 1987 and<br />
1988.<br />
<br />
"One of the researchers of this phenomenon, Larry<br />
Esposito from the University of Boulder Colorado,<br />
elaborated on this decrease of S02 and SO two months later in<br />
"Astronomy":<br />
<br />
'Pioneer Venus has continued to monitor these<br />
constituents above the clouds. Over the years a<br />
remarkable discovery has emerged: both sulfur dioxide and<br />
the haze have been gradually disappearing. By now<br />
only about 10 percent of the 1978 amount remains.<br />
This disappearance has also been confirmed by the<br />
Earth-orbiting International Ultraviolet Explorer<br />
between 1979 and 1987 and other Earth-based<br />
observations. The haze and the sulfur dioxide are<br />
now approaching their pre-1978 values.<br />
<br />
'Analysis of recent Earth-based radio<br />
observations by Paul Steffes and his colleagues show less<br />
sulfur dioxide below the clouds than was measured by<br />
Pioneer Venus and the Venera landers, which is also<br />
consistent with the decrease of sulfur dioxide. Inclusive<br />
Earth-based data show that a similar phenomenon may also have<br />
occurred in the late 1950s.<br />
<br />
"The best explanation right now for the decrease is that<br />
from time to time major volcanic eruptions inject sulfur<br />
dioxide gas to high altitudes. The haze comes from<br />
particles of sulfuric acid, which is created by the action of<br />
sunlight on sulfur dioxide ... Being heavy the particles<br />
gradually fall out of the upper atmosphere, letting<br />
conditions up there return to normal between eruptions.<br />
<br />
"My calculations show that this eruption of the late 1970s was<br />
at least as large as the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa.<br />
The explosion, equal to a 500-megaton H-bomb, was<br />
the most violent of the last century or so shooting<br />
vast quantities of gas into the Earth's stratosphere.<br />
<br />
Ginenthal cites other authors claiming massive and very recent (last<br />
hundred years or so) volcanic activity on Venus:<br />
<br />
<br />
"David Morrison and Tobias Owen put the case even more strongly:<br />
<br />
"Observations over the past twenty years have indicated that<br />
large fluctuations occur in the concentration of sulfur<br />
dioxide (SO2) in the atmosphere of Venus above the<br />
clouds. When these observations are combined with<br />
indications of volcanic topography and lightning<br />
discharges for possible volcanism, the case for erupting<br />
volcanoes on Venus becomes rather strong.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
"This appears to be indirect evidence that at least twice<br />
in the 1950s and 1970s there were major volcanic<br />
eruptions on Venus' surface. There are, of course,<br />
questions and objections related to this analysis;<br />
nevertheless, the Magellan spacecraft may have already<br />
observed explosive volcanism. In the December 1990<br />
issue of Scientific American appears a photograph made<br />
by Magellan which appears to exhibit exploded material<br />
from one of its craters. The caption accompanying the<br />
picture states:<br />
<br />
'Explosive volcanism may be responsible for the<br />
radar-bright deposit that extends roughly 10 kilometers<br />
from the kilometer-wide volcanic crater at the center of<br />
the image. The etched pattern of the surrounding plains<br />
becomes more obscure closer to the crater, which<br />
indicates that the deposit is thickest near the crater. The<br />
shape of the deposit suggests that local winds either<br />
carried the plume southward or else gradually eroded<br />
away the plume material except for that part located in the<br />
volcano's wind shadow.<br />
<br />
Ginenthal is essentially saying that that major volcanic activity<br />
(Krakatoa-like) appears to be a regular feature of Venus. He goes on<br />
to compare lava-flow features of Venus with those of Jupiter's moon, IO,<br />
for reasons which shall shortly become apparent.<br />
<br />
"As lo orbits around Jupiter it is constantly being distorted<br />
in shape by its tidal interactions with the very massive<br />
Jupiter and its three outer Galilean satellites. As lo<br />
is distorted and flexed, like the action produced by<br />
bending a spoon, enormous heat is generated producing<br />
volcanism. therefore, lo is molten at a relatively low depth<br />
of its surface and its thin crust is floating on an<br />
ocean of molten magma.<br />
<br />
"Io is the most volcanic body in the solar system. According<br />
to Billy Glass:<br />
<br />
'The volcanic eruptions [on lo] appear to<br />
be comparable in intensity to the greatest terrestrial<br />
eruptions which are rare on the Earth ... lo appears to be<br />
volcanically more active than the Earth. This has made<br />
mapping lo difficult because the active regions undergo<br />
radical changes in short periods of time.<br />
<br />
Ginenthal see in IO a body very roughly comparable with Venus, assuming<br />
Velikovsky's version of Venus' recent history.<br />
<br />
<br />
"Hence, if Venus was an incandescent body 3500 years<br />
ago and then cooled to the point where it became<br />
molten before it arrived at its present state, it should<br />
exhibit a topography quite similar to that of lo. In<br />
essence the volcanic forms observed on lo should<br />
generally be representative of the surface features<br />
seen on Venus. There should, of course be differences<br />
between the bodies because Io's temperature is not<br />
decreasing whereas we presume that Venus' temperature<br />
is. Furthermore, there will be differences in the<br />
materials each body contains which will also affect the<br />
appearance of their surfaces.<br />
<br />
<br />
Ginenthal points out that some of what we see on Io resembles features<br />
of more familiar bodies such as Earth or Mars. However:<br />
<br />
"David Morrison describes Io's volcanic features as follows:<br />
<br />
'Some of lo's volcanic features look a great deal like their<br />
terrestrial counterparts: low shield-shaped constructs with<br />
calderas at their peaks and flows of erupted materials<br />
on their sides. However, most of lo's calderas are not at<br />
the tops of mountains but instead appear to be scattered<br />
amid the plains."<br />
<br />
<br />
That is in fact a feature we would expect of either a totally new planet<br />
or of some body which was for other reasons, as is the case with Io,<br />
being kept in a nearly totally molten state. Ginenthal notes:<br />
<br />
<br />
"Io exudes its magma in this manner<br />
because it is tremendously hot internally and has an<br />
extremely thin crust. Therefore if Velikovsky was right<br />
that Venus was hot internally just below its thin<br />
crust it too should pour forth its magma after the<br />
fashion of Io. Observations<br />
should show evidence that lava is either presently or<br />
has very recently been exuded from circular vents on the<br />
plains of the Venusian surface. In New Scientist we learn that<br />
radar shows lava flows on Venus are indeed very much<br />
like those on Io:<br />
<br />
'The flat plains of Venus consist of lava<br />
that has flowed from the planet comparatively recently,<br />
according to latest radar results. And an appreciable amount of<br />
the planet's heat may escape through these lava flows, rather<br />
than through large volcanoes and rift valleys that<br />
geologists have known for some years.<br />
<br />
In the plains the<br />
researchers found dozens of small vents, which oozed<br />
lava without forming volcanic cones. The researchers say,<br />
"The large number and wide distribution of vents in the<br />
lowlands strongly suggest that plains volcanism is an important<br />
aspect of surface evolution and contributed to heat loss on<br />
Venus".<br />
<br />
"Thus, there is a basic similarity that strongly<br />
suggests that Venus is venting its internal heat through<br />
plains volcanism. This implies that Venus, like lo, has a<br />
thin crust and is extremely hot not far beneath that crust.<br />
<br />
This, then is the reality; Super Greenhouse is a fiction.<br />
Ginenthal goes on to point out a number of interesting similarities<br />
between craters on Io and on Venus... for one, that they are often<br />
irregular and misshapen due to the movement of liquid material close<br />
under them.<br />
<br />
"Thus an article in Discover<br />
states, "Even Venus' meteorite craters are intriguing. Some<br />
have strange and irregular shapes, in puzzling contrast<br />
to the round outline typical of most impact craters in the solar<br />
System."<br />
<br />
Extreme depth of cratering appears to be a common feature of Io and of<br />
Venus. Other evidence of massive surface re-arrangement is presented.<br />
<br />
<br />
"One of the most bizarre features yet identified on Venus is<br />
a remarkably long and narrow channel that MageHan<br />
scientists have nicknamed the river Styx. Although it is<br />
only half a mile wide, Styx is 4,800 miles long. What<br />
could have caused such a channel is unclear. Water, of<br />
course, is out of the question. Flowing lava is a possibility<br />
but it would have to have been extremely hot, thin and<br />
fluid.<br />
<br />
"On Venus it is assumed that<br />
any crater larger than 300 km would settle by<br />
rheological flow in about one billion years. Sulfur is the<br />
fluid suggested as being responsible for river structures<br />
on Io.<br />
<br />
"However, the River Styx runs up as well as<br />
downhill. What is clearly implied, if this feature is a<br />
flow, is that the surface topography has shifted greatly since<br />
the flow ceased.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Ginenthal notes other oddities common to Venus and Io, but to nothing<br />
else in our system.<br />
<br />
<br />
"PANCAKE-SHAPED DOMES AND OTHER ANOMALIES<br />
<br />
"Among the strangest features found on Venus is a<br />
series of pancake-shaped domes. This surprising discovery<br />
was recounted in the New York Times as follows:<br />
<br />
'At the news conference yesterday, Dr. R. Stephen Saunders, the<br />
[MageHan] project's chief scientist, showed pictures of ...<br />
pancake-shaped domes which he said were "features never<br />
seen before" on any planet. In one region, seven domes<br />
remarkably similar in size stretch out in a line remarkably<br />
straight for nature ... They were presumably formed by<br />
extreme viscous lava pouring out of volcanic vents. The<br />
pattern "is telling us something about the eruption<br />
mechanism, the viscosity and the eruption rate.' But that was as<br />
far as geologists ventured in the interpretation.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
"The unusual shape of these features should have struck<br />
a chord somewhere among the planetary geologists<br />
because pancake-shaped domes have also been observed on<br />
lo. Thus Carr et al., inform us:<br />
<br />
'While most calderas [on Io] do not seem to be within sharply<br />
defined edifices, a variety of positive relief features are<br />
recognizable. Most are puzzling and difficult to relate<br />
to terrestrial landforrns. Among the more comprehensible<br />
because of their resemblance to low volcanic cones, are<br />
two pancake-like constructions ... They are nearly circular,<br />
and surrounded by low escarpments. Each has a bright-floored<br />
small crater in the middle.<br />
<br />
<br />
Another phenomenon which is inexplicable given the Sagan<br />
Super-Greenhouse explaination for Venus' surface heat is hot spots.<br />
<br />
<br />
"For some time now it has been known that certain areas on<br />
lo are far hotter than the surrounding surface terrain.<br />
Such areas are described as "hot spots." Here Morrison tells<br />
us, "In lo's case nature has aided us by channeling much of<br />
the heat flow into a few small areas resulting in<br />
hot-spots with temperatures far higher than the ambient<br />
background. Alfred McEwen et al., suggest that,<br />
"Observations ... show that most of the hot spots [on lo]<br />
have remained relatively stable in temperature, location and<br />
total power output at least since the Voyager encounters<br />
and possibly for the last decade.<br />
<br />
<br />
"Hotspots have been associated with surface features on Venus<br />
for a very long time; they were originally found by<br />
Earth-bound radar and confirmed by Venera spacecraft.<br />
James Head asks:<br />
<br />
<br />
"The question with arguably the broadest implications is simply<br />
how has Venus chosen to get rid of its internal heat<br />
(emphasis in original) ... Does Venus cool itself by sending<br />
magma directly from the interior to the surface? Then we would<br />
expect to see widespread volcanic deposits and numerous<br />
"hot spots," like those on Jupiter's satellite Io.<br />
<br />
"Thus the presence of hot-spots suggests that Venus-like Io-is<br />
venting its heat via hot-spot volcanism. This, in turn,<br />
suggests that Venus - similar to lo - is molten at a<br />
shallow depth. One of the great enigmas of the<br />
<runaway greenhouse effect> is the problem of<br />
explaining the source of Venus' high surface temperature.<br />
Based on this analysis it now seems highly probable that<br />
the high surface temperature has little if anything to do<br />
with a greenhouse effect. Velikovsky's conclusion that<br />
Venus' surface heat is derived from its molten core<br />
appears to be correct.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
THE AGE OF VENUS' SURFACE<br />
<br />
"In Worlds in Collision Velikovsky suggested that Venus'<br />
age was to be measured in thousands of years rather<br />
than billions. In a recent article in Science a leading<br />
astronomer offered the following observation regarding the<br />
age of Venus' surface:<br />
<br />
'The planetary geologists who are studying the radar<br />
images streaming back from Magellan find that they have<br />
an enigma on their hands. When they read the geologic<br />
clock that tells them how old the Venusian surface is they find<br />
a planet on the brink of adolescence. But when<br />
they look at the surface itself, they see a<br />
newborn babe ... (emphasis added) Magellan scientists<br />
have been struck by the newly minted appearances of the<br />
craters formed ... Only one of the 75 craters identified on the<br />
5% of the planet mapped shows any of the typical signs of<br />
aging, such as filling in with lava of volcanic<br />
eruptions or being torn by the faulting of tectonic disruption.<br />
But by geologists usual measure these fresh-looking craters<br />
had plenty of time to fall prey to the ravages of<br />
geologic change.36<br />
<br />
<br />
"Based on the assumption that Venus is an ancient body the<br />
scientists estimate the surface of Venus to be on the order<br />
of 100 million to I billion years old. In short, even though<br />
they are confronted with a surface that is pristine scientists<br />
nevertheless interpret the evidence according to the theory that<br />
Venus is 4.5 billion years old.<br />
<br />
<br />
I refer to this sort of phenomenon as "learning to skate away from the<br />
railing", essentially, the quandry which every beginning ice-skater<br />
faces. The astronomers haven't fotten this far yet, the multi-billion<br />
year thing (a "Bushism") being their version of Linus' security blanket.<br />
<br />
Ginenthal goes on to note that, given the standard multi-billion year<br />
age estimates for Venus, there should be lots and lots of dust, debris,<br />
loose soil etc. lying around all over the place, the surface heat not<br />
being great enough to melt and fuse everything altogether. There isn't.<br />
<br />
This is somewhat strange. The surface winds, despite being slow, would<br />
bowl a man over due to the very thickness of the atmosphere. The<br />
atmosphere itself is highly corrosive. The two should have caused lots<br />
and lots of weathering. But there is no evidence of this.<br />
<br />
<br />
"THE MISSING VENUSIAN REGOLITH<br />
<br />
"Geophysicists, in order to explain the physical nature of<br />
the Venusian surface, offer the supposition that between<br />
100 million and a billion years ago the entire planet turned<br />
itself inside out. If one were to accept this assumption<br />
it would require that over that period of time<br />
between the covering of the surface with lava flows and<br />
the present, erosional forces would break down the<br />
surface rock into detritus to form a regolith.<br />
<br />
<br />
"Venus' atmosphere is known to contain hydrochloric and<br />
hydrofluoric acid, both of which<br />
are very corrosive. Paolo Maffei explains further that,<br />
"the atmosphere of Venus also contains - although<br />
in small amounts-hydrogen chloride and hydrogen<br />
fluoride, which reacting with sulfuric acid [known to exist<br />
in Venus' atmosphere] could form fluosulfuric acid, a<br />
very strong acid capable of attacking and dissolving<br />
almost all common materials including most rocks."<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
"According to the scientists, Venus has been subjected to<br />
this intense weathering of its surface for at least 100<br />
million years. Over this period of time the planet<br />
shouict have developed a covering of weathered material.<br />
Nevertheless, George McGill et al., inform us that:<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
'Radar and Venera lander observations imply that most of the<br />
surface of Venus cannot be covered by unconsolidated<br />
wind blown deposits; bulk densities on near surface<br />
materials are not consistent with aeolian sediments ... Thus<br />
present-day wind-blown sediments cannot form a continuous<br />
layer over the entire planct.<br />
<br />
And from Bruce Murray (JOURNEY INTO SPACE):<br />
<br />
'Russian close-ups of Venus were surprising. I had presumed<br />
that its surface was buried under a uniform blanket of<br />
soil and dust. Chemical weathering should be intense in<br />
such a hot and acid environment,...Unknown processes<br />
of topographic renewal evidently manage to outstrip<br />
degradation and burial.<br />
<br />
<br />
"In order to explain the lack of a Venusian regolith the<br />
scientists imagine a process that has no scientific basis<br />
for its action to reconsolidate the detritus on Venus.<br />
Nevertheless, let us assume that Venus' erosion rate is<br />
extremely weak and that it is not tumed back into rock at the<br />
surface by unknown processes. What do we find? If we<br />
allow a tiny erosion rate of one millimeter per hundred<br />
years, then in 100 thousand years we produce one meter<br />
of loose material on the surface of Venus, which is equal to<br />
about 40 inches. However, in 100 million years we<br />
generate a kilometer of detritus, which is over 3000 feet of<br />
this loose material. Under no known condition can this much<br />
matter at the surface be turned to solid rock..."<br />
<br />
"What we find at the surface of Venus is the detritus of an erosion<br />
rate that is only a few thousand years old. Only by ignoring this<br />
clear evidence can the astronomers support the view that Venus'<br />
surface reflects events tracing to processes occurring between<br />
100 million and one billion years ago.<br />
<br />
<br />
Ginenthal mentions the curious anomoly of the pristine condition of Venus'<br />
craters:<br />
<br />
"Although Magellan has cast doubt upon most of the scientific<br />
establishment's predictions regarding the nature of Venus'<br />
surface, a belief in a 4.5 billion year old age of the planet<br />
Venus is still enshrined as dogma. In accordance with this<br />
theory, it is believed by the space scientists that the degradation<br />
of craters on Venus' surface must have occurred over hundreds<br />
of millions of years.<br />
<br />
As the situation on lo proves,<br />
however, degradation does not require long time periods.<br />
Io's craters decay over extraordinarily short time periods<br />
measured in weeks or months. On Venus this period might<br />
take years. Based on the indications (cited above) that<br />
both Venus and Io are molten at shallow depth and are highly<br />
volcanic, Venus' craters would by no stretch of the imagination<br />
require millions of years to degrade. How then do scientists<br />
explain the fact that, Venus' craters look so pristine?<br />
Here Kerr observes:<br />
<br />
'MageUan scientists strove to explain the paradox of young<br />
looking craters on a relatively old surface. They raised<br />
the possibility that several hundred million years ago,<br />
a planet-wide outpouring wiped the slate clean, drowning any<br />
existing craters in a flood of lava. Then the flood would<br />
have had to turn off fairly abruptly so the craters formed by<br />
subsequent impacts would remain pristine.<br />
<br />
<br />
"No doubt there will be other, equally imaginative, scenarios<br />
advanced in order to explain away this dilemma of so few<br />
craters showing signs of decay. To retum to Kerr:<br />
<br />
'But surface remodeling is going on after afl, Magellan scientists<br />
told a large crowd at the AGU [American Geological<br />
Union] meeting. More recent images show the ravages<br />
of time, but in a fashion that leavesfew aged craters."<br />
<br />
<br />
That's like saying that your 90-year-old grandma shows her age, but in a<br />
manner which draws wolf-whistles in a bikini. Not too likely, is it?<br />
<br />
Another problem with the standard view is the vast areas of Venus'<br />
surface which show no signs of cratering at all.<br />
<br />
"This is not the only problem, however. Again we cite Kerr:<br />
<br />
'The expanded view reveals four nearly continent-sized<br />
areas, ranging from a few million to 5 million square<br />
kilometers, that have no impact craters at all. According<br />
to Magellan team member Roger Phillips of Southem Methodist<br />
University in Dallas, the absence of impact craters-<br />
despite a steady rain of asteroids and comets<br />
onto the Venusian surface-means that in the recent geologic<br />
past the craters were wiped out either by lava<br />
flooding across these areas or by tectonic faulting,<br />
stretching and compression.<br />
<br />
The volcanic activity required to resurface the crater-<br />
free regions would be impressive by any standards,<br />
Phillips says. For example, it took at least a million<br />
cubic kilometers of lava over a few million years<br />
to produce the 66-million-year-old Deccan Traps of<br />
India... But the lava-covered areas already uncovered<br />
on a small part of Venus by Magellan must have all<br />
formed within the past few tens of millions of<br />
years to have escaped being marked by impact craters.<br />
<br />
"So Magellan scientists are still left with an enigma. What<br />
is clearly implied by the radar and photographic evidence<br />
is that immense outpourings of lava have occurred over<br />
huge areas of Venus' surface, covering over everything including<br />
craters. The scientists still cannot explain why there<br />
are so few craters that are degraded or flooded or why<br />
Venus suddenly poured out its lava in oceanic amounts. But<br />
all of this is clearly what one would expect to find<br />
from the theory that Velikovsky advanced in Worlds in<br />
Collision whereby Venus was only recently<br />
subjected to tremendous stresses and participated in numerous<br />
clashes with other planets.<br />
<br />
<br />
Ginenthal cites further evidence, as if any were needed from one of the<br />
favorite realms of several of the t.o regular crew, i.e. Chemistry.<br />
Given standard theory, you'd not expect a lot of iron compounds lying<br />
around on Venus' surface:<br />
<br />
<br />
"As a newbom planet, Venus would not have fully differentiated<br />
so it remains possible that all its iron has yet to sink<br />
to its core. Accordingly, it was reported in Astronomy that:<br />
<br />
Maxwell Montes ... poses a big problem in interpretation.<br />
Parts have electrical properties that indicate the surface<br />
contains "flakes" of -some unknown mineral, most likcly iron<br />
sulfides, iron oxides, or magnetite. Iron sulfides ("fool'<br />
s gold") fit the observations best, but studies havc shown<br />
that they would be quickly destroyed by the corrosive<br />
Venusian atmosphere. Iron oxides (such as hematite)<br />
and magnetite are also possible, but the a<br />
presence of either is not easy to account for.<br />
<br />
"If indeed iron is to be found upon the surface of Venus<br />
it would support the claim that it is a youthful planet<br />
in the early stages of cooling. A planet that had differentiated<br />
its iron into its central core would not be expected<br />
to pour iron onto the surface with volcanic materials.<br />
The reason that the iron compounds have not<br />
completely corroded in Venus' corrosive atmosphere,<br />
most probably, is that these outpourings of iron<br />
are extremely recent surface coverings measured in<br />
perhaps a few years. Iron on Venus' surface is<br />
clear evidence that supports Velikovsky.<br />
<br />
<br />
Thre is further evidence involving Argon and involving oxygen:<br />
<br />
<br />
"Ultraviolet radiation photodissociates C02, S02 and H20;<br />
over millions of years oxygen should have become<br />
plentiful in Venus' atmosphere, but it remains a minute<br />
constituent. Venus' water vapor cannot have escaped in<br />
less than 20 billion years. Where then is Venus'<br />
water? To argue Venus had no water but retains other<br />
volatiles is a basic contradiction....<br />
<br />
<br />
This lack of water vapor becomes critical for proponents of the<br />
so-called <super-greenhouse> theory, the standard theory of<br />
establishment astronomy for explaining the great surface heat of Venus.<br />
As I've noted before, the CO2 atmosphere certainly acts as a blanket in<br />
keeping heat close to the surface far longer than it might otherwise<br />
stay there left to its own devices. This isn't what astronomers are<br />
claiming, however.<br />
<br />
They ARE claiming that ALL of the huge surface energy of Venus is CAUSED<br />
by the tiny to non-existent modicum of solar energy which finally gets<br />
to the surface through all that CO2 via uv radiation and then cannot<br />
escape as re-radiated ir radiation.<br />
<br />
<br />
"For years the scientific community has maintained that the<br />
great heat of Venus is derived from an atmospheric<br />
geenhouse effect. Gary Hunt and Patrick Moore outline<br />
the ingredients necessary to generate a large and powerful<br />
geenhouse on Venus:<br />
<br />
'C02 is responsible for about 55% of the<br />
trapped heat. A further 25% is due to the presence of water<br />
vapor, while S02 which constitutes only 0.02% [2/100 of a per<br />
cent] of the atmosphere, traps 5% of remaining infrared<br />
radiation. The remaining 15% of the greenhouse is due to the<br />
clouds and hazes which surround the planet.<br />
<br />
<br />
The problem becomes, WHAT WATER?<br />
<br />
"While carbon dioxide is certainly present on Venus, it can account<br />
for only 55% of the greenhouse effect. As Barrie Jones<br />
explains, other factors are also necessary to make the<br />
greenhouse work:<br />
<br />
<br />
"Efficient trapping [of heat] cannot be produced by C02 alone,<br />
in spite of the enormous mass Of C02 in the atmosphere.<br />
This is because C02 is fairly transparent over certain<br />
wavelength ranges to planetary wavelengths. Radiation<br />
could escape through these "windows" in sufficient<br />
quantities to greatly reduce the greenhouse effect below<br />
that which exists. It is by blocking of these windows by<br />
S02, by H20 and by the clouds that greatly increases<br />
the greenhouse effect.<br />
<br />
<br />
"In short, it is crucial to the runaway greenhouse effect that<br />
there be sufficient water, sulfur dioxide, and haze to<br />
maintain the heat holding capacity of the planet.<br />
Respecting water, especially in the lower atmosphere, the<br />
scientists have been looking for this vapor for a very<br />
long time. As late as September 1991, water vapor has<br />
not been found in anything like that amount needed to<br />
support the contention that the greenhouse is a<br />
foregone conclusion. According to R. Cowan:<br />
<br />
<br />
'A research team has focused on the greenhouse puzzle ...<br />
The absence of water vapor above Venus' cloud banks<br />
mystifies scientists because models of the planet's<br />
strong greenhouse effect suggest that [water] vapor plays a<br />
key role in maintaining the warming. Researchers have<br />
now looked for water below the cloud bank and<br />
down to the surface-and their search has come up dry...<br />
<br />
<br />
'Evidence of a dry Venus may force researchers to<br />
consider whether other chemicals could create and<br />
sustain the planet's greenhouse effect, says David Crisp<br />
of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory ... who coauthored the new<br />
report.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
"Now when a vapor responsible for 25% of the efficiency<br />
of the greenhouse-effect has been sought in vain for some<br />
20 years it implies that a major problem exists with<br />
the model in question. Furthermore, in our earlier<br />
discussion of the S02 and haze in the Venusian<br />
atmosphere we have shown that measurements indicate<br />
that these materials are transient products and do<br />
not sustain themselves for long periods of time. With<br />
this additional undermining of the greenhouse effect the<br />
process becomes more and more difficult to imagine.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
"One of the major theoretical supports of the greenhouse model<br />
is the belief that Venus is in thermal balance. Over<br />
and over we are told that measurements of the cloud<br />
tops for infrared emissions show conclusively that the<br />
amount of sunlight incident on the planet is equal to<br />
the infrared radiation emitted by Venus. However, this<br />
must also be supported by in situ measurements<br />
throughout the atmosphere:<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
"Radiative balance occurs [on a planet] at every level<br />
when the amount of downward- directed solar radiation that<br />
is absorbed is equal to the amount of infrared radiation that<br />
is emitted upward. When local temperatures<br />
satisfy this balance the atmospheric temperature is<br />
maintained. (emphasis added)50 Not only must there be<br />
thermal balance at one level of the atmosphere, this<br />
thermal balance must exist at all levels throughout the<br />
atmosphere to confirm thermal balance.<br />
<br />
As I have noted a number of times, a LACK of balance is indicated by<br />
actual data at every level.<br />
<br />
<br />
"That this is not the case upon Venus has been known for some time.<br />
As long ago as 1980 Richard Kerr reported in Science that:<br />
<br />
'When Pioneer Venus probes looked at the<br />
temperature, each one found more energy being radiated up<br />
from the lower atmosphere than enters it as sunlight ...<br />
To further complicate the situation, the size of the<br />
apparent upward flow of energy varies from place to place<br />
by a factor of 2 which was a disturbing discovery.<br />
<br />
Again, a number of probes of different types and manufacture all said<br />
the same thing; they are not all likely to be in similar error.<br />
<br />
Ginenthal concludes:<br />
<br />
"A fair reading of history will show that conventional astronomers<br />
have a very poor record when it comes to predicting the surface<br />
conditions of Venus. Such is not the case with regards to the<br />
thesis outlines by Immanuel Velikovsky in 1950. As this essay has<br />
sought to show, the evidence from Venus is fully consistent with the<br />
thesis of its anomalous origin and tumultuous recent history as set<br />
forth in WORLDS IN COLLISION. Indeed, it is this author's sincere<br />
hope that the day will come when members of the scientific community<br />
will find the courage and integrity to call for a full and proper<br />
investigation of Velikovsky's hypothesis."<br />
<br />
<br />
-- <br />
Ted Holden<br />
HTE<br />
<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Space]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Universe_Has_At_Least_30_Billion_Years_Left&diff=1852Universe Has At Least 30 Billion Years Left2021-04-02T08:12:04Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Universe%20Has%20At%20Least%2030%20Billion%20Years%20Left%20Mar06.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Universal_Symmetry&diff=1851Universal Symmetry2021-04-02T08:10:20Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "A Snowflake We don't have to examine nature very closely to see its beauty. A bird, a forest or a galaxy has a form of beauty which is typical of complex organised systems. A..."</p>
<hr />
<div>A Snowflake<br />
<br />
We don't have to examine nature very closely to see its beauty. A bird, a forest or a galaxy has a form of beauty which is typical of complex organised systems. A snowflake has another element to its beauty which is also very common in nature but which is often only evident on close inspection. We call it symmetry.<br />
<br />
The snowflake begins its life as a minute hexagonal crystal forming in a cloud. During its passage from there to the ground, it experiences a sequence of changes in temperature and humidity which cause it to grow at varying rates. Its history is recorded in the variations of thickness in its six petals as it grows. This process ensures that each petal is virtually identical and accounts for the snowflakes symmetry.<br />
<br />
When a snowflake is rotated through an angle of 60 degrees about its centre, it returns to a position where it looks the same as before. It is said to be invariant under such a transformation and it is invariance which characterises symmetry. The shape of the snowflake is also invariant if it is rotated through 120 degrees. It is invariant again if it is turned over. By combining rotations and turning over it is possible to find 12 different transformations (including the identity transformation which does nothing). We say that the order of the snowflakes symmetry is 12.<br />
<br />
Consider now the symmetry of a regular tetrahedron. That is a solid shape in the form of a pyramid with a triangular base for which all four faces are equilateral triangles. The shape of a regular tetrahedron is invariant when it is rotated 120 degrees about an axis passing through a vertex. It is also invariant when rotated 180 degrees about an axis passing through the midpoints of opposite edges. If you make a tetrahedron and experiment with it you will find that it has a symmetry of order 12. But the symmetry of the tetrahedron is not quite the same as that of a snowflake because the snowflake has a transformation which must be repeated six times to restore it to its original position and the tetrahedron does not.<br />
<br />
Mathematicians have provided precise definitions of what I meant by not quite the same. The invariance transformations of any shape form an algebraic structure called a group when you consider composition of transformations as multiplication. Two groups are isomorphic if there is a one-to-one mapping between them which respects the multiplication. Groups can be considered to be a mathematical abstraction of symmetry and mathematicians have spent a great deal of effort in classifying them but with only partial success. One spectacular achievement is the complete classification of finite simple groups which culminated in the discovery of the monster group which has 808,017,424,794,512,875,886,459,904,961,710,757,005,754,368,000,000,000 elements. It is a subject of great beauty in itself.<br />
<br />
There are also infinite order symmetries described by infinite groups. The simplest example is the group of rotations in a plane which describes the symmetry of a circle. Mathematicians have also succeeded in classifying an important class of infinite dimensional groups known as semi-simple Lie groups.<br />
<br />
<br />
Symmetry in physics<br />
<br />
Symmetry is important in physics because there are all kinds of transformations which leave the laws of physics invariant. For example, we know that the laws of physics are the same everywhere. I.e. we can detect no difference in the results of any self contained experiment which depends on where we do it. Another way to say the same thing is that the laws of physics are invariant under a translation transformation. The infinite dimensional group of translation transformations is a symmetry of the laws of physics.<br />
<br />
The next important example is rotation symmetry. The laws of physics are invariant under rotations in space about any axis through some origin. An important difference between the translation symmetry and the rotation symmetry is that the former is abelian while the latter is non-abelian. An Abelian group is one in which the order of multiplication does not matter, they commute. This is true of translations but is not true of rotations about different axis.<br />
<br />
If the laws of physics are invariant under both rotations and translations then they must also be invariant under any combination of a rotation and a translation. In this way we can always combine any two symmetries to form a larger one. The smaller symmetries are contained within the larger one. Note that the symmetry of a snowflake is already contained within rotation symmetry. Mathematicians say that the invariance group of the snowflake is a subgroup of the rotation group.<br />
<br />
<br />
Hidden Symmetry<br />
<br />
Symmetry in physics is not always evident at first sight. When we are comfortably seated on the ground we notice a distinct difference between up and down, and between the horizontal and the vertical. If we describe the motion of falling objects in terms of physical laws which have the concept of vertical and horizontal built in then we do not find the full rotational symmetry in those laws. Many ancient philosophers thought that the Earth marked a special place at the centre of the universe. In such a case we could not say that the laws of physics were invariant under translations. <br />
<br />
It was the Copernican revolution that changed all that. Newton discovered a law of gravity which could at the same time account for falling objects on Earth and the motion of the planets in the Solar system. From that point on it could be seen that the laws of physics are invariant under rotations and translations. It was a profound revelation. Whenever new symmetries of physics are discovered the laws of physics become more unified. Newton's discovery meant that it was no longer necessary to have different theories about what was happening on Earth and what was happening in space.<br />
<br />
Once the unifying power of symmetry is realised and combined with the observation that symmetry is not always recognised at first sight, the great importance of symmetry is revealed. Physicists have discovered that as well as the symmetries of space transformations, there are also more subtle internal symmetries which exist as part of the forces of nature. These symmetries are important in particle physics. In recent times it has been discovered that symmetry can be hidden through mechanisms of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Such mechanisms are thought to account for the apparent differences between the known forces of nature. This increases the hope that there are other symmetries not yet found. Ultimately we may discover the universal symmetry which combines all other symmetries of physics.<br />
<br />
<br />
Conservation Laws<br />
<br />
During the centuries which followed Newton's work physicists and mathematicians came to realise that there is a deep relationship between symmetry and conservation laws in physics. The law of conservation of momentum is related to translation invariance, while angular momentum is related to rotation invariance. Conservation of energy is due to the invariance of the laws of physics with time.<br />
<br />
The relationship was finally established in a very general mathematical form known as Noether's theorem. Mathematicians had discovered that classical laws of physics could be derived from a philosophically pleasing principle of least action. Noether showed that any laws of this type which have a continuous symmetry would have a conserved quantity which could be derived from the action principle.<br />
<br />
Although Noether's work was based on classical Newtonian notions of physics. The principle has survived the quantum revolution of the twentieth century. In quantum mechanics we find that the relationship between symmetry and conservation is even stronger. There are even conservation principles related to discrete symmetries.<br />
<br />
An important example of this is parity. Parity is a quantum number which is related to symmetry of the laws of physics when reflected in a mirror. Mirror symmetry is the simplest symmetry of all since it has order two. If the laws of physics were indistinguishable from their mirror inverse then according to the rules of quantum mechanics parity would be conserved. It was quite a surprise to physicists when they discovered that parity is not conserved in weak nuclear interactions. Because these interactions are not significant in our ordinary day-to day life, we do not normally notice this asymmetry of space. <br />
<br />
Simple laws of mechanics as well as those of gravity and electrodynamics are symmetric under mirror inversion. They are also invariant under time reversal. This is a little surprising because our everyday world does not appear to be symmetric in this way, there is a clear distinction between future and past. Time reversal is also broken by the weak interaction but not enough to account for the perceived difference. There is a combined operation of mirror inversion and time reversal and a third operation which exchanges a particle with its antiparticle image. This is known as CPT. Again the universe does not appear to realise particle-antiparticle symmetry macroscopically because there seems to be more matter than anti-matter in the universe. However, CPT is an exact symmetry of all interactions, as far as we know.<br />
<br />
<br />
Relativity<br />
<br />
There is another symmetry which is found in ordinary mechanics. If you are travelling in a modern high speed train like the French TGV, on a long straight segment of track, it is difficult to tell that you are moving without looking out of the window. If you could play a game of billiards on the train, you would not notice any effects due to the speed of the train until it turned a corner or slowed down.<br />
<br />
This can be accounted for in terms of an invariance of the laws of mechanics under a Galilean transformation which maps a stationary frame of reference onto one which is moving at constant speed.<br />
<br />
When you examine the laws of electrodynamics discovered by Maxwell you find that they are not invariant under a Galilean transformation. Light is an electrodynamic wave which moves at a fixed speed c. Because c is so fast compared with the speed of the TGV, you could not notice this on a train. However, towards the end of the nineteenth century, a famous experiment was performed by Michelson and Morley. They hoped to detect changes in the speed of light due to the changing direction of the motion of the Earth. To everyone's surprise they could not detect the difference.<br />
<br />
Maxwell believed that light must propagate through some medium which he called ether. The Michelson-Morley experiment failed to detect the ether. The discrepancy was finally resolved by Einstein when he discovered special relativity. The Galilean transformation, he realised, is just an approximation to a Lorentz transformation which is a perfect symmetry of electrodynamics. The correct symmetry was there in Maxwell's equations all along but symmetry is not always easy to see. In this case the symmetry involved an unexpected mixing of space and time co-ordinates. Minkowski later explained that Einstein had unified space and time into one geometric structure which was thereafter known as space-time. <br />
<br />
It seems that Einstein was more strongly influenced by symmetry principles than he was by the Michelson-Morley experiment. According to the scientific principle as spelt out by Francis Bacon, theoretical physicists should spend their time fitting mathematical equations to empirical data. Then the results can be extrapolated to regions not yet tested by experiment in order to make predictions. In reality physicists have had more success constructing theories from principles of mathematical beauty and consistency alone. Symmetry is an important part of this method of attack.<br />
<br />
Einstein demonstrated the power of symmetry again with his dramatic discovery of general relativity. This time there was no experimental result which could help him. Actually there was an observed discrepancy in the orbit of Mercury but this could just as easily have been corrected by some small modification to Newtonian gravity. Einstein knew that Newton's description of gravity was inconsistent with special relativity, and even if there were no observation which showed it up, there had to be a more complete theory of gravity which complied with the principle of relativity.<br />
<br />
Since Galileo's experiments on the leaning tower of Pisa, it was known that inertial mass is equal to gravitational mass. Einstein realised that this would imply that an experiment performed in an accelerating frame of reference could not separate the apparent forces due to acceleration from those due to gravity. This suggested to him that a larger symmetry which included acceleration might be present in the laws of physics. <br />
<br />
It took several years and many thought experiments before Einstein completed the work. He realised that the equivalence principle implied that space-time must be curved, and the force of gravity is a direct consequence of this curvature. In modern terms the symmetry he discovered is known as diffeomorphism invariance. It means that the laws of physics take the same form when written in any 4d co-ordinate system on space-time.<br />
<br />
I would like to stress that the symmetry of general relativity is a much larger symmetry than any which had been observed in physics before. We can combine rotation invariance, translation invariance and Lorentz invariance to form the complete symmetry group of special relativity which is known as the Poincare group. The Poincare group can be parameterised by ten real numbers. We say it has dimension 10. Diffeomorphism invariance, on the other hand, cannot be parameterised by a finite number of parameters. It is an infinite dimensional symmetry.<br />
<br />
Diffeomorphism invariance is a hidden symmetry. If the laws of physics were invariant under any change of co-ordinates in a way which could be clearly observed, then we would expect the world around us to behave as if everything could be deformed like rubber. The symmetry is hidden by the local form of gravity just as the constant vertical gravity seems to hide rotational symmetry in the laws of physics. On cosmological scales the laws of physics do have a more versatile form allowing space-time to deform, but on smaller scales only the Poincare invariance is readily observed.<br />
<br />
Einstein's field equations of general relativity which describe the evolution of gravitational fields, can be derived from a principle of least action. It follows from Noether's theorems that there are conservation laws which correspond to energy, momentum and angular momentum but it is not possible to distinguish between them. A special property of conservation equations derived from the field equations is that the total value of a conserved quantity integrated over the volume of the whole universe is zero, provided the universe is closed. This fact is useful when sceptics ask you where all the energy in the universe came from if there was nothing before the big bang! However, the universe might not be finite.<br />
<br />
A final remark about relativity is that the big bang breaks diffeomorphism invariance in quite a dramatic way. It singles out one moment of the universe as different from all the others. It is even possible to define absolute time as the proper time of the longest curve stretching back to the big bang. This fact does not destroy relativity provided the big bang can be regarded as part of the solution rather than being built into the laws of physics. In fact we cannot be sure that the big bang is a unique event in our universe. Although the entire observable universe seems to have emerged from this event it is likely that the universe is much larger than what is observable. In that case we can say little about its structure on bigger scales.<br />
<br />
<br />
Gauge Symmetry<br />
<br />
What about electric charge? It is a conserved quantity so is there a symmetry which corresponds to charge according to Noether's theorem? The answer comes from a simple observation about electric voltage. It is possible to define an electrostatic potential at any point in space. The voltage of a battery is the difference in this potential between its terminals. In fact there is no way to measure the absolute value of the electrostatic potential. It is only possible to measure its difference between two different points. In the language of symmetry we would say that the laws of electrostatics are invariant under the addition of a value to the potential which is the same everywhere. This describes a symmetry which through Noether's theorem can be related to conservation of electric charge.<br />
<br />
In fact the electric potential is just one component of the electromagnetic vector potential which can be taken as the dynamical variables of Maxwell's theory allowing it to be derived from an action principle. In this form the symmetry is much larger than the simple one parameter invariance I just described. It corresponds to a change in a scalar field of values defined throughout space-time. Like the diffeomorphism invariance of general relativity this symmetry is infinite dimensional. Symmetries of this type are known as gauge symmetries.<br />
<br />
Both diffeomorphism invariance and the electromagnetic symmetry are local gauge symmetries because they correspond to transformation which can be parameterised as fields throughout space-time. In fact there are marked similarities between the forms of the equations which describe gravity and those which describe electrodynamics, but there is an essential difference too. Diffeomorphism invariance describes a symmetry of space-time while the symmetry of electromagnetism acts on some abstract internal space of the components of the field.<br />
<br />
The gauge transformation of electrodynamics acts on the matter fields of charged particles as well as on the electromagnetic fields. The phase of the matter fields is multiplied by a phase factor. Through this action the transformation is related to the symmetry group of the circle which is known as U(1). <br />
<br />
In the 1960s physicists were looking for quantum field theories which could explain the weak and strong nuclear interactions as they had already done for the electromagnetic. They realised that the U(1) gauge symmetry could be generalised to gauge symmetries based on other Lie groups. As I have already said, an important class of such theories has been classified by mathematicians. They can be described as matrix groups which fall into three families parameterised by an integer N and five exceptional groups:<br />
<br />
The orthogonal groups SO(N) <br />
<br />
The unitary groups SU(N) <br />
<br />
The symplectic groups Sp(N) <br />
<br />
Exceptional Groups G2 F4 E6 E7 E8 <br />
<br />
<br />
The best thing about gauge symmetry is that once you have selected the right group the possible forms for the action of the field theory are extremely limited. Einstein found that for general relativity there is an almost unique most simple form with a curvature term and an optional cosmological term. For internal gauge symmetries the corresponding result is Yang-Mills field theory. From tables of particles physicists were able to conjecture that the strong nuclear interactions used the gauge group SU(3). The weak interaction was a little more difficult. It turned out that the symmetry was SU(2)xU(1) but that it was broken by a Higgs mechanism. By this use of symmetry theoretical physicists were able to construct the complete standard model of particle physics which has kept the experimentalists busy for 30 years.<br />
<br />
<br />
Super symmetry<br />
<br />
Symmetry is proving to be a powerful unifying tool in particle physics because through symmetry and symmetry breaking, particles which appear to be different in mass, charge etc. can be understood as different states of a single unified field theory. Ideally we would like to have a completely unified theory in which all particles and forces of nature are related through a broken symmetry.<br />
<br />
A possible catch is that fermions and bosons cannot be related by the action of a classical group based symmetry. One way out of this problem would be if all bosons were revealed to be bound states of fermions. but the gauge bosons appear to be fundamental.<br />
<br />
A more favourable possibility is that fermions and bosons are related by supersymmetry. Supersymmetry is an algebraic construction which is a generalisation of the Lie-group symmetries already observed in particle physics. It is a type of symmetry which can not be described by a classical group, but it has most of the essential algebraic properties.<br />
<br />
If supersymmetry existed in nature we would expect to find that fermions and bosons came in pairs of equal mass. In other words there would be bosonic squarks and selectrons with the same masses as the quarks and electrons, as well as fermionic photinos and higgsinos with the same masses as photons and Higgs. The fact that no such partners have been observed implies that supersymmetry must be broken if it exists.<br />
<br />
It is probably worth adding that there may be other ways in which supersymmetry is hidden. For example, If quarks are composite then the quark constituents could be supersymmetric partners of gauge particles. Also the creation and annihilation operators of fermions define a supersymmetry. Finally, Witten has found a mechanism which allows particles to have different masses even though they are supersymmetric partners and the symmetry is not broken.<br />
<br />
There is now some indirect experimental evidence in favour of supersymmetry, but the main reasons for believing in its existence are purely theoretical. During the 1970s it was discovered that a form of space-time supersymmetry applied to general relativity provides a perturbative quantum field theory for gravity which has better renormalisation behaviour. This was one of the first breakthroughs of quantum gravity.<br />
<br />
The big catch with supergravity theories is that they work best in ten or eleven dimensional space-time. To explain this discrepancy with nature theorists revived an old idea called Kaluza-Klein theory which was originally proposed as a way to interpret internal gauge theories geometrically. According to this idea space-time has more dimensions than are apparent. All but four of them are compacted into a ball so small that we do not notice it. Particles are then supposed to be modes of vibration in the geometry of these extra dimensions. If we believe in supergravity then even fermions fall into this scheme.<br />
<br />
At one point supergravity looked very promising as a theory which might unify all physics. At the time I was a student at Cambridge University where Stephen Hawking was taking up his position as new Lucasian professor. There was great anticipation of his inaugural lecture and even though I made a point of turning up early I found only standing room in the auditorium. It was an exciting talk at which Hawking made some of his most famous comments. He confidently predicted that the end of physics was in sight. But early hopes faded as the perturbative calculations in supergravity became difficult and it seemed less likely that it defined a renormalisable field theory. Hawking maintains his controversial claim.<br />
<br />
Supergravity was quickly superseded by superstring theory. String theories had earlier been considered as a model for strong nuclear forces but, with the addition of supersymmetry it became possible to consider them as a unified theory including gravity. In fact, supergravity is present in superstring theories.<br />
<br />
Enthusiasm for superstring theories became widespread after Schwartz and Green discovered that a particular form of string theory was not only renormalisable, it was even finite to all orders in perturbation theory. That event started many research projects which are a story for another article. All I will say now is that string theory is believed to have much more symmetry than is understood, but its nature and full form is still a mystery.<br />
<br />
String theory has also excited some mathematicians. They have found that in certain background space-times it has a symmetry described by the fake monster super Lie algebra which is related to the finite monster group.<br />
<br />
<br />
Universal Symmetry<br />
<br />
We have seen how symmetry in nature has helped physicists uncover the laws of physics. Symmetry is a unifying concept. It has helped combine the forces of nature as well as joining space and time. There are other symmetries in nature which I have not yet mentioned. These include the symmetry between identical particles and the symmetry between electric and magnetic fields in Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics. Symmetry is often broken or hidden so it is quite possible that there is more. <br />
<br />
There is plenty of good reason to think that there is more. Both general relativity and quantum mechanics are full of symmetry so it would be natural to imagine that a unified theory of quantum gravity would combine those symmetries into a larger one. String theory certainly seems to have many forms of symmetry: conformal symmetries, W-symmetries dualities etc. There is evidence within string theory that it contains a huge symmetry which has not yet been revealed.<br />
<br />
The information paradox in the thermodynamics of black holes might be solved by a hologram mechanism. This would require that the number of effective degrees of freedom in quantum gravity can be reduced by a large gauge transformation; more evidence for a peculiar hidden symmetry in quantum gravity.<br />
<br />
It seems that there is some universal symmetry in nature that has yet to be found. It will be a symmetry which includes the gauge symmetries and perhaps also the symmetry of identical particles. The existence of this symmetry is a big clue to the nature of the laws of physics and may provide the best hope of discovering them with little further empirical data.<br />
<br />
The importance of the symmetry in a system of identical particles is often overlooked. The symmetry group is the permutation group acting to exchange particles of the same type. The reason why this symmetry is not considered to be as important as gauge symmetry lies in the relationship between classical and quantum physics. There is an automatic scheme which allows a classical system of field equations derived from a principle of least action to be quantised. This can be done either through Dirac's canonical quantisation or Feynman's path integral. The two are formally equivalent. In modern quantum field theory a classical field is quantised and particles arise as a result. Gauge symmetry is a symmetry of the classical field which is preserved in the process of quantisation. The symmetry between identical particles, however, does not exist in the classical theory. It appears along with the particles during the process of quantisation. Hence it is a different sort of symmetry.<br />
<br />
But the matter can not simply be left there. In a non-relativistic approximation of atomic physics it is possible to understand the quantum mechanics of atoms by treating them first of all as a system of classical particles. The system is quantised in the usual way and the result is the Schroedinger wave equation for the atom. This time we have gone from a classical particle picture to a field theory and the symmetry between particles existed as a classical symmetry.<br />
<br />
This observation suggests that the relationship between classical and quantum systems is not so clear as it is often portrayed and that the permutation group could also be a part of the same universal symmetry as gauge invariance. This claim is now supported by string theory which appears to have a mysterious duality between classical and quantum formulations. A further clue may be that the algebra of fermionic creation and annihilation operators generate a supersymmetry which includes the permutation of identical particles.<br />
<br />
What will the universal symmetry look like? The mathematical classification of groups is incomplete. Finite simple groups have been classified and so have semi-simple Lie groups. But infinite dimensional groups appear in string theory and these are so far beyond classification. Further more, there are new types of symmetry such as supersymmetry and quantum groups which are generalisations of classical symmetries. These symmetries are algebraic constructions which preserve an abstract form of invariance. They turn up in several different approaches to quantum gravity including string theory so they are undoubtedly important. This may be because of their importance in understanding topology. At the moment we don't even know what should be regarded as the most general definition of symmetry let alone having a classification scheme.<br />
<br />
There seems little doubt that there is much to be learnt in both mathematics and physics from the hunt for better symmetry. The intriguing idea is that there is some special algebraic structure which will unify a whole host of subjects through symmetry, as well as being at the root of the fundamental laws of physics.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=UNDERSTANDING_QUINE%E2%80%99S_FAMOUS_%E2%80%98STATEMENT%E2%80%99&diff=1850UNDERSTANDING QUINE’S FAMOUS ‘STATEMENT’2021-04-02T08:08:07Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Understanding%20Quine's.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Understanding%20Quine's.pdf</pdf><br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Transgenic_Technology&diff=1849Transgenic Technology2021-03-31T18:42:09Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY Recombinant DNA technologies allow DNA segments to be joined together (recombined) ou..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGY<br />
<br />
<br />
Recombinant DNA technologies allow DNA segments to be joined<br />
together (recombined) outside a cell or organism. These<br />
recombinant DNA segments have the potential to be reinserted<br />
into a cell or its chromosome and replicate.<br />
<br />
In contrast, it has recently become possible to introduce a<br />
gene or genes from one individual into the cellular DNA of<br />
another individual, even when the genes come from different<br />
species. This process is called transgenic technology . The<br />
gene or genes are inserted into a fertilized egg, or zygote<br />
(also commonly called an embryo ), and become integrated into<br />
the DNA of that zygote.<br />
<br />
For example, human genes (such as cancer genes) are currently<br />
being inserted into the embryos of research mice. These<br />
transgenic mice express the human genes. Transgenic mice can<br />
be used to test different drug therapies to see if they might<br />
be effective on humans. Transgenic technology is also being<br />
tested to insert human genes into sheep, pigs, cattle, and<br />
goats in the hopes that they these animals can begin to<br />
produce human proteins in their milk. These proteins, once<br />
extracted, would be useful for treating various human diseases<br />
such as emphysema and cystic fibrosis.<br />
<br />
Organs, tissues, and blood for human transplants might also be<br />
produced by transgenic technology. Pig hearts are similar<br />
enough to human hearts that they might be successfully<br />
transplantable into humans. The transplantation of animal<br />
organs to humans is called xenotransplantation . But at this<br />
point xenotransplantation is very difficult. The animal<br />
organs, like pig's hearts, would be rejected as foreign tissue<br />
by the immune system of a human recipient. But suppose a<br />
"transgenic pig" could be genetically engineered, using the<br />
DNA of a needy recipient, to produce a heart that the<br />
recipient's immune system could not recognize as foreign? The<br />
thousands of organ needy patients desperately awaiting a<br />
liver, eye, or pancreas, or those in need of blood<br />
transfusions, or skin grafts, or nerve tissue, might benefit<br />
from transgenic technology.<br />
<br />
Ą In contrast, what are the dangers of developing new<br />
zoonoses (diseases transmitted from animals to humans)?<br />
(See for example, "Infection of Human Cells by an<br />
Endogenous Retrovirus of Pigs", by Clive, etal, in Nature<br />
Medicine , vol.3, no.3, March 1997.)<br />
<br />
Ą What are the dangers of new deleterious prions<br />
(self-replicative proteins) evolving, and causing<br />
diseases similar to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans<br />
(or Mad Cow disease in cattle), and rapidly spreading?<br />
(For further discussion about prions and their possible<br />
threats in transgenic animals, see the dialog between<br />
Wills and O'Neil in the New Zealand Veterinary Journal ,<br />
vol. 43, p.86-88, and vol. 44, p.33-36.)<br />
<br />
Ą Selling blood, tissue, and organs to wealthy patients<br />
to pay for food and clothing has become common in some<br />
parts of the world. How would an industry of genetically<br />
engineered human body parts affect the lives of these<br />
desperate people? Will this new biotechnology give<br />
certain individuals, certain classes of people, and<br />
certain cultures the ability to live longer?<br />
</pre><br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Townsend_Brown_and_his_Anti-Gravity_Discs&diff=1848Townsend Brown and his Anti-Gravity Discs2021-03-31T18:41:29Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Townsend%20Brown%20and%20His%20Anti-gravity%20Disc.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Townsend%20Brown%20and%20His%20Anti-gravity%20Disc.pdf</pdf><br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Timing_of_Conscious_Experience&diff=1847Timing of Conscious Experience2021-03-31T08:14:58Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> THE TIMING OF CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE: A CAUSALITY-VIOLATING, TWO-VALUED, TRANSACTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF SUBJECTIVE ANTEDATING AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL PROJECTION[1] Ê F. A..."</p>
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<div><pre><br />
THE TIMING OF CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCE: A CAUSALITY-VIOLATING, TWO-VALUED, TRANSACTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF SUBJECTIVE ANTEDATING AND SPATIAL-TEMPORAL PROJECTION[1]<br />
Ê<br />
<br />
<br />
F. A. WOLF<br />
Have Brains / Will Travel<br />
San Francisco, CA <br />
Ê<br />
Ê<br />
1. Abstract<br />
<br />
Quantum systems in the time interval between two events, so-called two-time observables (TTO), are known to behave in a manner quite differently from expectations based on initial value quantum mechanics. According to the transactional interpretation (TI) of quantum physics, wave functions can be pictured as offer and echo wavesÑthe offer wave passing from an initial event, i, to a future event, a, and the echo wave, the complex conjugate of the offer wave, passing from a back in time toward i. TTO and the TI have been used to explain certain quantum physical temporal anomalies, such as non-locality, contrafactuality, and future-to-present causation as explicitly shown in WheelerÕs delayed choice experiment. Experimental evidence involving neurological functioning and subjective awareness indicates the presence of the same anomalies. Here I propose a model based on TTO and the TI wherein two neural events are ultimately responsible for backwards-through-time wave function collapse in the intervening spacetime interval. After providing a simple argument showing how quantum physics applies to neurological functioning and a simple demonstration of how the TI and TTO explain the delayed choice paradox, I propose that such pairs of causality-violating events must occur in the brain in order that a single experience in consciousness take place in the observer accompanied by a single change in the observed quantum system. Using this proposition I offer a quantum physical resolutionÑsimilar to that of the delayed choice experimentÑof the "delay-and-antedating" hypothesis/paradox put forward by Libet et al to explain certain temporal anomalies associated with a delay time, D, required for passive perception experienced by experimental subjects including the blocking of sensory awareness normally experienced at time t by a cortical signal at later time t+fD (0< f£ 1) and the reversal in time of the sensory awareness of the events corresponding to cortical and peripheral stimuli. The model may be a first step towards the development of a quantum physical theory of subjective awareness and suggests that biological systems evolve and continue to function in accordance with TTO and consequently a causality-violating, two-valued, TI of quantum mechanics. The model successfully predicts and explains LibetÕs temporal anomalies and makes a new prediction about the timings of passive bodily sensory experiences and imagined or phantom sensory experiences. The predictions of the model are compared with experimental data indicating agreement.<br />
<br />
<br />
2. Introduction<br />
<br />
In his recent book[2] Penrose poses the paradox of the relationship of awareness and physical events that elicit it as follows, "Is there really an Ôactual timeÕ at which a conscious experience does take place, where that particular Ôtime of experienceÕ must precede the time of any effect of a Ôfree-willed responseÕ to that experience?. . .If consciousness . . .cannot be understood . . . without . . . quantum theory then it might . . . be . . . that . . . our conclusions about causality, non-locality, and conterfactuality [are incorrect]." Penrose believes that there are reasons for being suspicious of our physical notions of time in relation to physics whenever quantum non-locality and conterfactuality are involved. I would add the same thing must be said with regard to consciousness. He suggests that "if, in some manifestation of consciousness, classical reasoning about the temporal ordering of events leads us to a contradictory conclusion, then this is strong indication that quantum actions are indeed at work!"<br />
In this paper we examine a quantum theory of the relationship between the awareness of timings of events and their corresponding physical correlates and show that indeed not only are quantum actions at work, they are indispensable in explaining the temporal paradoxes inherent in the phenomena.<br />
What is the problem? In a nutshell there appears to be an innate fuzziness in the relationship between physical time and conscious experience. This fuzziness indicates that a precise timing of physical events marked by the apparent awareness of these events does not match a causal sequence and that at times physical events eliciting awareness take place after one becomes conscious of them. This has been indicated in a remarkable series of experiments performed by Benjamin Libet and his co-workers at the University of California San Francisco Medical School. They showed that events in the brain eliciting consciousness of passive sensory occurrences occur after the apparent awareness of these events and not before. They also hypothesize that a specific mechanism within the brain is responsible for or associated with the projection of these passive events both out in space (spatial referral) and back in time (temporal referral). Libet refers to this as the delay-and-antedating hypothesis/paradox.<br />
We shall investigate a plausible resolution of this paradox, in terms of a new model of the timings of conscious experience which includes a specific mechanism for time order reversal, temporal projections, and spatial projections. My model (called TTOTIM) is based on CramerÕs transactional interpretation (TI)[3] and incorporates both the TI and, to a lesser extent, the work of Aharonov and his co-workers dealing with the properties of a quantum system between two measurements called two-time observables (TTO)[4] .<br />
After examining LibetÕs data and the delay and antedating hypothesis, I offer a plausible argument showing that quantum mechanical descriptions are relevant to neural behavior. Consequently the brain and nervous system can be treated as a quantum system. This shows that mental events do correspond with neural events through the action of the collapse of the probability field of the quantum wave function. Specifically, I show that the uncertainty in velocity of a presynaptic vesicle as predicted by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle compares favorably with the required magnitude for vesicle emission. I also show that vesicle wave packets spread on a time scale associated with neural conduction. This suggests that a sudden change in probability as predicted by the change in the quantum wave function known as the collapse of the wave function is enough to modify vesicle emission and effect timing.<br />
Next in the two-time observable transactional model: WheelerÕs delayed choice, I show how the TTOTIM explains this well-known backwards-through-time causality violation paradox and in so doing how these theories work. In the brain as a delayed choice machine I show how the link between mental and neural events explains the projection of mental events into spacetime and how a conscious experience occurs if and only if two events defining a spacetime interval occur. Then in the quantum mechanics of the passive mind, I show how two pairs of events are required for perception: one of the event pairs acts as the causal setup and the second the finalized projection regardless of the projection/setup time order. Next in the thalamus and spacetime projection, I show how TTOTIM deals with sensory inputs passing through the thalamus or medial lemniscus and indicates the origination of LibetÕs time marker signal and specific spacetime projection mechanism. In the spacetime projection mechanism: evolution and experimental data, I discuss why evolution would allow such a seemingly bizarre projection mechanism and its early appearance in the lower brain. The answer seems to be connected with perception, evolution, and survival. I then show how the theory predicts a slight change in otherwise simultaneously perceived stimuli from skin and thalamus: the experience of real stimuli slightly earlier than a time marker signal to the actual skin site and phantom stimuli slightly later than a time marker signal elicited by the thalamus at the cortex. In causality violation in sensory and cortical stimuli experiences, I offer a TTOTIM explanation of LibetÕs hypothesis/paradox temporal reversal relationship between the timings in cortical and skin stimuli. Finally the paper concludes with a discussion of some implications of TTOTIM and its prediction that phantom or projected images of sensations must become conscious after the arising of the temporal markers elicited at somatosensory cortex while "real" external sensory sensations must reach awareness before the time markers arise. The fact that phantom experience is forward projected in time and real experience is backward projected in time provides the resolution of paradoxes associated with timing of conscious events.<br />
<br />
<br />
3. The Delay And Antedating Paradox<br />
<br />
Earlier, Honderich[5] criticized the evident "delay-and-antedating" hypothesis first put forward by Libet et al[6] to explain the illusive paradox in the timing of events associated with bodily peripheral sensation and brain neuronal adequacy (discussed further on) required to elicit consciousness of the sensation. In a later paper Libet[7] defended his hypothesis, pointing out that "this phenomenon, though conceptually strange, must be encompassed by any mind-brain theory."<br />
Following this, Snyder[8] offered a resolution of the paradox based on relativistic consideration of the time interval between the events. Snyder's idea was to consider the events from two different reference frames. The apparent difference between the relative time intervals as observed in these reference frames was postulated to account for the discrepancy. Namely simultaneous events in one reference frame would appear to occur with a time interval between them in another reference frame. However, the paradox indicated by Libet deals with events that are timelike separated. Because of the timelike character of the spacetime interval between the events, there is no frame of reference where the two events would ever appear as simultaneous. Hence Snyder's proposal failed to resolve the paradox.<br />
I later proposed a resolution of the paradox based on quantum physical arguments that deal with similar temporal anomalies[9]. In this paper I offer a more detailed model indicating how the TI and TTO resolve the paradox.<br />
Penrose, in examining this paradox, came to a similar conclusion that the ordinary form of logic one uses to deal with it tends to go wrong. "We have to bear in mind how quantum systems behave and so it might be that something funny is going on in these timings because of quantum non-locality and quantum contrafactuals."[10]<br />
The "delay-and-antedating" paradox/hypothesis refers to the lag in time of cerebral production resulting in a conscious sensory experience following a peripheral sensation, combined with subjective antedating of that experience. For reasons to be explained shortly, conscious experience of external or bodily stimuli cannot occur unless the brain has time to process data associated with them. In a series of studies[11] several subjects' brains showed that neuronal adequacy wasn't achieved until a significant delay time D as high as 500 msecs following a stimulus. Yet the subjects stated that they were aware of the sensation within a few msec (10-50 msec) following the stimulation. Put briefly, how can a subject be aware of a sensation, that is, be conscious of it, if the subject's brain has not registered that "awareness"?<br />
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The duration of a typical peripheral stimulus signal detected at the somatosensory cortex (SI) is actually quite long (more than 500 msec). We can consider this signal to have two parts, a short onset and a long finish (see Figure 1). Libet calls the È 50 msec pulse width onset signal a "time marker" but, although it appears in SI, according to Libet subjects are not aware of it. In this paper I shall refer to these two parts of the signal as time marker and "caboose". Libet points out it is clear from other studies and from the effects of anesthesia that during surgery even though peripheral stimuli plentifully give rise to time-markers at SI there is no awareness of them because the approximately D-20 msec caboose is not elicited.[12] <br />
Time markers do not ordinarily occur in cortex. In fact most of the time cortical processing takes place without them. But, if a stimulus is applied to the body, this includes taste, smell, sound, touch, or vision, or if a stimulus is applied to a certain region of the brain within the thalamus or slightly below it in the medial lemniscus, (L) a time marker signal is elicited at SI. It is known that sensory data, stimuli originating in the body, produce signals that pass through the thalamus on their way to SI. It thus appears that time markers originate in the thalamus. This suggests that the time markers are associated with some mechanism in the thalamic region and, as I shall indicate, play a significant role in our perceptions of the world.<br />
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Further consideration of the timings of sensory stimuli and conscious perception of the stimuli shows that this paradox cannot be resolved by simple causal consideration of the events. In Figure 2 we see a display of these temporal anomalies (based on LibetÕs data and presented by Penrose[13]). In (a) we note that the onset of awareness of a skin stimulus occurs È 15-25 milliseconds after the stimulus is applied. The onset of this awareness can be associated with the time-marking fast neural signal (primary evoked potential) reaching the cortex within 15-25 msec of skin stimulus.<br />
Libet explains that what seems to be required for apparent sensory awareness is sufficiency of signal as determined by strength, polarity of signal delivered to the cortex, and length of time the signal is "on." The sufficiency of signal strength, polarity and time determine neuronal adequacy.[14] In what follows I shall assume that the conditions of the stimuli wherever and whenever they are applied require the same sufficiency leading to a time-on period D (roughly .5 sec).<br />
Cabooses are required to achieve neuronal adequacy as Libet demonstrated by directly stimulating the cortex. In (b) the cortex itself is stimulated with a train of electrical activity. If that signal is turned off before D the subject has no awareness that any signal was even applied. But as in (c) if a cortical train duration is over D in length the signal is perceived D after the onset of the cortical stimulus. Cortical signals are different from signals received from the sensory body in that they do not exhibit time markers and they are apparently sensed after a time delay. In (d) we see a seeming paradox arising because of this exception. The skin stimulus was applied and then .5D (about .25 seconds) later a cortical signal train was applied to a region near the cortical area associated with the stimulus. The latter signal train, applied for a time greater than D, acts as a blocking signal. It succeeds in inhibiting any awareness of the skin stimulus even though it is not applied until later. This would indicate that awareness of peripheral stimuli does not occur until a sufficient delay time has passed and neuronal adequacy has been achieved.<br />
One could argue from this data that the blocking signal, in occurring after the skin stimulus, interfered with the reception of the caboose part of the stimulus signal and thus disabled it. One could conclude from this that the awareness of a stimulus experienced by a subject must not occur near the time of the stimulus, but certainly more than .5D later. Thus the subject must be in error in reporting the awareness of the skin stimulus occurred near the time of the stimulus.<br />
In (e) we have another apparent paradox. This time the skin stimulus is applied .25 seconds after the blocking cortical signal which in this case fails to block out the skin stimulus signal. Now the apparent perception of the two signals is in the reverse time orderÑthe subject experiences the skin stimulus a full .25 seconds before he experiences the cortical signal. This experiment was repeated over 40 times with 3 different subjects and the results were as indicated in the figure. One could conclude from this that again the subject was in error.<br />
Libet posits that the subject antedates the awareness of the stimulus (which only occurs after the caboose has successfully arrived at the cortex) to the time marker which arrives within 15 msec of the stimulus. Assuming that the caboose arrives within 500 msec the subject should actually experience awareness of the skin stimulus .75 sec after the onset of the cortical signal. Thus, it would appear, he would then project this experience backward in time, possibly in short-term memory, and then report the skin stimulus as having occurred before the delayed cortical stimulus.<br />
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However, Libet hypothesizes that a peripheral sensory input elicits a time marker signal and when neuronal adequacy is achieved the subject refers this conscious experience backward in time to the time marker rather than consciously experiencing the stimuli at the onset of neuronal adequacy. He further posits that if a stimulus does not elicit a time marker then no such backward through time referral is made. His experiments confirm his hypothesis.<br />
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In Figure 3 we see comparisons of four different experiments involving relative timings for stimulus of the medial lemniscus (L, ellipse symbol), the somatosensory cortex (C, circle symbol), and the skin (SS, square symbol). Both SS and L signals elicit a primary evoked response in the somatosensory cortex and hence each has a time marker signal present. On the other hand C stimuli elicit no such evoked response and do not show any time markers. In Figure 4 we see roughly where the thalamus lies with respect to the cortex.<br />
Returning to Figure 3, in (a) SS was applied about .5D before L and the subject compared his experiences of both stimuli indicating that the SS signal occurred before the L stimulus (see arrows on the left side of the time-line) in the correct time order. According to LibetÕs results a signal train of at least D[15] must be applied to L to elicit any conscious awareness response. Hence the subject should not be aware of the signal until the time indicated on the right side of the time-line (shown by a line extending to the right from the ellipse symbol).<br />
Although the subject should not indicate awareness of the L signal at the time of onset, when it is applied alone, Libet infers that he would "refer" the signal to onset when this signal is compared with another applied stimuli because it gives rise to an earlier time marker. Comparing the L result with that given in the case of SS suggests the subject is referring both experiences backward in time to their respective time markers. Libet explains since both L and SS elicit time marker signals, the experience of each signal will be in the correct time order[16], however, each experience of neuronal adequacy is referred back in time by the delay interval.<br />
Case (a) strongly suggests that neuronal adequacy is required for perception and subjective awareness involving two or more signals may not be experienced as would be inferred by normal causality, but as predicted by LibetÕs delay-and-antedating hypothesis. Case (b) seems to close the door on any other possible interpretation. Here SS is followed by C. The train of C (see Figure 2) is long and weak enough that neuronal adequacy for it does not occur until D later. This signal appears to block out any awareness of SS at all. Apparently C inhibits the caboose signal from arising in cortex and acts in a manner similar to anesthesia. Hence neuronal adequacy of SS is not achieved.<br />
In case (c) the order of SS and C are reversed with the surprising result that SS is experienced well before C even though C began well before SS. Again Libet takes it that since C has no time marker no temporal referral can occur. It will be experienced at the "normal" time of neuronal adequacy while the SS signal will be backwards-through-time referred.<br />
This is further supported by case (d) where an L stimulus replaces C. Here both signals are backwards-through-time referred and hence nothing unusual takes place in their normal time order. As in case (a) it is inferred that both signals are antedated.<br />
Considering the precise timings of the stimuli, one is tempted to regard LibetÕs hypothesis as being the only correct interpretation. The question remains when do people really experience sensory data? One could infer from LibetÕs hypothesis (he doesnÕt make this inference) that the time of occurrence is not the time reported by the subjects but is somehow rewired in their brains so that they believe they had experienced correctly. However, what purpose could evolution have in allowing such a strange and confused temporal ordering of conscious experiences? Consider the possibility that the subjects were not in error and correctly experienced the skin stimulus shortly after it occurred (within 15 msec) and correctly experienced the time delayed cortical stimulus just when it was perceived D after onset. What does this tell us about consciousness? It appears to suggest an evolutionary advantage if a subject could in some manner make use of information from his immediate future when dealing with passive sensory awareness.<br />
Others, possibly in disbelief that anything like a future-to-present signal could ever occur, treat this temporal referral as an error or a phantom possibly akin to "normal" spatial referral mechanisms as in the case of vision or to phantom limb phenomenon as in the illusory sensation of touch. As such our brains somehow and as if in illusion project experience out in space and in a similar manner backwards in time.<br />
The projection of the sensation of vision out in space is called spatial referral and appears to us as quite normal procedure. We see things "out there" not "in here" on the backs of our retinas. In the phantom limb phenomenon a person indicates the presence of a sensation in an amputated arm. Even when our brains are electrically stimulated we feel the effects at the associated body organ. Libet in turn believes that our brains are also able to temporally refer sense data backwards in time but rejects the idea that this is illusory or erroneous. For the same reason that it makes sense to project from our brains the feeling of an arm (phantom or not) or the vision of an object in space, it makes sense to project backward through time our perceptions of sense data to a time when the stimuli actually occur as for example indicated by time markers. If there are no time markers present then no such backward through time referral takes place.<br />
From this one could believe that the subject is mistaken about perceived time sequences of external events. If the subject is mistaken about his perceptions, we might ask why natural selection would work in this manner. What could be of possible evolutionary advantage in this case? It would appear to be a disadvantage to ever have our wires crossed evolutionarily speaking.<br />
If the subject is not mistaken, and is indeed able to receive projections from his future electrically excited brain, we might ask the same question. Here the answer is perhaps obvious. In order to take action in the immediate world of sense data, a great advantage would be bestowed upon the person to be able to move correctly and intelligently in response to stimuli at the time of the stimulus. Since full awareness requires neuronal adequacyÑthe brain firing long enough to form cogitative responses to data presented to itÑthe person could certainly not just sit and wait until all of that brain functioning is accomplished. Thus it may be argued that natural selection would bestow a great advantage enabling us to take full benefit of what our future cogitations were as they bear upon our immediate problems. Perhaps we could argue that seeing into the future a period of D is necessary for intelligent species evolution.<br />
We need next to consider the question of the relevancy of quantum mechanical descriptions to the nervous system. After IÕll show how my model explains the delay-andÐantedating paradox and makes a new prediction for the relative timings of sensory and projected experiences.<br />
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4. Are Quantum Mechanical Descriptions Relevant To The Nervous System?<br />
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While it may have long been suspected, it is only recently that the question of the mind-brain problem having a solution based on quantum physical considerations has taken on a new look.[17] Current interest in macroscopic quantum systems as well as interest in molecular biology suggests that quantum physical principles do operate in the nervous system.<br />
In his 1986 article[18], Eccles offered plausible arguments for mental events causing neural events via the mechanism of wave function collapse. Conventional operations of the synapses depend on the operation of "ultimate synaptic units" called "boutons". As he put it, "these synaptic boutons, when excited by an all-or-nothing nerve impulse, deliver the total content of a single synaptic vesicle, not regularly, but probabilistically." Eccles went on to point out that refined physiological analysis of the synapse shows that the effective structure of each bouton is a paracrystalline presynaptic vesicular grid with about 50 vesicles. The existence of such a crystalline structure is suggestive of quantum physical laws in operation in that the spacing and structure are suggestive of crystalline structure in common substances.<br />
Eccles focused attention on these para-crystalline grids as the targets for non-material events. He showed how the probability field of quantum mechanics which carries neither mass nor energy, can nevertheless be envisioned as exerting effective action at these microsites. In the event of a sudden change in the probability field brought on by the observation of a complementary observable, there would be a change in the probability of emission of one or more of the vesicles.<br />
The action of altering the probability field without changing the energy of the physical system involved can be found in the equation governing the Heisenberg principle of uncertainty, <br />
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Equation 1<br />
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where D v is the tolerance set for determining the velocity of the object, D x is the tolerance set for determining the position of the object, and is Planck's constant 1.06 x 10-27 erg-sec.<br />
In my earlier paper[19] thus unknowing of EcclesÕs work, I presented similar lines of reasoning showing that protein gate molecules in the neural wall could also be candidates for micro-objects subject to quantum physical probability fields. I also explained how the sudden change in the probability field brought on when an observation occurs, could be the mechanism by which mental events trigger neural events. <br />
A key argument for the plausibility of EcclesÕs and my argument comes from a simple inquiry based on the mass of a typical synaptic vesicle, m, 40 nm in diameter. It can be calculated to be 3 x 10-17 g. If the uncertainty of the position of the vesicle in the presynaptic grid, D x, is taken to be 1 nm, it is possible to determine, according to the uncertainty principle, the uncertainty of the velocity, D v, to be 3.5 nm per msec. This number compares favorably with the fact that the presynaptic membrane is about 5 nm across and the emission time for a vesicle is about 0.1-1 milliseconds.<br />
Using the same parameters it is also possible to determine how long it takes for a wave packet for a localized particle or group of particles to spread one standard deviation. The time, t , is given by<br />
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Equation 2<br />
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where D is the initial width of the wave packet. Using a pulse width of D =5 nm and a mass of 3 x 10-17 g yields t =15 msec. This means that within the range of neural conduction times (15 msec) quantum effects associated with temporal anomalies could easily be occurring and the uncertainty in velocity as shown by the uncertainty principle is well within the range necessary to modify the vesicle emission through mental intention in the manner known as the "collapse of the wave function."<br />
Thus, Eccles concluded that calculations based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle show that the probabilistic emission of a vesicle from the paracrystalline presynaptic grid could conceivably be modified by mental intention in the same manner that mental intention modifies a quantum wave function. Although my conclusions were based on the operations of protein gating molecules in the neural wall, I came to a similar conclusion: Mental events stimulate neural events through sudden changes in the quantum physical probability field and the timing of these events could be governed by quantum mechanical consideration.<br />
For experimental evidence showing how mental events influence neural events, Eccles pointed to that put forward by Roland et al[20] who recorded, using radioactive Xenon, the regional blood flow (rCBF) over a cerebral hemisphere while the subject was making a complex pattern of finger-thumb movements. They discovered that any regional increase in rCBF is a reliable indicator of an increased neuronal activity in that area. Other evidence, using the same technique of monitoring rCBF, showing that silent thinking has an action on the cerebral cortex was also offered by Eccles. For example, merely placing one's attention on a finger that was about to be touched, showed that there was an increase in rCBF over the postcentral gyrus of the cerebral cortex as well as the mid-prefontal area.<br />
Eccles concluded from his research that the essential locus of the action of non-material mental events on the brain is at individual microsites, the presynaptic vesicular grids of the boutons. Each bouton operates in a probabilistic manner in the release of single vesicle in response to a presynaptic impulse. It is this probability field that Eccles believes is influenced by mental action that is governed in the same way that a quantum probability field undergoes sudden change when as a result of observation the quantum wave function collapses.<br />
The question remains, however, how and when does the probability field change in this manner? It is here where the TTOTIM may shed some light and Libet's data may indeed be showing how mental events influence neural events and in fact just what is necessary for a conscious (knowing) event to occur.<br />
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5. The Two-Time Observable Transactional Interpretation Model (TTOTIM): Analysis Of WheelerÕs Delayed-Choice Experiment<br />
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According to the TTOTIM, a future event and a present event are involved in a transaction wherein a real (complex-valued retarded wave) quantum state vector, |O(1)>, called the "offer" wave, issues from the present event (1) and travels to the future event (2). The future event is then stimulated to send back through time an "echo" state vector (complex-conjugated advanced wave), <E(2)|, towards the present event.<br />
According to the rules of quantum mechanics, the probability distribution (probability per unit volume) for an event to occur, is given by <E(2)|O(1)>. Following the TTOTIM, the echo wave modulates the offer wave thus producing the required probability pattern. Thus, it is necessary for future events to influence present or past events by sending back into time a corresponding echo wave, following an offer wave, from the present or past that confirms the offer. Specifically, the echo wave contains the complex conjugated reflection of the offer wave multiplying the offer wave in much the same manner as a radio wave modulates a carrier signal in radio broadcasting. The probability amplitude <E(2)|O(1)> equals the positive real probability for a transaction-a correlation between the two eventsÑarising as a probability field around the initial event. However this field depends on values acquired at the echo site (2) as well as values obtained from the initiating site (1).<br />
To see how TTOTIM works, and how a future event could influence by confirmation an earlier one, let us consider a well-known causality violation paradox known as WheelerÕs delayed choice experiment[21]. The delayed choice arises after allowing a single photon to travel either by (a) one path or (b) by both paths in a two-arm Michelson-Morley interferometer to a detector setup. The choice is made at a later time after the photon has already entered the device and has presumably "decided" which way to go. The outcome is determined when a half-silvered mirror is placed or not placed at the detection site. The complete analysis using TTOTIM is shown in Figures 5.<br />
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Figure 5(a). WheelerÕs delayed choice experiment as depicted using the TTOTIM. The delayed choice is between allowing the photon to travel by a single path or by both paths to reach the detector setup. The choice is made at the later time when a half-silvered mirror is placed or not placed at the detection site. Here the decision at t=0++ is not to insert an additional half-silvered mirror. Thus at t=0 a photon source emits a single photon. An offer quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to a half-silvered mirror (t=0+) where the state vector, |S>, is partially transmitted; |a S> continuing through the mirror onto the lower path, and partially reflected, |ia S> onto the upper path (a =1/… 2). Each partial wave is reflected again by a mirror. The upper partial wave undergoes as a result two 90 degree phase shifts while the lower partial wave undergoes only one phase shift. Next at t=0++ the vertical detector fires sending an echo wave vector, <-ia S|, backwards-in-time where it once again reflects leading to the phase shifted continuation echo wave vector <a S| which in passing through the half-silvered mirror becomes<br />
<a 2S|=<1Ú2S|. The probability for the transaction is therefore 1Ú2 as indicated by the amplitude of the echo wave arriving at the original source.<br />
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Figure 5(b). WheelerÕs delayed choice experiment as depicted using the TTOTIM. This time the delayed choice allows the photon to travel by both paths to reach the detector. Here the decision at t=0++ is to insert an additional half-silvered mirror. Now the photon follows both paths to complete and confirm a successful transaction. At t=0 a photon source emits a single photon. An offer quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to a half-silvered mirror (t=0+) where the state vector, |S>, is partially transmitted, |a S>, continuing through the mirror onto the lower path, and partially reflected, |ia S>, onto the upper path (a =1/… 2). Each partial wave is reflected again by a mirror. The upper partial wave undergoes as a result two 90 degree phase shifts while the lower partial wave undergoes only one phase shift. Next at t=0++ both partial waves encounter the inserted half-silvered mirror where again reflection and transmission occurs. The reflected upper path wave is out of phase and cancels out with the transmitted lower path wave. The vertical detector does not fire. The upper path wave is also transmitted to the horizontal detector and adds in phase with the reflected lower path wave resulting in the firing of the horizontal detector. Although each of these waves is phase-shifted by 180 degrees and reduced in amplitude by a factor of 1Ú2, they add together to produce the 180 degrees phase-shifted wave vector |-S>. Thus the detection event sends backward-through-time an echo wave, <-S|, which upon following the same two trajectories back to the source arrives in toto as <S| thus completing the transaction. The probability for the transaction is unity as indicated by the sum of the amplitudes of the echo waves arriving at the original source.<br />
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In Figure 5(a) the decision at t=0++ is not to insert an additional half-silvered mirror. Consequently, at t=0 a photon source emits a single photon. Accordingly an offer quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to a half-silvered mirror arriving at t=0+ where the state vector, |S>, is partially transmitted; |a S>, continuing through the mirror onto the lower path, and partially reflected, |ia S>, onto the upper path (a =1/… 2)[22]. Next at t=0++ the vertical detector fires[23] sending an echo wave vector, <-ia S|, backwards-in-time only onto the lower path where it once again reflects from a mirror leading to the continuation echo wave vector <a S| which in passing through the half-silvered mirror becomes <a2S|=<1Ú2S|. The probability for the transaction is <1Ú2S|S>=1Ú2 as indicated by the amplitude of the echo wave arriving at the original source. Since the horizontal detector did not fire, there was no echo from it and consequently the photon did not pass through the upper arm of the device even though its offer wave vector did. Only when a transaction is completed, where both a final conformation and an initial offer are concluded can a history be decided.<br />
If, on the other hand, the alternative decision is made after the photon has already entered the device, the delayed choice changes the past and allows the photon to travel by both paths to reach the detector. In Figure 5(b) the decision at t=0++ is to insert an additional half-silvered mirror. At t=0 a photon source emits a single photon. An offer quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to a half-silvered mirror (t=0+) where the state vector, |S>, is partially transmitted, |a S>, continuing through the mirror onto the lower path, and partially reflected, |ia S>, onto the upper path (a =1/… 2) as before. Each partial wave is again reflected by a mirror and continues as before. The upper partial wave undergoes, as a result, two 90 degree phase shifts while the lower partial wave undergoes only one phase shift. Next at t=0++ both partial waves encounter the just-inserted half-silvered mirror where again reflection and transmission occurs. The reflected upper wave enters the vertical detector where it, because of the phase-shifting, cancels out with the lower transmitted wave. The vertical detector does not fire. The transmitted upper path vector continues to the horizontal detector and adds in phase with the lower path reflected vector resulting in the firing of the horizontal detector. Although each wave is phase-shifted by 180 degrees and reduced in amplitude by a factor of 1Ú2, they add together to produce the 180 degrees phase-shifted wave vector |-S> and the firing of the horizontal detector. Now the horizontal detection event sends backward-through-time the echo wave, <-S|, which upon following the same two trajectories back to the source arrives in toto phase shifted through another 180 degrees as the echo wave, <S|, thus completing the transaction. The probability for the transaction is unity as indicated by the sum of the amplitudes of the echo waves arriving at the original source.<br />
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6. The Brain As A Delayed Choice Machine<br />
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It is widely believed that no experimental evidence favoring one interpretation of quantum physics over another is possible. However, it has been recognized that the action of observing any quantum system can alter the physical property under scrutiny. While this has been broadly recognized, no one to date has any idea how this happens or when it happens. Up to now research has been occupied with investigations of temporal paradoxes in physical systems. WheelerÕs delayed choice experiment has already been confirmed. What I am proposing here is that the timing of events taking place within the human brain may under certain circumstances exhibit behavior showing a similar delayed choice scenario as above is being played out. Moreover few physicists investigate anything like precise timing of conscious events in human subjects for a variety of reasons. Libet's data may suggest that a biological foundation for quantum physics exists and that the question of which interpretation of quantum physics is correct can only be answered biologically. This step may also provide the beginning of a theoretical basis for a quantum physical model of the mind-brain.<br />
The TTOTIM links mental and neural events and explains the relationship between physical exterior events, mental events, and the projection of mental events into spacetime. In it a conscious experience occurs if and only if two events occur. If one assumes that consciousness arises with a single event, paradoxes like the ones indicated by LibetÕs experiments occur. Neuronal adequacy and subjective experience are not one and the same events. Neither are peripheral stimulation and subjective experience one and the same even though they seem to be. The truth actually lies somewhere in-between. Both the stimulation and neuronal adequacy (two events) are needed for the apparent conscious (one event) experience, even though the time of that experience may be referred back close to the time of the elicitation of a particular signal.<br />
Although one might believe that LibetÕs data suggest that this may be an illusion, that the real "recognition" of the event only occurred later at the time of neuronal adequacy and that the subject "subjectively" and mistakenly remembered the event as having occurred earlier, this "illusion" is precisely how the brain-mind works dealing with passive stimuli. <br />
The TTOTIM sheds light on both "subjective referral in time" as well as "subjective referral in space". Libet[24] suggests that, in the same manner that neuronal adequacy following a peripheral sensation is projected "out there" on the peripheral site and not felt to occur at the cortex, visual experience is "projected" out there onto the external world and not referred to the retinal net. However there is more to this. Not only must the achievement of neuronal adequacy following a peripheral stimulus elicit a backwards-through-time signal but the SI upon receipt of that signal must in turn relay it out to the physical location of the stimulus. But what happens if the stimulus isnÕt real? Or if the stimulus is applied to the brain itself? Then this projection must occur forward-in-time!<br />
In my original hypothesis[25], neither the time nor the location of the experience was precisely determined and no experience of the "out there" sensation takes place unless a projection to the stimulus site occurs. Thus phantom experiences and subjective "filling-in" of neurological "blind spots" or even a whole field of SI-induced sensory information will appear as real experiences. It would be hard to explain how appropriate behavior based on awareness could occur if this projection did not occur. What I have added here is a specific time difference between projections of real and phantom or brain stimuli. This hypothesis also fits with certain experiments performed by physiologist von BŽkŽsey and phantom limb experiences reported to Pribram which I described in my earlier book[26].<br />
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7. The Quantum Mechanics Of The Passive Mind<br />
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Now that we have looked at the general analysis of the TTOTIM as it applied to WheelerÕs delayed choice scenario, let us consider its application to LibetÕs data. <br />
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Figure 6. Here we see, using a simplified pseudo-sequence typical of the TTOTIM what transpires when at t=0 a skin stimulus is applied (SS) leading to a time marker signal being elicited on the somatosensory cortex (S SI) at t=0+ (È 15 msec). According to the TI a quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to the somatosensory cortex arrival area SI. As time continues the state vector, |naÊS>,propagates forward in time leading to neuronal adequacy at SI which occurs after the delay time D (taken to be .5 sec). Next the time-reversed echo state vector, <naÊS|, goes back in time to t=0+ where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <S|, that returns to the site of the skin stimulus. The perceived stimulus occurs accordingly somewhere in the interval D t between time t=0 and t=0+.<br />
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In Figure 6 we see, using a pseudo-sequence similar to that shown in Figures 5, offer and echo state vectors involved in a typical peripheral stimulus response action. At t=0 a skin stimulus is applied (SS). Accordingly a quantum state vector, |S>, travels forward in time to the somatosensory cortex arrival area SI where it elicits a time marker slightly later (about 15 msec) at t=0+. As time continues the state vector, |naÊS>, travels forward in time leading to neuronal adequacy, elicited by the caboose part of the SS signal, at SI which occurs after the delay time D (taken to be .5 sec). Next the time-reversed echo state vector, <naÊS|, goes back in time to t=0+ where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <S|, that returns to the site of the skin stimulus. The perceived eventÑconscious awareness of SSÑdoes not occur at a precise time but subjectively, accordingly, somewhere in an interval D t (15 msec) between time t=0 and t=0+. The time marker signal acts as a reference for the timing of the awareness event.<br />
Here, following the use of TTOTIM, there are two pairs of events required for perception. We may consider one of the event pairs to be the causal setup and the second to be the finalized projection. The projection is (1) [SSÂ SÊSI] and the setup is (2) [SÊSI¨ NAÊSS] where the forward arrow indicates a forward through time projection and the backward arrow the contrary. Even though the interval between events (2) occurs later than the corresponding interval between events (1), (2) is the causal confirmation factor for the perception (1) to occur. The absence of the setup completely eliminates the confirmation and the possibility for projection to occur.<br />
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Figure 7. Here a cortical stimulus (C SI) is applied at t=0. The phantom skin stimulus is not felt until neuronal adequacy is achieved sometime after t=D. According to the TTOTIM a quantum wave vector, |naÊC>, initiated by the cortical stimulus at somatosensory cortex SI without any time marker signal travels forward in time. As time continues a train of pulses signal is elicited leading to neuronal adequacy at t=D (taken to be .5 sec). This in turn elicits a phantom state vector, |pS>, that travels forward in time arriving at t=D+ (È 515 msec) at the area of the skin associated with the particular site on the somatosensory cortex. Next the time reversed echo state vector, <pS|, goes back in time to t=D where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <naÊC|, that returns to the onset site of the original cortical stimulus. The actual event for subjective conscious awareness does not occur at a precise time but accordingly somewhere in the interval D t between time t=D and t=D+.<br />
<br />
The above skin stimulus timing is to be contrasted with a cortical stimulus directly applied at t=0 at SI where no time marker signal arises. In Figure 7 we see using the same pseudo-sequence how a phantom skin stimulus is not felt until neuronal adequacy is achieved sometime after t=D (taken to be .5 sec). Accordingly a quantum wave vector, |naÊC>, initiated at SI without any time marker signal travels forward in time. As time continues a train of pulses signal is elicited leading to neuronal adequacy at t=D. This in turn elicits a state vector, |pS>, associated with a phantom sensation that travels forward in time arriving at t=D+ at the area of the skin associated with the particular site on the somatosensory cortex. Next the time reversed echo state vector, <pS|, goes back in time to t=D where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <naÊC|, that returns to the onset site of the original cortical stimulus and completes the circuit . Thus the apparent event for conscious awareness does not occur at a precise time but accordingly somewhere in the interval D t between time t=D and t=D+.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Figure 8. Here two stimuli are applied corresponding to Figure 3 (b). At t=0 a skin stimulus is applied (SS) leading to a time marker signal being elicited on the somatosensory cortex (S SI) at t=0+. According to the TI a quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to the somatosensory cortex arrival area SI where it elicits a time marker signal. As time continues the state vector, |naÊS>, travel forward in time. However at t=.5D a cortical stimulus is applied near the somatosensory cortical region (C SI) associated with SS. Neuronal adequacy at SI is not achieved and no awareness of the skin stimulus occurs . Instead a quantum wave vector, |naÊC>, initiated by the cortical stimulus site SI without any time marker signal travels forward in time. As time continues a train of pulses signal is elicited leading to neuronal adequacy at t=1.5D (around .75 sec). This in turn elicits a phantom state vector, |pS>, that travels forward in time arriving at t=1.5D+ at the area of the skin associated with the particular site SI. Next the time reversed echo state vector, <pS|, goes back in time to t=1.5D where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <naÊC|, that returns to the onset site of the original cortical stimulus at t=.5D completing the blocking cycle. Consequently there is no echo signal, <naÊS|, returning to SI and no echo signal, <S|, returning to the skin. Hence there is no awareness of actual skin stimulus although a phantom skin sensation produced by the cortical train is felt later. The phantom event for conscious awareness does not occur at a precise time but accordingly somewhere in the interval D t between time t=1.5D and t=1.5D+.<br />
<br />
In contrast to the skin stimulus the theory posits that the cortical stimulus will be sensed as a result of a phantom projected "image" associated with the cortical area stimulated and that this projection will occur after, not before, the achievement of neuronal adequacy. The key here is the absence of a time marker reference. Without it the location of the event in time and space will correspond to the time of achievement of neuronal adequacy.<br />
Here we already see how the use of the TTOTIM successfully explain the difference between a phantom sensation elicited by the cortical stimulus occurring around t=D and the real sensation elicited by the skin stimulus occurring around t=0. The key difference lies in realizing the impetus for the sensation is quite different in each case in that one occurs at the skin and the other at cortex. The skin stimulus elicits a time marker signal and the cortical stimulus doesnÕt. Instead it elicits a forward through time phantom signal at the skin site. In this case the setup interval [CÊSI¨ NAÊC] takes place before the projection interval [NAÊC¨ PS].<br />
In Figure 8 we look at how these two stimuli compare when both are used. We see again a pseudo-sequence with two signals applied corresponding to Figure 3 (b). At t=0 a skin stimulus (SS)is applied. A quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to the somatosensory cortex arrival area SI eliciting a time marker signal on the somatosensory cortex (SI) at t=0+. As time continues the state vector, |naÊS>, moves forward in time. However at t=.5D a cortical stimulus is applied interrupting and interfering with the state vector, |naÊS>. The caboose is not elicited at the somatosensory cortical region associated with SS. Neuronal adequacy for SS at SI is not achieved. Instead a quantum wave vector, |naÊC>, initiated at the cortical stimulus site SI without any time marker signal travels forward in time. As time continues a train of pulses signal is elicited leading to neuronal adequacy at t=1.5D (around .75 sec). This in turn elicits a state vector, |pS>, that travels forward in time arriving at t=1.5D+ at the area of the skin associated with the particular site SI. Next the time reversed echo state vector, <pS|, goes back in time to t=1.5D where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <naÊC|, that returns to the onset site of the original cortical stimulus at t=.5D completing the blocking cycle. Consequently there is no echo state vector, <naÊS|, returning to SI and no echo wave vector, <S|, returning to the skin. Hence there is no awareness of the actual skin stimulus although a phantom skin sensation produced by the cortical train is felt later if the wave train duration is sufficient as indicated in the figure. The phantom event for conscious awareness does not occur at a precise time but subjectively accordingly somewhere in the interval D t between time t=1.5D and t=1.5D+.<br />
Here the normal setup [SÊSI¨ NAÊS] has been disrupted by the introduction of the later two-valued setup. Consequently there is no projection of the SS experience, the projection [SSÂ SÊSI] does not arise. However, as can be seen, the projection [NAÊC¨ PS] occurs with [CÊSI¨ NAÊC] as its cause.<br />
One would think from this that the paradox has been resolved. However a question arises when we compare these stimuli with direct stimuli to the thalamus or medial lemniscus just below the thalamus. Signals applied there, unlike cortical stimuli, do elicit time marker signals at SI. Thus one would expect according to LibetÕs hypothesis, a similar antedating for the awareness of such signals when compared with cortical signals. Although this has been confirmed in a number of studies[27] there is a difference in the timings predicted by the TTOTIM.<br />
In Figure 9 we see, using the TI pseudo-sequence, what transpires when a thalamus (medial lemniscus) stimulus is applied at t=0. Here a time marker signal is elicited at SI at t=0+ (È 1 msec) and a phantom skin stimulus is felt slightly later between, t=0+ and t=0++ (around 15 msec later).<br />
Accordingly this signal should be felt shortly after the time marker signal. However, since all of LibetÕs experiments were done with comparisons of the relative timings between two signals (e.g., L&C, L&SS, C&SS) and in no case ever was the timing of a single signal determined, the question remains unanswered. If a brain signal was applied either to C or L for a period less than D, neuronal adequacy was not achieved and certainly no awareness took place. When the signal was applied for D or longer awareness did take place but when it occurred was always determined in comparison with another signal (either another brain signal or a peripheral stimulus) and then the relative timings experienced were as indicated by LibetÕs hypothesis. According to my model L signals are experienced near the time of onset and not significantly later provided the L signal train duration is sufficient to achieve adequacy. Paradoxically, but in accord with the TTOTIM, if the train duration is too short adequacy is not achieved at t=D and no signal is experienced in the earlier interval between t=0+ and t=0++.<br />
<br />
<br />
According to the TTOTIM a quantum wave vector, |L>, travels forward in time to the somatosensory cortex arrival area SI where it elicits a time marker signal at t=0+. From here two signals are sent out: the state vector, |naÊL>, representing the cortical wave train signal leading to neuronal adequacy at t=D and a forward-through-time phantom offer wave, |PL>, that arrives at t=0++ (slightly after the L signal reaches SI) touching the skin site associated with the SI site where neuronal adequacy was achieved. The time reversed echo state vectors, <naÊL| and <PL|, then go back in time to SI which initiates the time reversed echo, <L|, to return to L at t=0 completing the whole cycle. The phantom event for conscious awareness does not occur at a precise time but subjectively accordingly somewhere in the interval D t between time t=0+ and t=0++ similar to what occurs with a skin stimulus, but, and this is essential for the theory, slightly later. Here the setup [LÊSI¨ NAÊL] causes the earlier projection [LÊSI¨ PL] due to the presence of the time marker. There is no spacetime projection associated with the |L> wave vector since this vector originates in the thalamus.<br />
Thus both S and L signals elicit time markers signals at SI while C signals donÕt. Libet explains that all signals regardless of where the onset site exists require adequacyÑa time delay to become conscious. My theory explains the time order of the awareness of passive stimuli events and predicts that phantom or projected experiences whose origins are brain-based will appear later than their associated time marker events (if they occur) while peripheral stimuli will become conscious earlier than their time markers. It answers the question, "How are we to explain the fact that even though L elicits a time marker signal, there is no awareness of this signal unless neuronal adequacy is achieved?" The answer becomes apparent when we realize that spacetime projection and therefore sensation does not occur unless neuronal adequacy does and then it occurs in reference to the time marker.<br />
<br />
<br />
8. The Thalamus And Spacetime Projection<br />
<br />
LibetÕs experiments suggest that sensory inputs in passing through the thalamus or medial lemniscus, elicit time marker signals. This may indicate that the thalamus is responsible for the origination of the time marker signal and that the specific spacetime projection mechanism arises there. In Figure 10, in comparison with Figure 6, we have added a relay through the thalamus showing how a skin stimulus passes through the thalamus in order to elicit a time marker at SI. At t=0 a skin stimulus is applied (SS). A quantum wave vector, |S>, travels forward in time to the thalamus where a thalamus signal is initiated at t=0+ (15 msec) Next the quantum wave vector, |L>, elicits a time marker signal occurring at t=0++ in the somatosensory cortex arrival area SI. As time continues the state vector, |naÊS/L>, representing the wave train signal involving both the thalamus and SS is elicited leading to neuronal adequacy at SI which occurs after the delay time D (taken to be .5 sec). Next the time reversed echo state vector, <naÊS/L|, goes back in time to t=0++ where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <L|, that returns to the thalamus initiating the backwards-through-time state vector <S| that returns to the site of the skin stimulus completing the whole cycle. The actual event for conscious awareness occurs in the interval D t between time t=0 and t=0+.<br />
A Comparison of Figure 9 and Figure 10 shows that direct thalamic stimuli leading to awareness as phantom skin experiences occur in the interval between t=0+and t=0++ after the explicit time marker signal arrives (t=0+) at SI while skin stimuli leading to awareness as real skin experiences are experienced between t=0 and t=0+ before t=0+.<br />
In each figure the setup occurs between the appearance of the time marker signal and the achievement of neuronal adequacy. However the projections are different. One setup (Fig. 9) [LÊSI¨ NAÊL] projects the imagined or phantom conscious experience [LÊSI¨ PL] forward-through-time and the other setup (Fig. 10) [S/LÊSI¨ NAÊS/L] projects the real conscious experience backward-through-time in two steps [LÂ S/LÊSI] and [SÂ L].<br />
The key factor is the eliciting of the time marker signal. This fact suggest a reason based on evolution theory for the projection mechanism itself. We discuss this next.<br />
<br />
9. The Spacetime Projection Mechanism: Evolution And Experimental Data<br />
<br />
One could speculate about the reasons nature would allow such a seemingly bizarre projection mechanism and its early appearance in the lower mid-brain. The answer seems to be connected with perception, evolution, and survivalÑthe ability to orientate within space and time. All peripheral sensory inputs to the brain (with some slight alteration in the case of smell) must pass through the thalamus before they reach the cortex where any mechanism leading to interpretation or perception can occur. Evolutionary studies of the brain itself indicate the cortex was a later development and that the order of the brainÕs evolution lies within its structure. Hence the thalamus was a primordial development, probably part of the early hominoid brain and it would follow that the ability to project spatial and temporal experience was vital for the further evolution of the species.<br />
The main function of the thalamus appears to be the provision of time marker signals which act as reference markers enabling a being to orientate in space and timeÑto determine just where and when a particular stimulus occurs. Relativity has taught us that a single event cannot be referred; only a pair of events can possess referralsÑone to the other. Hence any absolute time or location of an event would not have any meaning. While this is certainly true in physics it may be a surprise that a similar referral structure involving pairs of events occurs in the conscious operation of the brain. Thus before there is any awareness there must be referring pairs of events, leading to the projection of a temporal/spatial interval. This has surprising consequences. (See Table 1.)<br />
The theory thus predicts that real stimuli are experienced as a result of backwards-through-time projections from the event of the achievement of neuronal adequacy to the occurrence of a time marker signal (first event pair, SSIÂ NAÊS) and an earlier backwards through time projection to the actual skin site (second event pair, SSÂ SSI). On the other hand phantom stimuli are experienced as a result of forward through time projection either [CÊSI¨ NAÊC] or [LÊSI¨ PL] to the stimulus site from the cortex. Since cortical stimuli do not elicit time markers the time difference between a real and a cortically induced phantom stimulus will be easy to detect and LibetÕs experiment certainly show this.<br />
But what about comparing skin and thalamic stimuli? It should be possible to measure this time difference by arranging for simultaneous time marker signals from stimuli to the skin and thalamus. The predicted temporal shift in conscious perception could be as much as 20 msec but is more likely to be in the neighborhood of 10 msec with the thalamic stimulus being perceived slightly later than the skin. Although this is very close to call the experimental results obtained by Libet appear to confirm this result.<br />
Subjective timing orders of experiences for skin and thalamus stimuli (taken from p. 210, Table 2a of Libet et al)[28] are shown in Table 1. Stimuli were applied to the sub-cortical thalamus or medial lemniscus and to the skin. Three sets of data were taken. Tests were arranged for the stimuli to be delivered simultaneously, with the skin stimulated after the thalamus (negative lag time), and finally with the skin being stimulated earlier than the thalamus. Lag times ranged between 250 msec to zero. A positive lag time indicates the skin stimulus was applied first. A negative lag time indicates the thalamus signal was applied first.<br />
However to compare the results of the experiments with my theory we need to be concerned with when the time marker signals elicited by each stimulus arrives at the somatosensory cortex. Thus I have added a corrected lag time (CLT) column to indicate the separation in time between the time markers arriving at SI from each stimulus. Taking into account the longer time it takes for a skin stimulus to reach SI (È 15 msec) as compared to a thalamic stimulus, all "true" lag times should be as indicated in this column, i.e., conservatively corrected by Ð15 msec from the previous column.[29]<br />
Ê<br />
TEST<br />
Subject[30]<br />
Lag time<br />
Corrected lag time<br />
No. of <br />
trials<br />
Skin<br />
first<br />
Tie<br />
Thalamus<br />
first<br />
<br />
Ê1) D(H)<br />
-250<br />
-265<br />
6<br />
0<br />
0<br />
6<br />
<br />
Ê2) B(H)<br />
-200<br />
-215<br />
10<br />
0<br />
0<br />
10<br />
<br />
Ê3) C(G)<br />
-200<br />
-215<br />
10<br />
0<br />
4<br />
6<br />
<br />
Ê4) B(G)<br />
-200<br />
-215<br />
8<br />
0<br />
2<br />
6<br />
<br />
Ê5) D(H)<br />
-150<br />
-165<br />
4<br />
1<br />
0<br />
3<br />
<br />
Ê6) B(H)<br />
-100<br />
-115<br />
10<br />
1<br />
6<br />
3<br />
<br />
Ê7) B(G)<br />
-100<br />
-115<br />
8<br />
0<br />
8<br />
0<br />
<br />
Ê8) C(G)<br />
-100<br />
-115<br />
10<br />
0<br />
8<br />
2<br />
<br />
Ê9) B(H)<br />
0<br />
-15<br />
10<br />
1<br />
9<br />
0<br />
<br />
Ê10) D(H)<br />
0<br />
-15<br />
4<br />
0<br />
4<br />
0<br />
<br />
Ê11) B(G)<br />
0<br />
-15<br />
9<br />
4<br />
2<br />
3<br />
<br />
Ê12) C(G)<br />
0<br />
-15<br />
10<br />
2<br />
6<br />
2<br />
<br />
Ê13) B(H)<br />
100<br />
85<br />
10<br />
1<br />
8<br />
1<br />
<br />
Ê14) B(G)<br />
100<br />
85<br />
7<br />
4<br />
2<br />
1<br />
<br />
Ê15) C(G)<br />
100<br />
85<br />
10<br />
6<br />
3<br />
1<br />
<br />
Ê16) D(H)<br />
150<br />
135<br />
5<br />
3<br />
2<br />
0<br />
<br />
Ê17) B(H)<br />
200<br />
185<br />
10<br />
10<br />
0<br />
0<br />
<br />
Ê18) B(G)<br />
200<br />
185<br />
10<br />
8<br />
1<br />
1<br />
<br />
Ê19) C(G)<br />
200<br />
185<br />
10<br />
8<br />
1<br />
1<br />
<br />
Ê20) D(H)<br />
250<br />
235<br />
5<br />
5<br />
0<br />
0<br />
<br />
<br />
Table 1. Subjective timing orders, indicated in msec, of experiences for skin and thalamus stimuli (taken from p. 210, Table 2a of Libet et al)[31]. A positive lag time indicates the skin stimulus was applied first. A negative lag time indicates the thalamus signal was applied first. I have added a corrected lag time (CLT) column to indicate the separation in time between the time markers arriving at SI from each stimulus. Taking into account the longer time it takes for a skin stimulus to reach SI as compared to a thalamic stimulus, all "true" lag times should be as indicated in this column corrected by È -15 msec from the previous column. The theory predicts that skin stimuli will be perceived slightly before the arrival of their time marker signals while thalamic stimuli will be perceived slightly later than their time marker signals. This would tend to move the thalamus perception slightly forward in time (È 15 msec) and the skin perception slightly backward (È -15 msec) of their respective time markers. Consequently in the first 12 tests we should find the stimuli appearing closer in time with more indications of ties while in the last 8 tests they should appear farther apart in time with fewer indications of ties. In 66 trials comprising tests 1) through 8) when the corrected lag was less than -115 msec we see 28 ties and 2 skin first measurements. In 33 trials comprising tests 9) through 12) when the thalamic time marker signal arrives 15 msec before the skin time marker there are 21 ties and 7 skin first observations. In 27 trials comprising tests, 13) through 15), when the skin time marker signal arrives 85 msec ahead of the thalamic time marker we see 11 trials indicating the signals to be simultaneous and 3 trials indicating the thalamus stimulus was first. In the remaining 40 trials comprising tests 16) through 20) when the corrected lag time was greater than 135 msec (the skin stimulus was applied first) we find only 6 ties and 2 thalamus first indications.<br />
<br />
Since the theory predicts that skin stimuli will be perceived slightly before the arrival of their time marker signals while thalamic stimuli will be perceived slightly later than their time marker signals, this would tend to move the thalamus perception slightly forward in time (È 15 msec) and the skin perception slightly backward (È -15 msec) of their respective time markers. Consequently, if the theory is correct, in the first 12 tests we will find the stimuli appearing closer in time with more ties indicated while in the last 8 tests they will appear farther apart in time with less ties indicated.<br />
If, on the other hand, the theory is incorrect and there is no time difference associated with the spacetime projections as predicted by the theory the sets of data should correspond with equal percentages in corresponding brackets, i.e., <br />
<br />
<br />
a. the specific percentages of ties and skin firsts in 1) through 8) (CLT £ Ð115) should be the same or slightly greater than the specific percentage of ties and thalamus first in 16) through 20) (CLT3 135).<br />
b. the overall percentages of ties and skin firsts in 1) through 12) (CLT£ -15 msec) should be the same or slightly greater than the overall percentage of ties and thalamus first in 13) through 20) (CLT3 85)<br />
<br />
The experimental results are:<br />
<br />
<br />
a. skin first measurements (45%). In the 40 trials comprising tests 16) through 20) when CLT3 135 msec (the skin stimulus was applied first) we find only 6 ties and 2 thalamus first indications (20%) in agreement with the theorized projections and contrary to a) above. We point out that the agreement here could partially be due to the unsymmetrical time distribution (-115 vs. +135 msec). This is perhaps too close to call as favorable to the theory. However the CLT£ Ð115 data shows 2.25 vs.1 ratio to the CLT3 135 data. This, I believe is too large a difference to be accounted for by the failure of the theory and the slight change in the time symmetry.<br />
b. In tests 1) through 12) (where the thalamus time marker arrives first) 59% (58 out of 99) show ties or skin firsts while in tests 13) through 20) (where the skin time marker arrives first) 33% (22 out of 67) show ties or thalamus first in agreement with the theorized projections contrary to b) above.<br />
<br />
One might argue that we have weighted our swings in the above analysis and that we should compare the original time lags data not the corrected data. This would tend to dismiss tests 9) through 12) since they are all simultaneous and only compare tests 1) through 8) with tests 13) through 20). In this case the theory predicts more trials showing ties or skin first in tests 1) through 8) and less trials showing ties or thalamus first in tests 13) through 20) than would be expected if the theorized projections did not occur (equal percentages). Nevertheless, comparing the data we find 45% of tests 1) through 8) showing ties or skin first as compared to 33% showing ties or thalamus first in tests 13) through 20) in tentative agreement with the theorized projections.<br />
On the other hand, an increase of the CLT to 25 msec which could imply a neural conduction velocity of 200 ft/sec and approximately 18 synapses between skin and thalamus (I donÕt think this unreasonable) would render the data of a) above completely symmetrical indicating more tenability to the theory (see reference note 29.)<br />
<br />
<br />
10. Causality Violation in Sensory and Cortical Stimuli Experiences<br />
<br />
In Figure 11 we see a TTOTIM explanation of LibetÕs hypothesis/paradox temporal reversal relationship between the timings in cortical and skin stimuli.<br />
In comparison with Figures 2(e) and 3(c) we see, what transpires when two stimuli are applied with a delay of fD (0£ f£ 1),between them. At t=0 a cortical stimulus is applied (C SI). C leads to a quantum wave vector, |naÊC>, initiated at the cortical stimulus site SI travelling forward in time. As time continues a train of pulses signal is elicited leading to neuronal adequacy at t=D. This in turn elicits a phantom state vector, |pS>, that travels forward in time arriving at t=D+ at the area of the skin associated with the particular site SI. Next the time reversed echo state vector, <pS|, goes back in time to t=D where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <naÊC|, that returns to the onset site of the original cortical stimulus at t=0 completing the cortical cycle. At t=fD a skin stimulus is applied (SS). This leads to a quantum wave vector, |S>, travelling forward in time to time to t=fD+ at the somatosensory cortex arrival area SI where it initiates a time marker signal. As time continues the state vector, |naÊS>, propagates forward in time leading to neuronal adequacy at SI which occurs after the delay time (1+f)D. Next the time-reversed echo state vector, <naÊS|, goes back in time to t=fD+ where it initiates the backwards-through-time state vector, <S|, that returns to the site of the skin stimulus completing the cycle. Subjectively the phantom awareness of the cortical signal appears to occur in the interval D tc between t=D and t=D+ while the event for conscious awareness of the skin stimulus occurs somewhere in the earlier interval, D ts, between t=fD and t=fD+.<br />
<br />
<br />
In this case since the cortical stimulus does not elicit a time marker signal, the corresponding phantom skin projection occurs well after the skin stimulus. It is only when the fraction f=1, corresponding to the skin stimulus being applied D later are the stimuli sensed to be simultaneous.<br />
<br />
<br />
11. Conclusion<br />
<br />
We have explored a quantum physical theory of the paradox of the relationship of awareness and associated physical events, including application of stimuli and the achievement of neuronal adequacy, that elicit it. This paradox was first pointed out by Libet in a series of experiments involving human subjects where a comparison of timings associated with direct cortical and sub-cortical stimulation along with peripheral stimulation was possible. I have shown that a reasonable argument exists showing that quantum physics pertains to the operation of the brain and nervous system. Particularly that the operation of synaptic vesicle emission and gating function within the neural wall and the spread in its wave packet are governed by the uncertainty principle. I have shown that the phenomenon of "wave function collapse" or the change in the probability of a process associated with the action of a measurement affects neural operation and leads to an uncertainty in timing of conscious events. . I conclude that the action of conscious awareness occurs as a result of this collapse mechanism.<br />
Next we examined a model of the supposed collapse based on CramerÕs TI and the TTO of Aharonov et al. The model explains the relationship between physicalÑexteriorÑevents, mental events, and their projection into spacetime. We have discovered both stimulation and neuronal adequacy (two events) are needed for the apparent conscious (one event) experience. The apparent time and location of a physical sensation are projected into time and space: the time and the location of the experience are referred to the associated peripheral sensation whether phantom or real.<br />
The question, "Is there really an Ôactual timeÕ at which a conscious experience takes place?", I have answered negatively indicating, however, that while a precise timing for such event does not occur, awareness of peripheral, passive, sensory input must take place before the cortex has achieved neuronal adequacy while awareness of phantom or "fill-in" experience produced by cortical stimuli must take place after. Sub-cortical stimuli, applied to the thalamus or to the medial lemniscus, lie on the borderline between peripheral and direct cortical stimuli. Stimuli applied here result in the generation of time marker signals which play a role as referents for both temporal and spatial projectionÑthe specific projection system. Passive, peripheral, sensory inputs are perceived slightly before a time marker arrives at the somatosensory cortex (SI) and direct thalamic or lemniscal stimuli are perceived slightly after. We have come to this conclusion using the TTOTIM which indicates both initial and final events are necessary to determine what occurs in the time interval between them.<br />
<br />
One of the new and exciting predictions of this theory is the difference between the timings of phantom (thalamic) and real sensory stimuli. The theory predicts and experiments appear to confirm that phantom or projected images of sensations originating in the thalamus must become conscious after the arising of the temporal markers elicited at SI while "real" external sensory sensations must reach awareness before the time markers arise. Hence we will sense "real" things before we project our mental maps of these experiences onto them but will compare these sensations slightly later. If two time markers are made to simultaneously arise at t=0 one coming from L and the other from SS, the SS sensation will become conscious 15 msec before t=0 and the L sensation will become conscious about 15 msec after. This appears to be tentatively borne out by experiment (see Table 1). The results are close, to be sure, and it is natural and necessary that they be close, to be encouraging for the theory. Assuming that images, memories of sensory inputs, and real sensory data involve the thalamus and the specific projection system within (and consequently elicit time markers), it would follow that the overlap between what we sense "out there" and what we project "out there" as experience must occur in reasonably close proximity. This may be the reason for the early development of the specific projection (lemniscal) system. Clearly any long delay as between real sensory inputs and cortical projections (memories or sensory images) that do not elicit time markers could lead to extinction of the species.<br />
<br />
Finally I would like to add some thoughts regarding peripheral somatic stimuli, ParkinsonÕs disease, and some prospects for further experimental research regarding the TTOTIM. Libet has already indicated that when the body is subjected to synchronous stimuli, the subject responds without any indication of asynchrony or subjective jitter. Given that a variety of stimuli would produce a variety of intensities and pulse /train duration one would expect if there was no backward-through-time projection from the time when neuronal adequacy was achieved to experience a lot of jitter due to the various times when adequacy would be achieved. Since this does not occur it indicates support for the theory.<br />
<br />
It is now known that people suffering from ParkinsonÕs disease suffer from what appears to be asynchronous jitter. I suggest that for some reason a Parkinsonian subjectÕs thalamus in response to somatic stimuli has lost the ability to provide adequate time marker signals. Consequently synchronous stimuli result in asynchronous behavior or the familiar jitter observed. When electrical stimuli are delivered to the thalamus it is known that the subjectÕs jitter stops or is minimized considerably. I suggest the reason for this is the artificial supply of time markers provided by electrical stimulation. Experiments with Parkinsonian subjects may offer a new source of experimental information regarding the specific projection mechanism and the proposed projection timings indicated by the TTOTIM.<br />
</pre><br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Bourdieu_and_Phenomenology&diff=1846Bourdieu and Phenomenology2021-03-31T08:13:53Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Throop%20J.%20and%20Murphy%20K.%20-%20Bourdieu%20and%20Phenomenology.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Truth_about_Mars&diff=1845The Truth about Mars2021-03-31T08:12:14Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> THE TRUTH ABOUT MARS copyright 1956 by Dr. Ernest L. Norman E X C E R P T S F R O M T H..."</p>
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<div><pre><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
THE TRUTH ABOUT MARS<br />
<br />
copyright 1956<br />
<br />
by Dr. Ernest L. Norman<br />
<br />
E X C E R P T S F R O M T H E B O O K<br />
<br />
<br />
___________________<br />
INTRODUCTION<br />
<br />
<br />
For centuries before spacecraft transformed our under- standing of the solar system, almost all the planets were believed, with varying degrees of conviction, to be inhabited. This belief conformed to the Copernican world view, in which Earth is not unique among the planets. When the Space Age opened in 1957, the evidence for indigenous life was strongest for Mars - almost conclusive, on the face of it - and from the beginning the search for life on Mars became a major goal of the United States' Space Program. The result was the historic series of spacecraft that began with MARINER 4, in 1965, and ended with VIKINGS 1 & 2, in 1976.<br />
The dawning of the Space Age is a material event, occurring in the latter part of the 20th Century, and as the description that follows is a result of a developed mental means of communication, it strengthens the understanding of this means of communication as being the real and more apparent factor in the transference of energy from point to point.<br />
Dr. Ernest L. Norman is the progenitor and a mental giant, writing from the higher statement of a full consciousness of the reality of the mind as a cosmic centrifuge. This is the first book written by him in 1955, inaugurating the Unarius Academy of Science.<br />
In this small but important book, a first, Dr. Norman extends the present knowledge of life on our close companion planet Mars, which has all of the basic biological and geological conditions for the evolutionary development of life forms, including Homo sapiens. He addresses mankind, not with the hardware of rocketry, space probes and other sophisticated, high-energy technology, but introduces the individual to not only the possibility or probability of life on other planets, but in actuality, through the higher factors of the mind, immediately taking the reader to planet Mars to reveal the enigma of this planet. This enigma has been tantalizing the minds of humankind for hundreds of years, that has occasioned a series of narrations over the years, titillating the imagination of mankind throughout civilizations up until the present time.<br />
The importance of this booklet is that the mind, man's enigma, can reveal the power existent, to apply in all ways necessary for the progressive development of any individual so desirous of expanding the central intelligence of himself in his relationship to the apparency and to the vitality of society on this and other earth planets.<br />
For this reason, Dr. Norman, as an Elder Brother, pointed the way for aspiring mankind to overcome the limitations of his narrow confinement in the material sectors of life, as is the present pioneering efforts of our scientific community through the auspices of the United States National Aeronautics & Space Administration.<br />
The expository nature of Dr. Norman's description of the reality of human life, living underground, is a vital teaching, not only of the magnanimous nature of man in overcoming the limitations of his material environment, but also of the reality of the interplanetary life of Homo sapiens!<br />
The data now being collated by the many thousands of computer- enhanced images from the ZINC probes are validating the pre-history of Mars as an integrated and formed world of an ancient civilization. However, it will not be until Earth humans land on Mars that the evidence of Martian society will be known and accepted. The computer- enhanced image revealing a `face on Mars', is capturing the interest of many people, including those in the scientific sector; a prelude to the buildup of further hard data, revealing the evidence of the ruins of ancient, advanced civilizations in the Cydonia region of Mars.<br />
All of the precluding is the material evidence necessary for those who do not have second sight or who have not developed the mechanics of their third eye, with the reality of their sixth, seventh and higher senses. But this should not deter anyone, and in fact, is the objective of this writing, to wake up the reader to his unlimited capacity in that he too, can communicate through his sixth and higher senses. This so-called `telepathy' a principle of frequency and harmonics, will reveal to him the evidence of the evolutionary design of life on companion earth planets.<br />
The exploration of Mars is in this sense, the first phase of reawakening mankind to the reality of the expanding universe, right in his own backyard, in his own solar system. The reality is that earth planets are abundant in our Milky Way Galaxy. The reality is that man has communicated via spacecraft and is continuing to communicate with the denizens of this planet through telecommunication or mental means, -the normal methods of communication of advanced Space Brothers.<br />
With all of this, of course, is the other reality! Present Earth history has not revealed the true story of man's past, and the reasons why technology has outdistanced the knowledge of man's humanity to his fellowman and of his creative spirituality.<br />
You will therefore read in this booklet that the Martian people are wiser in their knowledge of their inherent human nature and practice this cosmic principle in their society. War is not a factor to disrupt their peaceful existence, and science and technology functions equally balanced with man's spiritual coefficient.<br />
The picture that emerges is of earthman beginning to realize that he has the capacity to leave his nest, to move out into the stars and regain his lost heritage, the birthright which has always been the objective and purpose for his being. Essentially, life's purpose is to advance one's knowledge of the principle of evolution, to integrate these evolutionary principles, using both the material technology and the spiritual technology, thus advancing both man and society on an upward and intelligent, progressive evolution.<br />
Dr. Ernest L. Norman is the Cofounder of the Unarius Educational Foundation. From 1954 to 1971, with his wife, Ruth Norman, he pioneered the teaching of Interdimensional Physics, explaining the evolutionary nature of atoms and man, planets and solar systems, galaxies and universes. He authored the first twenty texts of the curriculum of the Unarius Academy of Science - teachings which explain the unified field theory - quantum mechanics, and the present theory of Superstrings!<br />
Dr. Norman as one who has attained Cosmic Consciousness, is an example of his teachings. Today, through the efforts of Ruth Norman (Uriel) the present Director of the Unarius Academy of Science, the curriculum has expanded to over 100 texts, adding immense knowledge to the reality of Consciousness and of its continuity after the completion of the cycle of physical life (or death).<br />
The account of Dr. Norman's psychic trip to Mars proves the science of fourth dimensional physics - the principle of mental attunement. It is hoped that the reader will continue in his desire to advance himself as well, to attain those abilities that lie within but needs to be called to his attention and developed.<br />
In 1977, Ruth Norman tuned in psychically to the underground cities on planet Mars, in thirty-three separate visions. This book titled THE UNDERGROUND CITIES OF MARS is a continuation and explanation of the truth about Mars, as it includes the realizations and flashbacks presented in the testimonials of persons who remembered their own experiences when they contacted the Martian civilization.<br />
This work is an exciting and telling account of the interplanetary contact of Earth and Mars, knowledge which will validate the reality of interplanetary travel and of the extraterrestrial nature of earth civilizations. El Cajon, California<br />
March 1,1988<br />
<br />
<br />
A Word About the Author<br />
Just fifty years ago in a small town in northern Utah, Ernest L. Norman made his debut into this planet Earth. It was apparent right from the first that he was an unusual child. His mother nearly died in the process of his introduction, because of the abnormally large head. It is said he had the body of an eight pound child, but weighed over twelve pounds!<br />
Before he was hardly two, he was experimenting with writing and long before he went to school for the first time, he was quite familiar with the English language; so much so, he was reading his father's Library. His father, incidentally, was a very learned man, of royal Norwegian descent and had degrees in law, psychology, physiology and phrenology.<br />
The author was the fifth of eight boys and girls, all strong lads and lassies and it was quite natural for them to resent having a brother who was so studious.<br />
At the tender age of five he constructed his first microscope using the eyepiece section from his father's telescope, and by inserting it in a wooden frame made from a cigar box and a small piece of mirror, he was able to count the hairs on earthworms. The Truth About Mars<br />
At the age of six he performed an unusual and prodigious feat. Using his knowledge of Archimedean laws of fulcrums, levers and rollers, he moved an 8 x 12 foot coal shed containing one-half a ton of coal over a distance of approximately 200 feet, through an apple orchard and over soft ground to a new and more convenient location. This feat took him about three weeks to accomplish and was one which would have taxed the strength and endurance of a strong man. This accomplishment was carefully noted day by day, by his father who would boastingly report the progress made to the townspeople.<br />
It was also at this early period of life, that he constructed a rabbit hutch which was vastly superior in design and workmanship to one constructed by an adult neighbor more than six times his age. This he did, using old rusted out, discarded tools.<br />
Another time, at the age of seven, he bested his father in an argument i.e., that all energy was electronic. At present he is completely vindicated inasmuch as science today is resolving into this conclusion.<br />
During his early teens-age years in junior and senior high school, he established several new "high water" marks in biology, genetics, science, etc., and won several noteworthy citations as well as attracting some interest from his teachers.<br />
It is estimated that at the age of fourteen, he had a vocabulary of about sixty thousand words! It was easy to see then, that this boy, who in winter time read almost continuously or dreamed the summer away watching nature, had not wasted or played his time away as most lads are wont to do.<br />
At the age of seventeen, his family moved to California and temporarily, at least, formal school was finished. But he persisted, even taking night classes in various subjects. At the age of twenty- three, and just before the depression, he married and remained so for fourteen years.<br />
During this time, he became very active in radio and electronics. It was his wife who always said they had the best radios in the neighborhood and they were always hand constructed.<br />
After World War Two, he devoted himself to his lifetime dream, metaphysics, and became an ordained minister in an occult science church. From the very start, in this work, it became evident he possessed an outstanding clairvoyant development and, during the war years, demonstrated this talent not only in churches and lecture halls, but in almost any place opportunity presented itself and achieved no small measure of fame in this capacity.<br />
However, it is his ambition at this time and has been for many years, to fill in the gaps in our scientific and spiritual philosophies of the world, and to set up a new and integrated philosophy of life.<br />
With this most outstanding ability of clairvoyance, coupled with a tremendous grasp of scientific knowledge, he is very humble and unpretentious, refusing to attach the stigma of self to whatever comes through the channel of his mind and is ever aware of attunement with the Superconscious.<br />
On the forehead of the author is a large welt, in a perfect raised circle. This becomes activated at times when he is inspired or attuned, as though it is a necessary factor in making contact, mentally, with the intelligences of other dimensions or on other planets. Another strange phenomenon is the nail holes in the palms of his hands, which appeared physically during a psychic working out with his previous life in Jerusalem and the crucifixion and are most surely points of great interest in showing that he is indeed a most unusual soul, mentally and spiritually and has reached a very rare, if ever duplicated, state of consciousness through his countless thousands of lifetimes of endeavor in these fields.<br />
Many very miraculous healings have come through Dr. Norman. His conscious mind is able to contact the Superconscious which can tune into the past experiences and past lives of the individuals to actually locate and view the experience in a former life which is responsible for the present illness; thus being able to eliminate or neutralize the impinging vortex from the psychic body of the individual by mental and spiritual means. Many wonderful healings and permanent cures have thusly been achieved.<br />
The Spiritual Science of Unarius which is used is not one of happenstance or guesswork but his ability to tap, in a scientific way, the energies of the Infinite. Just so surely, those same powers and energies are ever present to keep us well, vital and at peace when we align ourselves into them.<br />
<br />
Ruth E. Norman<br />
<br />
<br />
______________<br />
PREFACE<br />
A few months ago the astronomical and astrophysical world was tremendously excited by the approaching conjunction of the earth with the planet. Mars. (This article being written in May, 1955, refers to the conjunction of Mars with the earth at the turn of the year 1954 to 1955). Many prominent astronomical authorities hoped to settle once and for all time, the old controversial issues about this planet; i.e., were there canals or were there not canals on Mars and was this planet inhabited by some form of man, So far as can be ascertained, the results of these investigations, after thousands of photographs of the planet and numerous controversies, was that some groups were even more firmly intrenched in their original ideas, while others became more confused than ever. In an over-all sense, it can be said that they arrived at no definite conclusion whatever nor will any new conclusions that may be arrived at have, by the same token, any more validity than the original concepts (see addenda).<br />
Therefore any new attempt at visualizing life or the canals on Mars resolves into the realm of clairvoyance and not by the making of bigger and more powerful telescopes. The two hundred inch telescope at Mt. Palomar has, in a sense, merely increased the size of the Universe for man rather than brought it closer to him. Now, just in case the term clairvoyant should arouse any antagonism or question in some persons, let us digress a moment to explain just what is meant by the word clairvoyance.<br />
Clairvoyance (or the development of the sixth sense) is only another word for extrasensory perception taking place within the consciousness of man rather than through the reactionary physical senses such as physical sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste. Practically everyone on this earth has had or will, at some time, be in a semi or momentarily clairvoyant state. Anyone having a so-called hunch or premonition is momentarily in such a state. At the great Duke University, Dr. Rhine, in his fifty years of research on parapsychology has definitely established the facts and truths of extrasensory perception. There are numerous societies, associations and organizations, national and international, whose many years of work have proven beyond a doubt that man does have, and can also develop, this extra sense or clairvoyance, sometimes called the sixth sense.<br />
Any doubting Thomas can, if he is open minded enough, find in a short time, an overwhelming mass of evidence to support this truth. In an advanced state of clairvoyance, an individual sees and lives in a state of consciousness which "tunes" him in, as it were, to past or future events, places and happenings, distance being no barrier. Such an awareness or consciousness is almost as real as the everyday objects around him. Any particular electrical or mechanical device, such as the television set will demonstrate to some extent the nature of this conception.<br />
A savage in the jungle would immediately be confounded were he presented with the appearance of some of our every day appliances. He would quite likely, in his failure to understand or conceive, throw up his hands and deny the whole thing. He would, in a sense, be like the farmer who saw the giraffe for the first time, exclaiming that ``there is no such animal!"<br />
It is, as it has always been, the great lack of ability to form new concepts which has always caused man to throw up his hands, and cry out loudly against the appearance of any new thought, or mechanical or electrical contrivance. This is also quite true of most of our modern day scientists, whether he is a man of medicine, of chemistry or of astronomy. Therefore it is up to individuals who have developed this extra sense or clairvoyance, to fill in the obvious gaps in our many branches of science as well as in some of the more firmly established spiritual concepts.<br />
In writing an article of this kind, no effort is being made to prove what I have found and believe is true. Truth is entirely independent of the individual. After my thirty five years of active research in the fields of electronics, physics, astrophysics, parapsychology and their allied and associated sciences, I have succeeded in correlating and establishing an integrated concept, which when combined with a natural and highly developed clairvoyance gives, to a practically perfect degree, a direct mental contact not only with person to person upon this earth, but in contacting individuals living on other planets. This is in a sense, what can be called conscious astral flight; inasmuch as I see the cities and the people and hear the individuals, as they now exist on other planets. No mechanical devices are used, nor is any particularly advanced degree of trance state entered into, maintaining conscious continuity and being able to quote at the time, just what is taking place both audibly and visibly, at all times.<br />
<br />
_____________________________<br />
<br />
CONTACT WITH PLANET MARS<br />
<br />
Since the dawn of time and the beginning of man's history on this planet, the starry skies have always been something of not only great and wondrous beauty, but also filled with mystery and awe. The histories of the ancient times contain numerous references to the sun, the moon and the many bright stars and planets. Man has worshipped these heavenly bodies as deities or gods. Quite often the very nature of the religious beliefs of the peoples were woven around these mystical heavenly orbs. Naturally there has been a great deal of conjecture as to life and the existence of man in some form on some of these bright specks of light. This `is especially true of the moon and of the planets of our solar system. Men like Copernicus, Galileo, Plato, etc., all speculated on this possibility.<br />
During the last twenty-five years or so, there has been a tremendous impetus given to astronomical interests; perhaps this is partly due to the approach of the conclusion of a great cycle and the actual beginning of the Aquarian age. There are numerous monthly publications which deal in a fictional way with interplanetary travel and life on other planets. There likewise are other articles and stories which have appeared from time to time dealing with flying saucers and space ships, etc., which claim to be true, and as a small lad I shared this common interest in the heavens. Often I would peer through my father's telescope (which was of very modest power) at the moon or other bright points of interest; winter nights would often be devoted to pouring over any book or article containing anything of astronomical nature.<br />
It was not, however, until the close of World War II and the sudden influx of flying saucer stories, that time and circumstances permitted resuming this fascinating subject. Along with metaphysical work which I did both in churches and independently, the planets, space travel, etc., all became an integrated part of this work.<br />
It was inevitable that sooner or later I should actually take a "flight" to some planet, not that this would be done in a rocket or some such machine; man has not progressed to such an advanced state of engineering as yet. So any such trips would be in a clairvoyant state. I am not the only one by far, who has had such experiences; the persons both known and unknown who have made such flights and contacts are too numerous to mention at this time. I might add that much of what is written in the following pages has since been corroborated by some of these persons, without my previously having read any articles so written by them.<br />
It has been my consistent habit to spend an hour or so of the late evening time in meditation. During these hours I have made innumerable contacts with those who have passed from this plane of existence. However no serious attempt at interplanetary contact was tried until the second month of the year of 1955. At that time I began to be increasingly aware that something like this was being attempted by the peoples of other planets. One evening, about the first part of May, of this year, while in a deep meditative state, I suddenly perceived a rather strange looking man standing before me. At first I thought him to be Chinese, as his dress arid general appearance was somewhat similar to that of a man of ancient China. After introducing himself as Nur El, however, he quickly explained he was from the planet Mars, and that if I so desired, I could go there with him, to his city (in astral flight) and that he would be my personal guide. He explained that his people were very desirous in view of all the controversy going on, to clear up some of the so-called mysteries of Mars. He further assured me that it was quite obvious that a complete understanding was not possible in one visitation; therefore as the first contact was made, it would be comparatively easy to establish other contacts, as was convenient and necessary. Since this first contact and trip was made, I have returned on several occasions; in fact, Nur El often stood beside me as I wrote, to further clear up, or refresh my memory regarding any details which were not entirely clear.<br />
Now I will contact my Martian guide and take an astral flight through space, and see just how it is that man lives on the red planet. Almost immediately a very distinguished looking man stands before me; he is Nur El, a man of high position and esteem from one of the Martian cities. He is dressed in a very brilliant red suit. The coat is long, almost to the knees, with loose fitting pantiloons. On his head is a red hat with a square shaped brim that is turned up on four sides.<br />
Our trip there is a matter of split seconds as no craft is used or needed. Arriving on the surface of Mars, we are at once aware of the extremely rugged terrain, rocky hills and sandy wastes, that stretches out endlessly around us. There are many peculiar whirling dust clouds all about. Nur El explains that the ionosphere is very thin which leaves the surface almost unprotected from the various beta, gamma and cosmic rays. This high concentration of rays ionizes the very rare and gaseous atmosphere and together with the thermal currents, creates terrific dust storms. There is also a very thinly divided dust layer on the ionosphere which helps create the reddish appearance of the planet. There are also a number of volcanos, three of which are of major size; one of these was just barely visible on the horizon trailing a thin wisp of smoke from its truncated cone. It was also explained that as Mars has only seven degrees axis inclination there is not much of a seasonal change. Water is very scarce on this arid planet; most of the precipitation falls at the poles. Vegetation is also scarce. There are a few varieties of prickly-cacti looking plants. Also near the polar ice caps, grows a very luxuriant green alga-like plant that follows the melting snow line. This spongy growth often attains a height (or depth) of forty to fifty feet. It appears and disappears with the season as it grows tremendously rapidly, and it also disintegrates very fast.<br />
There are also a number of species of lizards, reptiles and of some insects whose hard shells have enabled them to weather the extreme atmospheric conditions and among them are giant ants which walk semi-erect on the two hind feet. The guide tells me these are mutants which were accidently produced from a small ant in an atomic experiment ages ago. They are similar to humans in a very low state of intelligence and at one time it became necessary to make war on them, as they became so numerous and large. These strange ant creatures average two to four feet in height and live in rocky caves. But we did not tarry long on the surface I followed my guide to a rather strange looking rock. Then, taking a small whistle from his coat pocket, he blew one note and although I heard nothing, the rock immediately swung open disclosing a car-like elevator. We entered and, after the door closed, I had the familiar dropping sensation of our own modern elevators. The trip down took but a few seconds, and, upon stopping, I stepped forth into what was my first glimpse of a Martian city.<br />
I was immediately impressed by the soft white light that seemed to come from everywhere. We were standing near the entrance of a large tube. On Mars the cities are all underground and are connected together by huge oval metal tubes from three to five hundred feet in diameter. There are monorail cars as long as our pullman trains which glide silently and very swiftly from one city to another. The bottoms of these immense tubes are used for parks, growing foodstuffs and innumerable small manufacturing plants.<br />
Because of the great distances between the cities, these tubes have been built only partially submerged. There are emergency air locks and bulkheads at the ends where they connect to the domes; other safety and precautionary measures areused to protect the cities and tunnels in case of breakdowns or outside attack. It is these tubes which have confused the astronomers on the earth. Some believe them to be canals. There are also other theories. The shifting desert sands often cover or uncover them which leads to further confusion inasmuch as they seem to appeal' and disappear.<br />
Turning about and looking down into the city is an unforgettable experience. Like all cities on Mars, it is built on the floor of a huge metal dome. These domes are sometimes four or five miles in diameter, and up to three thousand feet high. They are constructed of huge curved trusses of a whitish metal, seemingly of a magnesium compound. These trusses are covered with a metal top and bottom and the space in between filled with a plastic foam similar to the construction of the houses. This also gives added protection from the various cosmic rays as well as sealing in the precious air supply. Underneath the roof is an inner shell or a second false shell which is composed of sheets of pale blue plastic. This is suspended from brackets from the dome at a distance of about six feet; in this space are the many thousands of fluorescent tubes which make up the lighting system and they reflect downward the soft radiant light which I first noticed. I was told this light is very similar to a modified sunlight, and is very healthful and stimulating to plant life, as well as to the people. As these domes are built in the bottom of excavations, the sands soon drift over them and cover them up, giving added protection from the strong surface rays.<br />
<br />
<br />
___________________________<br />
The Underground Cities<br />
of Mars<br />
<br />
The cities are laid out like a wheel. The center hub is a very large circular structure which houses the various municipal and civic governmental departments. Underground is a very large atomic power plant for supplying the cities' needs. The streets stretch away from the hub like spokes, and at regular intervals circular streets are intersected; this is similar to our national capital. The streets which radiate from the hub rise at a very gentle rate of inclination. The houses and other buildings are built on low elevations which rise like tiers. `Walking up one of these streets gives one the impression of walking on air, as the paving is of a springy plastic material in a very soft shade of green. Stopping to inspect some of the houses, I am nearly overwhelmed by their wondrous beauty, simplicity and charm. In every small, vacant space in the streets and grounds around the houses are growing plants. These are mostly fruits and vegetables. They are planted in metal troughs and other containers. The soil is a mixture of natural and artificial plant humus and moss. The houses and buildings are semi-prefabricated in a wide variety of plastic of pastel shades. The walls are formed of two sheets of thin plastic about two inches apart. After the walls are fastened together, a liquid foam like plastic material is injected or blown in between the walls. After this hardens, it gives the whole structure tremendous strength. This hardened plastic foam acts also as a good insulator.<br />
There is no problem of heat or cold in a Martian city, with an abundance of atomic power. The whole city is air conditioned, free from dust and fumes, and is maintained at a constant temperature of about 68 degrees. Huge electronic pumps suck in and filter the thin outside air and raise the pressure to about seven pounds per square inch. It also strengthens the overhead dome structure by pushing out uniformly at all points simultaneously.<br />
As the outside atmosphere is very rare and of a low oxygen content, the Martian cities are becoming less and less dependent on that source of air supply. Many thousands of years ago they learned how to obtain air from water by electrolysis. They also make a great effort to create great underground reservoirs near the ice caps to drain off and store any surplus surface water which also, along with the oxygen, has become increasingly rare through the centuries.<br />
At the present time, scientists on Mars are learning to make air and water synthetically out of other elements. They have also explored every possible existing subterranean river or lake and have added much to the dwindling water supply by some important discoveries. It is estimated that, with careful conservation, they will have enough water for several thousand years, during which time other means will have been arrived at for solving this problem. . . .<br />
All buildings are supplied with electric power from the central power plant. The power is radiated over ultra high frequency beams which crisscross the streets, and are relayed by smaller substations. On top of each building is a split ball-like antenna which intercepts these power beams, bringing power down onto a small secondary radiator which in turn radiates the power through the building, lighting the lights, operating the various motors, etc. These are, of course, all constructed very differently than the motors and electric lights on earth, which are large, clumsy and very inefficient by comparison.<br />
Window glass is a polarized material which transmits light one way, from outside in, which gives privacy without the problem of shade and drapes. A simple metal folding shutter is sometimes drawn across the window to shut out the light when sleeping, etc. Furniture in the home is very simple and is contoured to the body and is made of metal and plastic. The houses are not overly furnished as are so many of earth homes, yet there is sufficient for comfort in a simple fashion. Rugs are a plastic foam-like material which is springy and resilient with no dusty nap. Various colors are used and slightly raised designs which give variety and charm to the lovely over-all appearance. The kitchens would be a delight to the earth woman; all cooking is done in an oven which is built in a wall cabinet. The oven is operated on high frequencies which cook all foods in a matter of a very few minutes, or, in most cases only a few seconds. After dinner, the dish-washing is a very quick and simple process. The dishes are placed in a metal cabinet, a dial set, and after a few minutes all are clean and sparkling; no water is used. Instead, streams of electronic energy of some sort does the job. The dishes are made of a plastic like material which is repellent to soil.<br />
The bathroom is also quite different. The stool appears or disappears in the wall as needed. Disposal is efficiently taken care of by electrolysis. Very little water apparently is used. Bathing is done in a small booth where an atomized spray of pleasant smelling liquid is sprayed on the body and wiped off with a very absorbent towel. Here also, no water is used. There is also some kind of energy ray used which stimulates and leaves the body very refreshed. Teeth are cleaned with a sort of electronic brush which is a metal rod on a handle. Moving it around the teeth directs a flow of energy which cleans and stimulates the teeth and gums. I Very little of the normally expected house cleaning is done in a Martian home; all interior surfaces are dirt repellent and, as the air is normally very clean and inasmuch as there is no smoking, frying or similar soot producers, the homes are very clean and spotless.<br />
Mounting a flight of stairs to the roof, we emerge onto a typical Martian garden. The roofs of these homes are flat and planted with a wide variety of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Each home grows quite a lot of the normal supply of foodstuff it consumes. They take great pride in these roof gardens and frequently engage in friendly competition in contests between neighbors in an attempt to raise the most beautiful displays of horticulture. . . .<br />
Now I understood why the streets slanted up and the lack of stores and commercial buildings, for here stretched out before me was a huge shopping center, which in some odd way reminded me of one of our annual state fairs. Up and down and around were streets and aisles with shops and booths displaying the many articles of clothing and food familiar to the Martian way of life. There was however, noticeable differences: little or no advertising was used, the shop owner sat or stood quietly by or worked on various articles he (or she) sold. A quaint system of barter and exchange is generally prevalent although some form of script, currency similar to a department store charge-a-plate, is also used. Martians are inherently honest; stealing is almost unknown. Consequently there is no need to accumulate more than is needed, for they do not have the fear of insecurity. There is no price haggling over various transactions. Some sections have mechanical automat-like dispensers in which a keyed charge-a-plate is inserted and withdrawn after the article is discharged. Another curious feature of these market places are the escalator sidewalks; on several of the main thorofares were double tracks, one coming and one going, with a small bench-like seat to sit on. A person merely stepped on, sat down and was moved slowly up and down in front of the various stalls or shops. Everywhere I turned to look I saw happy, smiling faces with none of that taut, drawn look that is so prevalent in our cities. In between these market centers, much space is devoted to the cultivation of various crops, one of which is a grain very similar to millet. There is also a species of rice which grows with very little moisture. It seems that many of these plant crops have been evolved through a Luther Burbank- like process to a point where they require the absolute minimum of water.<br />
No heavy manufacturing is done in these cities, but there are several domes which are devoted to, and used almost exclusively for, this type of work. But time was slipping by, and reluctantly I followed my guide to another elevator and we ascended back to the main level.<br />
As we walked along one of the streets I could not help but feel overawed by the beauty of all the things around me: the lovely homes and roof gardens, the landscaped parkways growing lush with fruits and flowers, the peace and quiet which was everywhere. I looked curiously at some of those who were passing by, although I do not believe they could see me in my astral state; at least if they did so, they gave no indication that they were being rudely stared at, and I assumed their smiles and greetings were meant for Nur El. I did not see any indication of the use of any cosmetics on the women's faces. Their eyes were quite large and black with a distinct slant, the skin was wax-like and beautifully colored, lips red and well shaped, which in all left nothing to be desired in any external adornment.<br />
There are other things which were noticeable by their absence': there is no smoking, the use of tobacco being unheard of. Nur el chuckled when I asked about this, stating that such a practice was grown up thumb sucking and was a habit belonging only to those who were not completely weaned. The drinking of alcoholic beverages is also unknown. The people of Mars are smaller than those on earth, only averaging about four feet six inches in height. They are somewhat Mongolian in appearance. The texture of the skin is very fine and soft, while the hair is usually straight, black, and quite fine. The men do not need to shave for they have eradicated electronically, the growth of hair from their faces when still young. The Martians are a quiet peace-loving people. Their clothing is simple with long loose flowing lines, with nothing to bind them, in many brilliant colors including many shades we know not. All clothing is made of synthetic materials as no natural fibers are grown.<br />
<br />
<br />
______________________________<br />
THE MARTIAN - CHINESE LINK<br />
<br />
Martians are much older in soul-evolution than the earthians. They originally migrated in space craft to Mars from a dying planet more than a million years ago. They also came to this earth and started a colony but found it impractical to maintain. It was also explained by Nur El that this colony became our Chinese race through the evolution of time.<br />
The great space-ships in their intercourse with the planet Mars established a series of six colonies, stretching from the lower planes of China into the more northern reaches, around what is now known as Peking in the northern provinces of China. There was in existence at that time descendents of the Aryan race who lived as Mongols or Tartars, as they are called in your history books. These were mostly very fierce roving bands of nomads, who now roam the desert regions of the Gobi Desert. It is with these races of people that the original Martian settlers had so much trouble. The people from Mars had progressed to the point where they disliked intensely to kill their fellow being; and while they had weapons which could thoroughly and completely decimate these nomadic tribes, yet they refrained from doing so! They relied more upon the evolution of time, as would be of such circumstance that these tribes would absorb some of the wisdom and knowledge. However, this was not so; in the numerous raids which they made upon these settlements, they frequently captured both male and female prisoners; and as the females bore children to these Mongols and Tartars, the Martian colonists became somewhat infused into the racial characteristics of these people. However, for the most part, the various dynasties of the Chinese Empire can be traced directly back to the Martian line. . . .<br />
Cancer and many other so-called incurable diseases are removed or corrected using an advanced electronic healing process. It was also explained, that in all cases, the patient was given a psychic diagnosis which correctly locates the true originating cause, as a psychic pressure or shock, incurred in either the present life or in some previous lifetime. (Extended psychosomatics). Mental disorders, while rare, yield quickly to this treatment which quickly removes or rectifies these malformed vortices, or thought wave patterns which have been incurred in the subconscious or psychic body. There are no jails or prisons; crime is considered a mental disorder and treated thusly. Such treatment is kept secret and not exploited as we do, therefore there is no deflation of the ego. There is no pain or shock or lengthy doctoring. Usually the patient is home in a matter of hours. . . . Passing through this laboratory the guide went further into the problems of birth control and sex. He stated that children are limited to usually, two to a family so as to prevent overcrowding and a lessening of an advanced family relationship. The ratio of births usually determined by the death rate average. Sex relations are very sacred and considered a great creative gift. There are none of the usual sexual stimulants such as advertising, spiced heavy foods etc., which tend to overexcite the people of earth. Consequently, sex assumes its rightful place in the life of the Martians.<br />
These people have a basic spiritual concept which teaches them from birth, the importance of love of one another and finding their greatest joys of life in doing for each other, not doing each other. I did not see any of our familiar churches and steeples; it was explained to me that there are none. Worship is not a pagan-like bowing down to some mythical god (or gods), but a twice daily observance to the Great Infinite Creative Source, and there is a once weekly community observance giving thanks to this Source.<br />
Other Spiritual aspects of Martian life include communications with those who have passed into the spirit world; in fact, every Martian considers his spirit friends and relatives a part of his daily life. No doubt our Chinese have derived their ancestor worship from this source.<br />
The Martians have also developed reincarnation to a point where it forms an integral part of their lives; they plan for a future time when they will relive a new life among old friends and relatives. Many children frequently identify themselves as former loved ones.<br />
<br />
<br />
______________________<br />
Martian Education<br />
<br />
Soon after the birth of a child, all the potential mental faculties and quotients were determined by an electronic diagnosis and any criminal or negative characteristics were removed by a radiant energy process. The child was further conditioned against such recurrence. There are no public schools.<br />
The child is taught to a large extent in his sleep by a "Z-ray" which imparts the lessons or knowledge directly into his subconscious mind. This ray can be likened somewhat to a radio frequency which carries the spoken word yet is inaudible to the ear; in this case however, it is received and stored for use in the child's mind. Usually a child will have the equivalent to a college education by the time he has reached the age of ten. Such schooling is done to bring out the best points of character and to especially train him in whatever vocation he is best suited for.<br />
As I listened to the soft accented voice of my Martian friend, my mind inadvertently began to recall and compare scenes of my earth life with the simple quiet way I was just beginning to glimpse and understand. Things like the roaring streets and highways, the stench and smell of thousands of cars, of hate and greed and avarice. Nur El caught my thoughts and for a moment stopped speaking. A slow smile lifted the corners of his mouth and his eyes began to twinkle. "No," he said, "these people would not migrate to the earth. First they would have to become accustomed to the difference in air pressure, and if this were done suddenly it might be very dangerous, like a diver going down beneath the water too quickly. " He paused a moment then continued, "Then there would be deadly disease germs and the many viruses that we here on Mars, not having had such things for thousands of years, have lost our resistance to."<br />
I could see his point but I wondered a bit as to how they knew so much about the earth, but patiently he explained that there were semi-surface observatories with electronic telescopes as well as a variety of radio and radar-like devices which gave them a very good idea of what went on there. Besides some of the more advanced scientists were masters at astral flight. Even an ordinary citizen of Mars was quite adept at mental telepathy and this type of communication was used as much as speech.<br />
Going back into the ring shaped building, we emerged into what were some of the chambers used for judging or administrative phases. The government is of a very simple form. I was amazed when told there are no written laws. Each citizen lives under a simple understanding, of unwritten code. It was a very reasonable facsimile, if not the actual golden rule. In other words, do for others first. If a person acts selfishly, or begins to steal or shows symptoms of anger, he is considered ill and treatment is quickly administered. Each five families have a group leader or "Icla," as he is called. He represents this group and is responsible for their general welfare. The judges or heads of different departments are chosen on their merit and it is usually done through elimination, examinations which require a lifetime of special training. There are no political systems. Brains and character alone determine a candidate's fitness for an office. Male and female are regarded as equal and with no discrimination shown. There are no old age institutions in these Martian cities. Great respect is shown the aged and they live with their children until the time of passing. No doubt the Chinese on the earth brought this custom of respect and veneration down through the ages from their Martian ancestors.<br />
Another thing that did impress me was the wide variety of pictures and objects of art which were everywhere. These people are exceedingly artistic and almost everyone spends some time at his particular chosen expression decorating screens, ceramics, furniture, etc; all were given some treatment whenever opportunity presented. It was all in very good taste, however, and most pleasing to the eye. These traits are quite evident in our modern Chinese. . . .<br />
<br />
Monorail Transportation<br />
<br />
Going through several of these offices we again emerged into the open air. Before us was one of the larger radial streets; coming down this street was what looked like a silver gondola of some sort, suspended from an overhead rail. Going closer to examine this strange craft, I found that it was about twenty feet long.It had six or eight bucket-like seats. There is a rather elaborate system of control used. All is done, of course, electronically. There is an `eye' on each end to keep it spaced a reasonable distance from other cars. Gyroscopes are used to prevent sway and it is powered by a motor in each flanged wheel which rides a single rail, suspended at short intervals by metal standards. These cars are stopped with a single blast of a noiseless supersonic whistle and started after the passengers sit down. A number of the main radial streets have this monorail shuttle car system. Others used moving sidewalks, somewhat similar to escalators.<br />
It seems that these people do not travel much, as compared to our earth people. There is, of course, considerable inner-city travel over the monorail car system which I saw in the tube. There is however, a kind of communication which renders a great deal of travel unnecessary. This is a form of telephone, or teleview as it could more properly be called. Besides conversing, each party can see the other one through a small screen similar to our television. This of course, can be shut off by manipulating a button, in the event there is a need for privacy. Speaking of television, their system is far more advanced than ours; the screen is built into the wall of the room and is about four by five foot square. All programs are in three dimensional color, very lifelike and natural. Such programs are, of course, the very highest type. As there is only one channel to a city, all program material is produced and telecast by the people themselves, since there is no advertising or sex intimations but only such things as the festivals, lectures, various stage presentations or musicals which take place in the central theater. Little or no news is broadcast and then only that which is of a nature which would not cause fear or restlessness.<br />
Music plays an important part in life here. Most of the instruments are of the string type and are usually plucked. There are some reed or flute-like instruments which help give variety. There are none of the heavy percussive type which form a large part of our modern orchestras. The music itself is, for the most part, a quaint sing-song-like rhythm or chant which usually depicts some story or moral lesson; or even historical events are portrayed. Considerable color is used in the stage presentations, which gives much added charm as the innumerable color combinations rise and fall with the rhythm of the chant.<br />
Since my initial trip, I have returned to Mars several times and have learned much more about this fascinating civilization. To those who are proponents and ardent supporters of our free enterprise system, let it be said that they have a great shock coming to them. On Mars there is no dog-eat-dog competition such as we, on earth, are so familiar with. Everyone works for the government because the government is the people! This highly developed socialistic system is not to be confused with any so-called communistic governments on earth. The Martians never break laws, consequently there are no laws. They have long ago eliminated legislative bodies. How different here! We have a huge and vast intricate network of legislative bodies, as well as various branches of law enforcement. The average American has many thousands of laws to obey. The great majority of, the people either knowingly or unknowingly are breaking laws. As fast as a way is found to circumvent one law, a new one is passed to prevent this! The modern Chinese have placed a great deal of personal value on face; they would rather die than lose face. This sense of personal integrity was brought down through the ages from their Martian ancestors. The average Martian has an advanced state of conscious personal integrity. This eliminates the ponderous and very expensive system of government to which we are accustomed. There is in consequence a vastly simplified way of life. There are no taxes. as this land is run like a highly ordered non-profit business. The various departmental or executive heads are all highly trained specialists and hold their positions because of ability and integrity.<br />
. . .<br />
From childhood they are taught to be useful and productive. Because of their simplified living habits, they have more time for self-improvement and for developing new types of plastics, textiles, etc. They usually limit their meals to only two a day and even those are very simple, consisting primarily of vegetables and fruits, with some synthetic foods. The Martians are not meat eaters partly for the reason that animal life has largely passed from existence on Mars, with the exception of mutants and the few obscure species previously mentioned, and these are inedible. The Martian has learned how to grow, and also to synthesize many spices and to produce artificially, many protein foods. Space is not too plentiful. There are some dwarf trees, three to four feet high with a fruit that looks like an orange but has meat like that of an apple, is red skinned and sweet. It is called sit-yu. Some other vegetables are grown in troughs in long rows. These look like huge mushrooms and have a delicious meat.<br />
<br />
<br />
The Harmony of Martian Life<br />
<br />
Martians are closely connected with the Venusians through thought transference or mental telepathy. At one time, interplanetary travel was used, but these spacecraft are at present stored in huge underground hangars, and are being held in readiness for any emergency, such `as a sudden mass evacuation of the population should any unexpected need arise.<br />
. . .<br />
It was explained that the science of interplanetary travel was something very difficult for the earth man to understand inasmuch as the people and the craft itself would, in taking off, actually change the rate of vibration of their own and the craft's atomic structure. Thus they would in a sense become weightless and temporarily free of various usual forces such as gravitation, inertia, etc. My guide went on to explain that this science of changing the atomic vibration rates is a very advanced one, and that if the earthmen would learn this, it would remove all the present day obstructions and barriers such as materials, fuel, pressures and the hundreds of other hindrances to present day space travel. At present their experiments have progressed to a point where a man's body can be changed into electrical energies, sent over a radar beam and then changed back to the original state; all in a matter of a split second, and with no pain or discomfort to the individual.<br />
This no doubt sounds fantastic. Nowadays it is only the ignorant mam who scoffs at any new ideas, and no doubt there will be those who will be unable to believe these truths; but it does not matter, since that still does not alter the facts. Just fifty years ago they were laughing at the Wright brothers - and think of what has been invented and improved and brought into use since that time. No less so in the future. The things of science which are commonplace in the Martian way of life could well become a part of ours in some future day.<br />
I was informed that the Martians understand what is happening to the earth people and its veritable rat race, and they are very desirous of aiding through mental telepathy to inspire as many of the earthians as are receptive to their ways for the advancement of mankind and the improvement of conditions on this planet, and within man himself. Until man realizes the great over-balance on the material side and gains the necessary spiritual knowledge we cannot hope to be harmonious with the other more advanced planets. They say that it is realized only too well that they must not interfere with the evolution or progress of man on earth to any great extent, for it would not be in keeping with God's immutable law of individual soul progress.<br />
The scientists of Mars have informed me that our telescopes, in the photographing process, are subject to error and do not get refraction but infraction. Sometimes the light rays, or vibrations as they are more properly called, are at times subjected to distortions, or bendings, in their flight through space, due to the proximity of some other planetary body. Because of the conjunction of magnetic lines of force, the astronomer does not always get a true picture of what he thinks he is seeing. Also the planet Mars, on the outside of its surface, has a tremendously charged shell. While it is invisible to the eye, this can cause great distortions in light-ray frequencies.<br />
And so the time has come, at least for the present, to return to our more familiar planet earth, and I do so reluctantly, for there are still many more facets of life on (rather in) Mars of which I have only a slight understanding. I would like to learn more of their various customs, celebrations and observances. Obviously it cannot all be taken in during only a few trips. I cannot recall a single instance of this most fascinating and interesting experience of my visits to Mars without a deep feeling of awe, reverence and gratitude to this very fine person who calls himself Nur El for giving so unselfishly of his time and efforts in explaining so many things about the planet, its people, manners, etc.<br />
There is also a grave concern by these people about our destructive downhill way of life. We are creating and breeding a race of psychopathic misfits I in our highly specialized, mechanical world. The people are becoming robots. They cannot sleep for nightmares from fear and insecurity. Their days an endless succession of almost frantic scurrying, or worse, a robot-like existence of work, sleep, and work. On every hand flagrant psychological and sexual stimulants are used for advertisements suggestion is used to hammer home these cheap and malicious messages until the brain becomes numb and neurotic. Exploitation of the masses has become a highly specialized science, ruthless and cold-blooded, running the gamut from charity to vice.<br />
On the other hand there are almost equally frantic attempts being made by various religious groups, churches, individuals, etc., to portray in some way to the great masses the grave dangers confronting them. These efforts are pitifully small and weak. Moreover, these efforts are not above suspicion, for there are, here as elsewhere, many charlatans.<br />
. . .<br />
<br />
_______________________________<br />
The Supernova Connection<br />
<br />
It was intimated in the foregoing pages that it was quite obvious that it would require several trips to gain a comprehensive understanding of the Martian way of life, and that therefore, I would quite likely, from time to time, make similar visits or flights. Since concluding the last pages, Nur El has made contact several times and has given or shown me pertinent information regarding several issues which I would like to clear up. In case some of you are wondering just as I did, what caused his people to go underground and why they do not migrate to some other planet since they have all the necessary craft to do so. Nur El explained all this by first saying that Mars was, up until about 100,000 years ago, a planet very similar to the earth. There was air, water, and an abundance of plant and animal life. The cities flourished on the surface just as ours do. At that time, through their occult science and also with their superior telescopes they saw, somewhere out in space, a cataclysm take place. One of the giant suns suddenly went berserk, flared up like a nova and then exploded in a terrific blinding flash. Huge chunks hurtled out into space in different directions, each one a smaller, white-hot, atomically-burning sun, shooting off great streamers of atomic energies. It was determined by calculations, that one of these fiery pieces would pass very close to our solar system. As it was larger than our own sun, it was conceivable that there would be tremendous repercussions; in fact, anything was possible. Because of its great size it would have a tremendous gravitational pull, besides giving off great energies. It was also determined, as light traveled much faster in space than this huge chunk, that it would pass our solar system. This therefore gave the Martians a grace period for preparation. They had, however, a choice: to stay on Mars or to migrate to another planet far away from this solar system. After a search of the nearby, practical limits of the heavens, it was found that there was no other planet available which would be suitable. So an alternative was decided upon. They could build huge cities underground! During the next two hundred years or so, an almost frantic building program was assiduously pursued. We can well imagine some of the problems, the sacrifices, and the labor and research which went into this tremendous project, but it was finally accomplished. In due time all was snug and ship-shape as possible. Buried deep under many feet of rock and earth, in their newly constructed dome-like cities, the people of Mars waited for the final hours. Day by day they watched the white glowing mass of light grow larger and larger. There was no really accurate way by which to measure how close it would pass or just how hot it would be. No doubt many thought it would be the end!<br />
Finally the hour struck. Nur El stated that for eight days the planet was rocked, torn and twisted as great forces blasted and ripped the surface. Plant and animal life disappeared almost entirely, except for the few species which escaped by being buried or in caves. The air and water too, were largely dissipated or drawn off with the passing nova. When it was over, Mars was decimated and burned to a cinder.<br />
Other planets also suffered. On earth there were great earthquakes and tidal waves. A great continent and civilization, called Lemuria, sank beneath the sea. Great deserts were burned into the surface in places which were formerly beautiful forests and plains. The Sahara and Gobi deserts were two of these. Earth's orbit and axis (or the poles) were also changed. Instead of a circular orbit Earth was rocked into an elliptical orbit, with the addition of a very slight but definite wobble or oscillation, which it has never lost. Uranus and Pluto was pushed out into an orbit much further away from the sun. Neptune suffered a similar fate although not quite so pronounced. It is conceivable that the other planets were also affected according to their size and position at the time of the passing of this huge celestial "atom bomb." No doubt the knowledge of this cataclysm will clear up some of the mysteries of Earth's history which have been puzzling the seekers of truth for many years. . . .<br />
<br />
Our present civilization, good as it is in some respects, leaves much to be desired. It has been the purpose of Nur El, the people of Mars and myself to bring you some understanding of their ways of life, hoping thus to bring about, not only among the nations of the world, but future interplanetary relationships which are harmonious and conducive to a better way of life.<br />
<br />
<br />
We all salute you and wish you infinite love, wisdom and peace.<br />
<br />
<br />
Appendix<br />
<br />
Shortly after writing this article there appeared in the Saturday Review, on May 28, 1955, an article written by Dr. Robert S. Richardson, astronomer at Mount Palomar, which refers to the findings of the International Committee on Mars, which closed its fourth conference on March 25, 1955. There are several interesting statements made, on which I will comment. Mr. Richardson states the consensus of opinion is that there is life on Mars, or that it could exist. This is at least some progress in the right direction. Also he is quite correct about the deserts. Most of the surface of this planet is semi-arid wastelands. It is however, incorrect to say there is no oxygen there.<br />
The presence of the green maria, which he calls sponge- like algae, proves the presence of oxygen, although in a comparatively rare state. As everyone knows, oxygen is necessary in the breathing cycle of any plant which contains chlorophyll (oxygen on Mars is about 10% of the density of the earth's oxygen) as was stated in the aforementioned article. This sponge-like algae is found growing along the edges of the snow banks and often attains a height of forty to fifty feet. It dries up with the vanishing of the snow caps and re- grows the following spring.<br />
What the doctor states regarding water on Mars is very true. It is very scarce and the people of the underground cities take great pains to conserve every gallon of it.<br />
As to the temperatures. that is still a matter of conjecture. It is a very tricky business to measure heat over thirty-five millions of miles distance. Moreover, surface temperatures do not affect the inhabitants of the underground cities, as they are completely pressurized and conditioned with temperatures maintained at a comfortable level.<br />
The most surprising part of the entire article was that there was absolutely no mention of the famous canals of Mars. I wonder what happened to them? These canals were for many years a great controversial subject. The photograph in this article does not show them, but this is perhaps explained by the fact that this photo was taken with infra-red light film. It may be that the savants at Mt. Palomar would like to explain this.<br />
It is of questionable value that the writer interjected such a material angle as real estate. It seems it would have been wise to confine the remarks within the domain of science and leave this problem up to some of our great promoters in that future day of landing. It might also be that the Martians would resent our tearing up their planet.<br />
It is also probable that in that future day when man does have space travel to Mars, he will be able to take his wife or loved ones along. Landing there will be somewhat like taking a plane to a far off city on this planet. On arriving on Mars the space ship will be taxied into a huge airlock. The passengers will disembark and find hotels and accommodations in a similar fashion as on earth. (Assuming of course that such factors as freedom from germ life, health, adaptability to lower air pressures, etc., have been fully compensated for.)<br />
It is unfortunate indeed that the astronomers of today take such a dim view of the possibility of life on other planets. They should be in a position to know better than anyone else. Does it not seem a bit preposterous to assume that in all the countless billions of suns, star clusters. galaxies. etc. and their associated planetary systems, that earth and Mars clone are inhabited?<br />
Perhaps we should refer to Jesus of Nazareth when he stated that, "In my Father's house are many mansions.'<br />
In that distant day when space travel is a reality, let us hope that our men of science are universally schooled in the knowledge of the Infinite God and that we will find in this wisdom an integrated philosophy of life, one which will supply our need and an answer to every problem.<br />
In that future day, we will have put aside all our petty quibbling over interpretations. We will find God not only in the heart and mind of man but in everything in this material Universe.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Space]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Theory_of_Everything&diff=1844The Theory of Everything2021-03-31T08:02:43Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "Explaining Everything Madhusree Mukerjee Scientific American Jan 96 The Theory of Everything, or TOE, theorists believe, is hovering right around the corner. When finally..."</p>
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<div>Explaining Everything <br />
<br />
Madhusree Mukerjee Scientific American Jan 96<br />
<br />
<br />
The Theory of Everything, or TOE, theorists believe, is hovering right around the corner. When finally grasped-the fantasy goes-the TOE will be simple enough to write down as a single equation and to solve. The solution will describe a universe that is unmistakably ours: with three spatial dimensions and one time dimension; with quarks, electrons and the other particles that make up chairs, magpies and stars; with gravity, nuclear forces and electromagnetism to hold it all together; with even the big bang from which everything began. The major paradigms of physics-including quantum mechanics and be revealed as intimately related. "Concepts of physics today will be completely changed as the story unfolds," predicts Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, N.J. Grand promises were also heard a decade ago, when "string theory' gained favour as a TOE. Physicists crafted the theory from the idea that the object in the universe is an unimaginably tiny string.<br />
<br />
The undulations of such strings were posited to yield all the particles and forces in the universe. These loops or segments of string are about 10-33 centimeter long and vibrate in many different modes, just as a violin string can. Each vibrational mode has a fixed energy and so by the laws of quantum mechanics can be thought of as a particle. But string theory soon ran into mathematical barriers: it frayed into five competing theories. "It's unaesthetic to have five unified theories," wryly comments Andrew Strominger of the University of California at Santa Barbara. Worse, the theories had thousands of solutions, most of which looked nothing like our universe. Asked in 1986 to summarize the TOE in no more than seven words, Sheldon L. Glashow of Harvard University, a longtime critic, exclaimed in mock anguish: "Oh, Lord, why have you forsaken me?" The "Lord," it would appear, has heard. A peculiar new symmetry, called duality, is making all the different strings twine into one another. Indeed, duality is redefining what physicists consider a fundamental particle-or string. Elementary objects now seem to be made of the very particles they create. Witten believes duality not only will lead to a TOE but also may illuminate why the universe is the way it is. "I think we are heading for an explanation of quantum mechanics," he asserts. Few critics of the theory's current claims can be heard: string mathematics is so complex that it has left behind the vast majority of physicists and mathematicians. At the same time, the world according to duality is getting even more bizarre. Strings mutate with ease into black holes, and vice versa; new dimensions blow up in different realms; and not only strings but bubbles and other membranes shimmer down the byways of the universe. The multitude of links, the researchers believe, points to a deeper entity-presumably the TOE-that explains it all. "It's like aspen trees," offers Michael J. Duff of Texas A&M University, waving at a nearby stand. "There is a root system that spreads under the ground. You see only the little bits that poke up above the surface."<br />
<br />
<br />
A New Symmetry<br />
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The word "dual"-fast replacing "super" as the most overused word in particle theory-has many different connotations for physicists. Broadly, two theories are said to be dual if they are apparently dissimilar but make the same physical predictions. For example, if all the electrical and magnetic quantities in Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism are interchanged, one nominally obtains a different theory. But if in addition to electrical charges, the world is presumed to contain magnetic charges (such as the isolated north pole of a bar magnet), the two theories become exactly the same-or dual. Specifically, duality makes elementary and composite objects interchangeable: a particle or other entity is irreducibly fundamental or is itself made up of even more fundamental entities depends on your point of view. Either perspective ultimately yields the same physical results.<br />
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The first signs of duality appeared while physicists were working on quantum-field theories, theories that describe particles as quantum-mechanical waves spread out in space-time. In the field theory called quantum chromodynamics, or QCD, quarks are elementary particles that have a kind of charge, much like electrical charge, caned color. Color makes quarks attract one another very strongly, clumping into pairs and triads to form larger, composite particles such as protons.<br />
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DIVERSE MODES of vibration can be induced in any string. Quantum mechanics allows the waves to be<br />
interpreted as particles. H loops of string about 10-33 centimeter long are fundamental constituents of matter,<br />
then their vibrational energies are the masses of elementary particles such as electrons, quarks and photons.<br />
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Just as in the familiar world there are no particles with magnetic charge, there are no particles with color magnetic charge. But in 1974 Gerard 't Hoot of Utrecht University in the Netherlands and Alexander Polyakov, then at the Landau Institute near Moscow, described how fields making up quarks might knot into small balls endowed with color magnetic charge. Such clumps-which physicists visualize as hedgehog-like spheres studded with arrows representing vectors-are generically called solitons and behave like particles. Thus, a theory of quarks with color charge might also imply the existence of solitons with color magnetic charge, otherwise known as monopoles. The monopoles would be composite particles, derived from the fields of more elementary quarks. In 1977 David Olive and Claus Montonen, working at CERN near Geneva, speculated that field theories involving color might be dual. That is, instead of quarks being elementary and monopoles composite, perhaps one could think of the monopoles as being elementary. Then one might start with a field theory of interacting monopoles, finding that it gave rise to solitons that looked like quarks. Either the quark or the monopole approach to the theory should give the same physical results. Most theorists were skeptical. Even if duality did exist, it was thought impossible to establish: the mathematics of QCD is extremely hard, and it would be necessary to calculate two sets of predictions for comparison. "In physics it's very rare that you can calculate something exactly," remarks Nathan Seiberg of Rutgers University. In February 1994, however, Ashoke Sen of the Tata Institute in Bombay, India, showed that on occasion, predictions of duality could be precisely tested-and were correct. The calculation converted the string community. "Witten went from telling everyone this was a waste of time to telling them this was the most important thing to work on," Harvey chuckles. Witten, often referred to as "the Pope" by detractors of string theory, has initiated many trends in particle physics during the past two decades. Meanwhile Seiberg was developing an extremely helpful calculational shortcut for studying QCD. His work was based on supersymmetry. Supersymmetry is the idea that for each kind of particle that constitutes matter, there should be a related particle that transmits force, and vice versa. The symmetry has yet to be found in nature, but theorists frequently invoke its powers. Seiberg was able to show, by using supersymmetry to constrain the interaction between particles, how some hitherto impossible calculations in QCD might be done. He and Witten went on to demonstrate that versions of QCD that include supersymmetry are dual. There is an immediate, startling benefit. QCD is difficult to calculate with because quarks interact, or "couple," strongly. But monopoles interact weakly, and calculations with these are easy. Duality would allow theorists to deal with monopoles-and automatically know all the answers to QCD. "It's some kind of magical trick," Harvey says. "We don't understand yet why it should work." Armed with duality, Seiberg and Witten went on to calculate in great detail why free quarks are never observed in nature, verifying a mechanism put forth in the 1970s by t'Hooft and Stanley Mandelstam of the University of California at Berkeley. Of course, the validity of all this work hinges on the assumption that supersymmetry exists. Still, Seiberg hopes that, ultimately, duality will prevail even if supersymmetry is absent, so that "the qualitative results will be true even if the quantitative results depend on supersymmetry." Duality is, however, much more than a calculational tool: it is a new way of looking at the world. "Something thought of as composite becomes fundamental," Harvey points out. And vice versa. Even the normally conservative Seiberg has not been able to resist speculating that perhaps the quarks are solitons, duals of some other truly elementary particles that are even smaller.<br />
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Stringing Strings Together<br />
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The concept of duality may have grown out of field theories, but as Sen observes, "duality is much more natural in string theory." It is also more versatile. Duality can unite strings of different kinds, existing in different dimensions and in space-times of different shapes. All these feats are allowing string theory to overcome its limitations and rise to the status of a TOE.<br />
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DUALITY, a type of symmetry, makes it possible to view composite entities as equivalent to fundamental particles, and vice versa. For example, a quark has a kind of charge called color (red). Moving electrical charges generate magnetic fields; likewise, moving quarks generate color magnetic fields (blue). Sometimes many quarks can tangle into a composite object, called a monopole, that has a color magnetic charge (top right). Because of duality, however, it is possible to think of a monopole as a fundamental particle (bottom right). Monopoles in turn can dump to form quarks-which are now composite objects (bottom left). The arrows (black) signify properties of the particles that are vectors, such as angular momentum.<br />
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Earlier in its evolution, string theory had failed as a unified theory because of the many types of strings that were posited, as well as the embarrassing multiplicity of answers that it gave. This plenitude has its source in yet another peculiarity of string theory-it is consistent only if strings originally inhabit a 10-dimensional space-time. The real world, of course, has four dimensions, three of space and one of time. The extra six dimensions are assumed to curl up so tight that they pass undetected by large objects such as humans-or even quarks. "Think of a garden hose," suggests Brian R. Greene of Cornell University. "From a distance it looks one-dimensional, like a line. If you get close, you see it's actually a two-dimensional surface, with one dimension curled up tight." Unhappily for string theorists, the extra six dimensions can curl up in very Many different ways: "Tens of thousands is the official estimate," Strominger quips. Each of these crumpled spaces yields a different solution to string theory, with its own picture of the four-dimensional world-not exactly what one wants from a TOE. A type of duality called mirror symmetry found in the late 1980s has helped lessen tills problem by merging some of the alternative solutions. Mirror symmetry revealed that strings in two different curled spaces sometimes yield the same particles. For example, if one dimension becomes very small, a string looped around that dimension like a rubber band around a hose might create the same particles as a string moving around a "fat" dimension. The size to which a dimension shrinks is rather similar, in string theory, to another parameter: the strength with which particles interact. In 1990 Anamaria Font, Luis E. Ibanez, Dieter Last and Fernando Quevedo, collaborating at CERN, suggested that something like mirror symmetry also exists for coupling strengths. just as large spaces can have the same physics as small ones, perhaps a string theory with large coupling could give the same results as another having small coupling. This conjecture related string theories in the same way that duality worked for field theory. Moreover, from afar, strings look like particles, so that duality in string theory implies duality in field theory, and vice versa. Each time duality was tested in either case, it passed with flying colors and helped to draw the two realms closer together. Meanwhile duality was emerging from a completely different quarter - supergravity. This unified theory was an attempt to stretch Einstein's gravity to include supersymmetry. (in contrast, string theory tried to modify particle theory to include gravity.) In 1986 Duff, then at Imperial College, London, was able to derive a picture for supergravity that involved vibrations of an entirely new fundamental entity: a bubble. Whereas strings wiggled through 10 dimensions, this bubble floated in 11. "The vast majority of the string community was not the least interested," Duff recalls - most likely because no one knew how to do calculations with this bubble. Still, he continued to work on diverse theories involving closed membranes. He found that a five-dimensional membrane, or a "five-brane," that moved through a 10-dimensional space could serve as an alternative description of string theory. The five-brane could wrap itself around an internal curled space, like a skin around a sausage. But if this internal space shrank to nothing, the bubble ended up looking like a string. Duff suggested that this convoluted string was actually the same as the ones in string theory, positing a "string-string" duality. At the same time, Christopher M. Hull of Queen Mary and Westfield College and Paul K. Townsend of the University of Cambridge were hypothesizing about many generalizations of duality in string theory. "Neither group paid much attention to the other's paper," Duff says, with a gleam in his eye.<br />
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Explosion of Dualities<br />
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That is, until March 1995, when matters came to a head at a conference at the University of Southern California. Witten gave the first talk of the day, pulling together evidence for duality from diverse realms. He recognized that Hull, Townsend and Duff were all talkng about the same idea and went on to conjecture that Duff's bubbles in 11 dimensions were solitons of a particular string in 10 dimensions. After Witten, Seiberg spoke. "Natty [Seiberg] was so impressed by Witten's talk," chuckles John H. Schwarz of the California Institute of Technology. "He said, 'I should become a truck driver."' But Seiberg also presented many new results, prompting Schwarz-one of the founders of string theory-to begin his talk with, "I'll get a tricycle." An explosion of activity followed and has continued unabated. Every day scientists log on to the electronic preprint library at Los Alamos National Laboratory to find some 10 new papers in the field. "It's the first thing you do every morning," remarks Anna Ceresole of the Polytechnic of Turin. "like reading the newspaper." Scattered and curious evidence for duality is turning up, relating strings and bubbles to solitons of all kinds and shapes. One soliton, which resembles a hairy caterpillar, with vector arrows pointing out all along a line, turned out to be dual to a fundamental string. (it is also similar to a cosmic string, a fad in cosmology began by Witten a decade ago.) Different kinds of strings squeezed into the real world-four dimensions-also proved dual. "Things happen for different reasons, yet they agree," Seiberg remarks. "It feels like magic." There is a method behind the mad hunt for dualities. "Many string theories are not realistic," Sen points out. "We need to understand all of them to find the real one." Duality serves to connect, and therefore to reduce, the number of options. Witten believes the five string theories involving 10 dimensions that now prevail will all turn out to be reflections of an ultimate, supreme, quantum string.<br />
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REDUCING DIMENSIONS of a space can be achieved by pasting its edges together and shrinking it. For example, a two dimensional sheet of rubber is first curled into a cylinder, and the curled dimension is then shrunk When thin enough, the cylinder looks like a (one dimensional) line. Twisting around this length of "hose" and sticking its ends together, one gets a doughnut shape. The radius of the doughnut can be shrunk until it is small enough to approximate a point-a zero dimensional space. Such changes could explain why the extra dimensions of space-time that string theory says must exist are too small to be detectable.<br />
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Duff has even proposed a "duality of dualities"-the duality between spaces, and that between elementary and composite objects, might turn out to be connected. Among the most peculiar predictions of such ideas is that the size of a curled space influences the strength with which particles interact, and vice versa. So if an internal dimension is big, coupling between particles might also be large. Besides, Susskind explains, "As you go from place to place, the size of the internal dimension may vary." If a curled dimension blows up, in some far corner of the universe, space-time acquires a new, fifth dimension. Where it squeezes tight, as in our immediate environment, quantum effects appear. Indeed, the fundamental scale associated with quantum theory, called Planck's constant, is intimately entwined with duality: it relates, for example, the mass of a particle or string with that of its dual. "That is the most compelling evidence for me that string theory might teach us about quantum mechanics," remarks Stephen H. Shenker of Rutgers. "Suddenly, dimensions are changing, dimensions of fundamental objects are changing, wrapping around, anything goes," Duff shakes his head in wonder. One more suggestion from Townsend is a kind of "democracy"-the membranes turning up as solitons of string theory might all be fundamental objects, having the same status as strings. That idea has yet to catch on with the Americans, who point out that calculations with membranes still do not make sense. As Cumrun Vafa of Harvard University notes doubtfully, "It's kind of coming in sideways. You never know."<br />
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Black Holes<br />
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If that were not enough, a connection emerged last April between strings and black holes-promising to overcome the second major embarrassment in string theory. Strominger, Greene and David R. Morrison of Duke University found that black holes help to connect perhaps thousands of the tens of thousands of solutions to string theory in a complex web. The connections make the problem of finding the "right" solution to string theory-that describing our universe-much easier. In a sense, black holes have been lurking at the edges of string theory all along. If enough mass accumulates in one place, it collapses under its own gravitational pull to create a black hole. But as Stephen W. Hawking of the University of Cambridge has argued, a black hole-which usually absorbs everything, even light-may also radiate particles, slowly losing mass and shrinking. If the original mass were made up of strings, the decay would ultimately lead to an object with zero size-an "extremal" black hole, looking in fact rather like a particle. Susskind protests that these tiny black holes are nothing like the collapsed stars that astrophysicists search for: "Andy's [Strominger's] work is great, but calling these things black holes is I think a bit of hype." (Susskind's own latest paper is entitled "The World as a Hologram.") in fact, extremal black holes-or black bubbles or black sheets-are simply clumps of string fields, otherwise known as solitons. Strominger was investigating how extremal black holes behave when a dimension of space-time curls up very tight. imagine taking an infinitely long hose, looping it around and sticking the ends together so that it resembles a doughnut. In this way, both dimensions of the surface of the hose can be shrunk, creating a much smaller space (that still has no boundaries). Now suppose that the doughnut becomes very thin at one point. As it pinches in, Stromanger found that some black holes, made of membranes wrapped around the scrunched dimension, become massless. He decided to include these objects in his calculations, as quantum-mechanical waves. Two miraculous things happened. Earlier calculations in string theory had always failed when the hose thinned to a line, but the quantum-mechanical black holes made the mathematics work out fine even in this extreme case. The real savior, Horowitz explains, is quantum physics: "In classical physics, an electron falling into the point charge of a proton gives you infinities. Only when you add quantum mechanics do you see that the electron goes into orbit." Another consequence was that large numbers of the massless black holes appeared: the system underwent a phase transition, much like vapor condensing to water. The phase transition mirrored a change in the doughnut itself. It tore open at the thinnest part-violence that physicists and mathematicians have always shrunk from-and remolded into a sphere, an alternative way of curling up a two-dimensional sheet. Thus, two very different curled spaces in string theory were connected. "Mathematicians don't like it, because it involves tearing," Strominger admits. "But quantum effects smooth it out." Different kinds of tears may ultimately turn out to relate thousands of solutions to string theory. With the internal spaces thus linked, strings can then find the "special" one by moving around among them. just as water freezes in the Arctic and vaporizes in the Sahara, strings can choose a configuration suited to their environment. Finding the right solution then becomes a dynamical problem. Somewhere in the universe, Strominger speculates, there might be a droplet in which strings have found a different internal space. On entering the droplet, black holes would turn into strings. And strings into black holes. In our immediate surroundings, such droplets might appear fleetingly as virtual universes, which exist for microscopic fractions of time and die away before they become evident.<br />
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The Theory<br />
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Despite these flights of fancy, the physicists come down to earth long enough to caution that the ultimate theory is still far off. Even the optimist Vafa, who has bet Witten a scoop of ice cream that string theory will be solved by the end of the century, believes that a true understanding will take decades to emerge. "By the time we find a beauful formulation, it might not be called a string theory anymore," Schwarz muses. "Maybe we'll just call it 'the Theory."' (Claims of finding the TOE met with so much ridicule in the 1980s that string theorists are now allergic to that sobriquet.) Not everyone is convinced that the Theory is around the comer. "Coming from the string-theory clan, the reports are as usual loaded with overstatements," 't Hoot acidly retorts. An immense problem is that there may never be any experimental tests for strings. No one can even conceive of a test for something so minute: modern equipment cannot probe anything smaller than 10-16 centimeter. Theorists pray that when the Large Hadron Collider at CERN starts operating in 2005, supersymmetry, at least, will be discovered. "It will be one of the nicest ways for nature to have chosen to be kind," says Witten (echoing Einstein's faith that God is not malicious). But even if supersymmetry shows up, another nagging problem will remain. In the real world, the familiar four-dimensional space-time is flat; the kind of imperfect supersymmetry that theorists attribute to nature, however, makes space-time curl up impossibly tight in all dimensions. Witten has a fantasy for getting around this impasse, which relies on duality between theories in different dimensions. Perhaps one can begin with a universe in which only three dimensions are initially flat-one of the four we know is still curled up. Such space-times have peculiar but pleasant properties that allow the problems with supersymmetry to be fixed. Ultimately, the fourth dimension might be induced to expand, leading to a world like the one we know. "Witten's suggestion is pretty wild," Schwarz grins, "but he might be right." The peculiarity of gravity also raises many difficult questions. Einstein found that gravity arises from the curvature of space-time. Therefore, to quantize gravity is to quantize space and time. In that case, Horowitz argues, "maybe there is no meaning to space and time, and maybe these emerge as some approximate structure at large distances." String theory is a long way from meeting such expectations. Besides, the Theory will need to be able to describe the most extreme circumstances, such as the genesis of the universe or the environment inside a black hole. "String theorists tend to trust their theory blindly, claiming it can deal with everything," states 't Hooft with finality. "in reality, they don't understand gravitational collapse any better than anybody else." But string theorists, dazzled by the mathematical riches glinting within reach, seem undeterred by any criticism. Pierre M. Ramond of the University of Florida tries to explain: "It's as if you are wandering in the valley of a king, push aside a rock and find an enchanted staircase. We are just brushing off the steps." Where the steps lead is unknown-so the adventure is all the more thrilling Evening falls in Aspen. As the setting sun lights up the tree minks and leaves in clear yellow, the physicists continue an argument they have started over dinner. This time, it is about the wave function of the universe, a direct attempt to describe the latter as a quantum-mechanical object. "In my own opinionated, uneducated, ignorant view, I personally think it's a lot of crap,' Susskind vents: Horowitz, who along with others, has constructed such wave functions, laughs out loud. The air starts to chill, and the quaint street-lamps glow brighter in the gathering darkness. But the physicists seem in no hurry to retire.<br />
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The Mathematics of Duality<br />
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Using intuition, analogies and a kind of free-flowing mathematics inspired by nature, physicists have solved some long-standing problems in classical mathematics. They are also forcing open a new branch of mathematics, called quantum geometry. "The physicists are telling us where to look," remarks John Morgan, a mathematician at Columbia University. "It's frustrating. We don't have the access they do to this kind of thinking." In 1990 Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, NJ., was awarded the Fields Medal - the Nobel of mathematics-for the manifold ways in which he had used theoretical physics to unravel mathematical puzzles. A key concept from physics, supersymmetry, turns out to connect intimately with modern geometry. "It's very surprising," remarks David R. Morrison of Duke University. The latest triumph of supersymmetry is a means of classifying four-dimensional spaces. These dimensions, which pertain to the real world, are curiously also the most complex. Simon K. Donaldson of the University of Oxford had shown in 1982 how to use quantum field theories to count the number of holes in a four-dimensional space and thus to classify it topologically. (For example, a sphere, a doughnut and a pretzel all belong in different categories of two-dimensional surfaces because they contain different numbers of holes.) But the calculations were horrendous because of the intractable nature of the field theories. In 1 994 Nathan Seiberg of Rutgers University and Witten pointed out that the results of one supersymmetric quantum-field theory could be provided by another, via a symmetry called duality. Thus, easy calculations might suffice to obtain the results of very difficult ones. Witten provided an equivalent set of numbers that could be calculated almost 100 times faster than the "Donaldson numbers." "Seiberg-Witten theory opened up the field and allowed us to answer most of the outstanding questions completely," Morgan says. Duality of a different kind, called mirror symmetry, has illuminated another vexing question. Mathematicians want to know how many curves of a given complexity can be drawn in a particular space. The problem is especially difficult to solve for convoluted curves. But Brian R. Greene of Cornell University and Ronen Plesser of Hebrew University of Jerusalem found that strings inhabiting two apparently unrelated spaces can yield the same results. Using this mirror symmetry, Philip Candelas of the University of Texas at Austin and others were able to tell the results of virtually impossible calculations in one space by looking to the mirror space-thus deriving the long-sought numbers.<br />
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ELIMINATING HOLES in closed spaces was thought impossible in mathematics, but physicists have found a way. A doughnut and a sphere are both ways of curling up a two-dimensional surface, but they differ in the number of holes they contain. (A doughnut has one; a sphere has none.) ff part of the douglmut thins to a point, however, the rest of ft can be separated. The doughnut can then be remolded into a sphere.<br />
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Indeed, string theory yields many more insights than classical mathematics can accommodate. The contributions that are commonly cited are only those that appear when strings are shorn of quantum mechanics. Quantum strings undulate in a host of spaces that mathematicians have yet to construct. Moreover, Greene, Morrison and Andrew Strominger of the University of California at Santa Barbara have shown that quantum effects make it possible for spaces with different numbers of holes-such as a doughnut and a sphere - to transform smoothly into one another, a no-no for mathematicians. (The standard rules for manipulating spaces allow them to be stretched or compressed, but no holes can be opened or closed in them.) The study of such spaces is becoming the brand-new field of quantum geometry. The findings have rejuvenated the venerable disciplines of algebraic geometry and number theory. "These are core subjects in mathematics," states Shing-Tung Yau of Harvard University (another recipient of the Fields Medal). "if you open up a new domain here, you expect to have a lot of influence on the rest of mathematics." A major stumbling block is that mathematicians have not proved the results from string theory to their satisfaction. Yet the mathematicians agree that physicists with their questionable methods are getting at mathematical truths. "We can't free ourselves of rigor, or the field will fall apart," Morgan explains. But rigor can also be a burden, keeping mathematicians from the leaps of faith that physicists blithely make. "Are we going to wait for physicists to tell us again where to look?" he asks. "Or are we going to get to a state where we have access to that intuition?"<br />
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Into the Eleventh dimension (extract) New Scientist 18 Jan 97 Michio Kaku<br />
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Remember that at some of the finest minds of this century have been stumped by the problem of creating a "Theory of Everything'. Einstein summed up the problem when he said- 'Nature shows us only the tail of the lion. But I do not doubt that the lion belongs to it even though he cannot at once reveal himself because of his enormous size." The tail is what we see in nature, which can be described by the four fundamental forces-,gravity, electromagnetism and the strong and weak nuclear forces. The lion is the ultimate theory that will unify them in one short equation. Today, physicists believe that the first force, gravity, can be described by Einstein's general relativity, based on the smooth warping of the fabric of space-time. This Is an elegant theory that describes the macroscopic world of black holes, quasars and the big bang. But gravity has stubbornly refused to unite with the other three forces, which are described by quantum theory. Here, instead of the smooth fabric of space- time, we have the discrete world of packets of energy, or quanta. The form of quantum theory that goes furthest in describing matter and its interactions is the Standard Model, which is based on a bizarre bestiary of particles such as quarks, Ieptons and bosons. The Standard Model may be one of the most successful theories in science, but it is also one of the ugliest, Its inadequacy is betrayed by some 19 arbitrary constants not derived by any kind of theory that have to be put in "by hand," to make the equations work. Capturing the "lion", which unites these two great theories, will be a crowning achievement for physics. But while Einstein was first to set off on this noble hunt, tracking the footprints left by the lion, he ultimitely lost the trail and wandered off into the wilderness.<br />
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Crazy departure<br />
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Today, however, physicists are following a different trail-the one leading to superstring theory. Unlike previous proposals, it has survived every blistering mathematical challenge ever hurled at it. Not surprisingly, the theory is a radical-some Might Say crazy-departure from the past, being based on tiny strings vibrating in 10-dimensional space time. To understand how going to bigger dimensions can help to unify lower dimensions, think back to how the Romans used to fight wars. Without radio communications and spy planes, battles were horribly confused, raging on many fronts at the same time. That's why the Romans always leapt into 'hyperspace"- the third dimension-by seizing a hilltop. From this vantage point, they were able to survey the two-dimensional battlefield as a single, unified whole,. Leaping to higher dimensions can also simplify the laws of nature. In 1915, Einstein changed completely our notion of gravity by leaping to the extra dimension of time. In 1919, the German mathematician Theodor Kaluza added a fifth dimension and in so doing unified space-time with Maxwell's equations for electromagnetism. This triumph was largely forgotten amid the frenzy of interest geticrated by quantum mechanics, Only in the 1980s did physicists return to this idea to create superstring theory. In superstring theory. the subatomic particles we see in nature are nothing more than different resonances of the vibrating superstrings, in the same way, that different musical notes emanate from the different modes of vibration of a violin string, (These strings are very small-of the order of 10^-35 metres.) Likewise, the laws of physics-the forces between charged particles, for example-are the harmonies of the strings; the Universe is a symphony of vibrating strings. And when strings move in 10-dimensional space-time, they warp the space-time surrounding them in precisely the way predicted by general relativity. So strings simply and elegantly unify the quantum theory of particles and general relativity. Better still, gravity is not an inconvenient addition. "Unlike conventional quantum field theory, string theory requires gravity," Witten has said. "I regard this fact as one of the greatest insights, in science ever made." But, of course, all this takes, place in 10 dimensions. Physicists retrieve our more familiar 4-dimensional Universe by assuming that, during the big bang, 6 of the 10 dimensions curled up (or "compactified') into a tiny ball while the remaining four expanded explosively, giving us the Universe we see. What has consumed physicists for the past ten vears, is the task of cataloguing the different ways in which these six dimensions can compactify. Their task has been especially difficult because mathematician's have not worked out the topology and properties of these higher-dimensional universes. The physicists have had to blaze the trail and invent entirely new areas of mathematics. These efforts have revealed millions of cornpactifications, each of which yield a different pattern of quarks, efectrons atid so on. As we have seen, the first frustrating problem with superstring theory is that physicists do not understand where strings come from. To make matters worse, there are five string theories that unify quantum theory with relativity. This is an embarrassment of riches. Each competing theory looks quite different from the others. One, called Type 1 string theory, is based on two types of string: open strings, like short strands with two ends, and 'closed strings', in which the ends meet to form a ring. The other four have only closed strings. Some, such as Type 2b generate only left-handed particles, which spin in only one direction. Others, such as'Type 2a, have left and right-handed particles.<br />
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Today's excitement has grown from the finding that if we postulate the existence of a mysterious M-theory in 11 dimensions we can show that the five competing string theories are actually different versions of the same thing. Like a Roman general surveying the battlefield from the third dimension, physicists today stand on the hilltop of the 11th dimension and see the five superstring theories below, unified into a simple, coherent picture, representing different aspects of the same thing.<br />
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Trackng lion<br />
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The first step towards this advance came two years ago when Witten and Paul Townsend of the University of Cambridge showed that string theory in 10 dimensions was equivalent to M-theory in 11 dimensions with one dimension curled up. Since then, all five theories have been shown to be equivalent. So at last physicists know where superstrings come from: they originate in the 11th dimension from M-theory. M-theory also predicts that strings coexist with membranes of various dimensions. For example, a particle call be defined as a zero-brane (zero-dimensional object). A string is a one-brane, an ordinary membrane like a soap bubble is a two-brane, and so on. (Using p to represent the dimension of the object, one wag dubbed this motley collection "p-branes".) When these p-branes vibrate or pulsate, they create new resonances, or particles, which were missed in earlier formulations of superstrings. The name "M-theory' was coined by Witten: m perhaps stands for "membrane', or the "mother of all strings". To see how this all fits together, imagine three blind men hot on the trail of Einstein's lion. Hearing it race by, they give chase and desperately grab at it, hanging onto the tail for dear life, one feels its one-dimensional form and loudly proclaims, its a string. The lion is a string." The second man grabs the lion's ear. Feeling, a two-dimensional surface, he calls out 'No, no, the lion is really a two-brane.' The third blind man, hanging on to tne lion's leg, senses a three-dimensional solid, and shouts, "You're both wrong. The hon is a three-brane!" They are all right. Just as the tail, ear and leg are different parts of the same lion the string a nd various p-branes appear to be different parts of M-theory, Townsend calls it 'p-brane democracy'. The acid test for any theory is that it must fit the data. No matter how original and elegant superstring theory is, it will stand or fall on whether it describes the physical Universe. Either it is a Theory of Everything, as its advocates hope, or it is a theory of nothing. There is no in-between. So theoretical physicists must answer the second question: is our Universe, with its strange collection of quaks and subatomic particles, among the solutions of superstring theory? This is where it runs into an embarrassing problem, which is that physicists have been unable to find all it's four-dimensional solutions. The mathematics have been fiendishly difficult - too hard for anyone to solve completely.<br />
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In general, there are two types of solutions. So far only the first class, called "perturbative" solutions, have been found. Across all branches of physics, theorists faced by an equation they cannot solve reach for well-established ways to find approximate solutions,. in superstring theory, millions of these perturbative solutions have been catalogued. Each one corresponds to a different way in which to curl up 6 of the 10 dimensions. However, none of them precisely reproduces the pattern of quarks, leptons and bosons in the Standard Model, although some come close So, many believe that the Standard model may be found among the second class of solutions, the "non-perturbative" solutions. But non-perturbative solutions are generally among the most difficult of all solutions in physics. Some physicists despaired of ever finding non-perturbative solutions of superstring theory; after all, even the non-perturbative solutions of simple four-dimen.sional theories are completely unknown, let alone those of a complicated 10-dimensional theory. How does M-theory help to solve this intractable problem? The answer lies in a startling tool called "duality". Simply put, in M-theory there is a duality, or simple mathematical relationship, between the perturbative and non-perturbative regions. This allows us at last to take a peek at this 'forbidden zone'. To see how duality works, consider Maxwell's theory of electricity and magnetism, for example. Physicists have known for decades that if they interchange the electric field and magnetic field B in Maxwell's equations, and also swap the electric charge e and magnetic charge g, then the equations stay the same, That is, nothing happens to Maxwell's theory if we make the dual transformation: E-B and e-g.<br />
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Hidden theories<br />
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In fact, in Maxwell's theory, the product e tinies g is a constant: so small e corresponds to large g. This is fhe key. Suppose an equation includes a mathematical function that depends on g^2 and which cannot be solved exactly. The standard mathematical trick is to approximate a solution with a perturbation expansion g^2 - g^4 - g^6 and go on - So long as g is less than 1. each successive term in the series is smaller than the last, and the overall value, converges on a single figure. But if g is greater than 1 then the total gets larger and larger, and the approximation fails, This is where duality comes in. If g is large, then e is less than 1. Using perturbation, we get the series e^2 + e^4 + e^6 which gives a sensible value. Ultimately, this means that using perturbation on e can solve problems in the non-perturbative region of g. Duality in Maxwell's theory is rather trivial. But in M-theory, we find another duality: g-1/g. 'This relationship, although simpler, turns out to be incredibly powerful, When I first saw it, I, could hardly believe my eyes. lt meant thit a string theory defined for large g, which is usually impossible to describe using present-day mathematics, can be shown to be equivalent to another type of string theory for small g, which is easily described using perturbation theory. Thus, two different string theories can be dual to each other. In the non-perturbative region of string theory was another string theory! This is how in fact, we prove the equivalence of all five string theories. Altogether, three different types of duality called S, T and U have been discovered, which yield an intricate web of dualities linking string theories of various dimensions and types. At an incredible pace, physicists have now mapped almost all the tiolutions and dualities that exist in 10, 8 and 6 dimensions.<br />
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Before M-theory, finding the non-perturbative solutions in these dimensions would have been considered impossible. Now the problem is trivial. For example, let us say that two theories A and B are dual to each, other in 10 dimensions. If we compactify both theories in the same way, then we obtain then we obtain theories A' and B'. But now we know something new: that A' is also dual to B', Thus the non-perturbative bahaviour of of A' is given by B'. By elaborating this process, we get an almost complete understanding of the different possible universes down to 6 dimensions. Thus, M-theory solves entire classes of problem that were previously thought to be unsolvable, it even gives us valuable new details about quantum effects in black holes, But there are many loose ends. For example, what precisely is M-theory? So far, we. only know fragments of the theory, (the low-energy part). We are still waiting for someone to come up with a full description of M-theory. Last year, Vafa shocked Physicists by announcing that there may be a 12-dimensional theory out there, which he called f-theory, f for father.<br />
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More important, we are still far from mapping all the dualities of four dimensions. If everything works out as hoped, we should find out that one of these four-dimensional theories contains the strandard modeland thus describes the known universe,but there are millions of these solutions, so sifting through them to find the one we are after may take many years.<br />
So this means that the end is in sight that some day we will be able to work out the Standard Model from first principles? When I put this question to some leading physicists in this field they were still cautious.<br />
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Here comes hypertime New Scentist 1 Nov 97<br />
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Yet despite its great promise, M-theory has not ironed out all the differences between the various string theories, which is where Vifa and his "F-theory" comes in, upping the ante to 12 dimensions.<br />
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the remaining problems began to fall away with an extra dimension, and tileoris@s eagerly welcomed Vafii's eqliatioiis. But the new dimension was one of time, and the philosophical implications are rather more troubling. "Most theorists would shun the idea of more than one time," says Duff, who is himself dabbled with the idea of a 12th time-like dimension. "it brings all sorts of headaches that we would rather do without." It's easy to see why. If time is like a straight line, every point is either before or after every other point. Future and past are well defined. Every set of events has a unique sequence. But add another dimension and the line becomes a plane. How do you define future and past now? How do you link events-the whole game of physics-when the idea of effect following cause has evaporated? According to Duff that's not the end of it. Time dimensions differ fundamentally from space dimensions in one important respect: when you insert time into your equations it tends to come in with a negative rather than a positive sign. If you start to mess around with extra time dimensions, all sorts of -nasties start to emerge-objects that travel faster than light,' photons with negative energy, events where the probabilities of all possible outcomes don't add up to one.<br />
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Primitive tools<br />
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Admittedly, says Duff, the tools we use to under stand the world may be at fault. Perhaps the existing approaches are too primitive to describe multiple times. But since these are the only tools around, the best approach seems to be to treat Vafa's extra time dimension as a convenient device rather than a real physical entity. Exploit the benefits it offers and finesse your way around the disadvantages. Indeed, Vafa's new time has some suspicious characteristics that could justify this approacli. For instance, while the 11 dimensions of M-theory obey Einstein's relativity principle, which says that tile laws of physics should look the same to all observers, Vafa's 12 dimensions do not. This is one more reason for physicists to discount the new dimeiision's physical reality. "It's by no means on the same footing as ordinary time," says Frank Wilczek of the Institute for Advanced Study. Duff agrees. Though it looks like time in some limited ways, he says, "it's not a real, honest-to-goodness extra time dimension." Vafa admits that his extra dimension has many of the hallmarks of an abstract mathematical device rather than a real physical entity. But this may not be the case for much longer. "At this point, it's making the formalism took nicer," he says. "Whenever that happens in the history of physics, there's usually something behind it." Take quarks. A few decades ago, quarks were a mathematical construction-a way of thinking about the make-up of particles such as protons. According to the equations, quarks could never exist as single individuals. They seemed to be theoretical conveniences. Now, says Vafa, most physicists agree that quarks do exist in the physical world. The same happy fate could await his mysterious extra time dimension. But if it's really out there, why haven't we seen it? One possibility is that, along with the seven "missing" space dimensions, the extra time dimension is curled up so tightly that it's invisible to us. If so, the only way to unwrap it would be to focus huge amounts of energy into a tiny volume. This would have remarkable consequences. "If the [extra] time dimension could be unleashed, objects would not have the sensation of moving in time the way that we do," says Vafa. Think about it. In space we have choices about how to move, forwards and backwards, up and down, left and right. For time, our only choice appears to be forward into the future-Hobson's choice. But with more than one time dimension, says Wilczek, it might become possible to manoeuvre sideways in time, or diagonally. If we saw an undesirable event looming in the "future" we might even be able to sidestep it. Perhaps it's just as well, then, that the prospects of releasing Vafa's hidden dimension are actually rather remote. It is extremely unlikely that an energy intense enough to activate the missing time exists anywhere in our Universe though some physicists speculate that it might happen in the centre of a black hole. But that's not the end of the line for real life multiple times. After all, according to the latest cosmological theories there could be plenty of other universes, each of which might have its own unique combination of space and time dimensions. What would it be like in a truly multi-time universe? "It would really be a mindstretcher," says Wilczek. "Is it impossible? No I don't think so. You can write down the equations, but I have very little feeling for what the solutions would be like to live in."<br />
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Prime Mover New Scientist 8 Aug 98 18<br />
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EARLY next century, we may be able to witness the single force that acted in the early Universe. A particle accelerator under construction at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics near Geneva, may have just enough energy to re-create the force, say physicists. In the earliest moments after the big bang, particles whizzed around with enormous energies. According to the so-called Grand Unified Theory, the three non-gravitational forces of nature-electromagnetic, weak and strong-acted as one at this time. But as the Universe cooled they split into the distinct forces we know today. Physicists believed the forces split when the particles' energies dropped to about 10^16 giga-electronvolts (GeV)-100 trillion times higher than is achievable in today's particle accelerators. This happened a mere 10^-18 seconds after the Universe formed. But now physicists Keith Dienes, Emilian Dudas and Tony Gherghetta of CERN have calculated that the forces could have 2 remained unified longer, down to energies of 1000 GeV That energy is within the reach of the CERN's Large Hadron Collider due to be completed in 2005. The physicists came to this conclusion after making calculations about the extra dimensions that the Universe may contain. Theorists believe we do not see these extra dimensions because they are tightly "rolled up" to around 10^-11 metres, a size that allows their effects to be felt only at the high energies that existed around the time of the big bang. If they were any bigger, there could be serious problems for the unified theory. It has been shown before that a host of new particles would rattle around in the extra dimensions, and bring with them more forces. "People thought the extra particles would make the forces too strong at the unification energy to be handled by current mathematical techniques," says Dienes. But Dienes and his team have calculated that a larger fifth dimension of about 10-19 metres would not cause this problem. The calculations also suggest that although the three non-gravitational forces would strengthen quickly as the energy rises, they would also converge at a lower energy than expected, long before the mathematics becomes too difficult to handle. Dienes's team has submitted papers on the work to Physics Letters B and Nuclear Physics B. The consequences of a much lower unification energy would be enormous. "All physics assumes unification occurs at an energy so high that it has no direct effect on the familiar world," says Gherghetta. "If it occurs at a lower energy, it would change everything, including our picture of the evolution of the Universe from the big bang." Marcus Chown <br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Superstring_Mystery&diff=1843The Superstring Mystery2021-03-31T07:45:59Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "The Superstring Mystery Theory of Everything? In 1982 Michael Green and John Schwarz made a discovery which might turn out be the greatest scientific advance of all time, i..."</p>
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<div>The Superstring Mystery<br />
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Theory of Everything?<br />
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In 1982 Michael Green and John Schwarz made a discovery which might turn out be the greatest scientific advance of all time, if it is right. What they found was that a particular quantum field theory of supersymmetric strings in 10 dimensions gives finite answers at all orders in perturbation theory.<br />
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This was a breakthrough because the superstring theory had the potential to include all the particles and forces in nature. It could be a completely unified theory of physics. By 1985 the press had got hold of it. Articles appeared in Science and New Scientist. They called strings a Theory Of Everything.<br />
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The term Theory of Everything is a desperately misleading one. Physicists usually try to avoid it but the media can't help themselves. If physicists find a complete unified set of equations for the laws of physics, then that would be a fantastic discovery. The implications would be enormous, but to call it a theory of everything would be nonsense.<br />
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For one thing, it would be necessary to solve the equations to understand anything. No doubt many problems in particle physics could be solved from first principles, perhaps it would be possible to derive the complete spectrum of elementary particles. However, there would certainly be limits to the solvability of the equations. We already find that it is almost impossible to derive the spectrum of hadrons composed of quarks, even though we believe we have an accurate theory of strong interactions. In principle any set of well defined equations can be solved numerically given enough computer power. The whole of nuclear physics and chemistry ought to be possible to calculate from the laws we now have. In practice computers are limited and experiments will always be needed.<br />
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Furthermore, it is not even possible to derive everything in principle from the basic laws of physics. Many things in science are determined by historical accident. The foundations of biology fall into this category. The final theory of physics will not help us to understand how life on Earth originated. The most ardent reductionist would retort that, in principle, it would be possible to derive a list of all possible forms of life from the basic laws of physics.<br />
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Finally it must be said that even given a convincing unified theory of physics, it is likely that it would still have the indeterminacy of quantum mechanics. This would mean that no argument could finally lay to rest questions about paranormal, religion, destiny or other such things, and beyond that there are many matters of philosophy and metaphysics which might not be resolved, not to mention an infinite number of mathematical problems. Clearly the term Theory of Everything is misleading.<br />
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Theory of Nothing?<br />
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Following the media reports about string theory there was an immediate backlash. People naturally asked what this Theory Of Everything had to tell us. The answer was that it could not yet tell us anything, even about physics. On closer examination it was revealed that the theory is not even complete. It exists only as a perturbation series with an infinite number of terms. Although each term is well defined and finite, the sum of the series will diverge. To understand string theory properly it is necessary to define the action principle for a non-perturbative quantum field theory. In the physics of point particles it is possible to do this at least formally, but in string theory success has evaded all attempts. To get any useful predictions out of string theory it will be necessary to find non-perturbative results. The perturbation theory simply breaks down at the Planck scale where stringy effects should be interesting. <br />
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More bad news was to come. Systematic analysis showed that there were really several different 10 dimensional superstring theories which are well defined in perturbation theory. If you count the various open and closed string theories with all possible chirality modes and gauge groups which have no anomalies, there are four in all. This is not bad when compared to the infinite number of renormalisable theories of point particles, but one of the original selling points of string theory was its uniqueness. Worse still, to produce a four dimensional string theory it is necessary to compactify six dimensions into a small curled up space. There are estimated to be many thousands of ways to do this. Each one predicts different particle physics. With the Heterotic string it is possible to get tantalisingly closed to the right number of particles and gauge groups, At the moment there are just too many possibilities and the problem is made more difficult because we do not know how the supersymmetry is broken.<br />
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All this makes string theory look less promising. Some physicists called it a theory of nothing and advocated a more conservative approach to particle physics tied more closely to experimental results. But a large number of physicists have persisted. There is something about superstring theory which is very persuasive.<br />
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Why String Theory?<br />
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The most common question from lay-people about string theory is Why?. To understand why physicists study string theory rather than theories of surfaces or other objects we have to go back to its origins. In 1968 physicists were trying to understand the nature of the strong nuclear interactions which held the quarks together in nucleons. There was an idea about duality between scattering interactions which led Veneziano and Virasoro to suggest exact forms for the dual resonance amplitude. These amplitudes turned out to have interesting properties in 26 dimensions and various independent lines of research by Nambu, Nielson and Susskind led to the revelation that the amplitudes were derivable from a theory of strings.<br />
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String theory was considered as a theory of strong interactions for some time. Physicists thought that the explanation for confinement of quarks was that they were somehow bound together by strings. Eventually this theory gave way to another theory called Quantum Chromo Dynamics which explained the strong nuclear interaction in terms of colour charge on gluons.<br />
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String theory suffered from certain inconsistencies apart from its dependence on 26 dimensions of space-time. It also had Tachyonic modes which destabilised the vacuum. But string theory had already cast its spell on a small group of physicists who felt there must be something more to it. Ramond, Neveu and Schwarz looked for other forms of string theory and found one with fermions in place of bosons. The new theory in 10 dimensions was supersymmetric and, magically, the tachyon modes were removed.<br />
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But what was the interpretation of this new model? Scherk and Schwarz found that at low energies the strings would appear as particles. Only at very high energies would these particles be revealed as loops of string. The strings could vibrate in an infinite tower of quantised modes in an ever increasing range of mass, spin and charge. The lowest modes could correspond to all the known particles. Better still, the spin two modes would behave like gravitons. The theory was necessarily a unified theory of all interactions including quantum gravity. Still only a small group pursued this idea until the historic paper of Green and Schwarz with the discovery of almost miraculous anomaly cancellations in one particular theory.<br />
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To come back to the original question, why string theory?. The answer is simply that it has the right mathematical properties to be able to reduce to theories of point particles at low energies, while being a perturbatively finite theory which includes gravity. The simple fact is that there are no other known theories which accomplish so much. Of course physicists have studied the mathematics of vibrating membranes in any number of dimensions. The fact is that there are only a certain number of possibilities to try and only the known string theories work out right in perturbation theory. <br />
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Ed Witten <br />
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Of course it is possible that there are other completely different self-consistent theories but they would lack the important perturbative form of string theories. The fact is that string theorists are now turning to membrane theories, or p-brane theories as they are known, where p is the number of dimensions of the membrane. Harvey, Duff and others have found equations for certain p-branes which suggest that self-consistent field theories of this type might exist, even if they do not have a perturbative form.<br />
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Dualities<br />
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In the past couple of years there have been some new developments which have inspired a revival of interest in string theory. The first of these concerns duality between electric and magnetic monopoles.<br />
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Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic waves in free space are symmetric between electric and magnetic fields. A changing magnetic field generates an electric field and a changing electric field generates an magnetic one. The equations are the same in each case, apart from a sign change which is irrelevant here. However, it is an experimental fact that there are no magnetic monopole charges in nature which mirror the electric charge of electrons and other particles. Despite some quite careful experiments only dipole magnetic fields which are generated by circulating electric charges have ever been observed.<br />
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In classical electrodynamics there is no inconsistency in a theory which places both magnetic and electric monopoles together. In quantum electrodynamics this is not so easy. To quantise Maxwell's equations it is necessary to introduce a vector potential field from which the electric and magnetic fields are derived by differentiation. This procedure can not be done in a way which is symmetric between the electric and magnetic fields.<br />
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40 years ago Paul Dirac was not convinced that this ruled out the existence of magnetic monopoles. He always professed that he was motivated by mathematical beauty in physics. He tried to formulate a theory in which the gauge potential could be singular along a string joining two magnetic charges in such a way that the singularity could be displaced through gauge transformations and must therefore be considered physically inconsequential. The theory was not quite complete but it did have one saving grace. It provided a tidy explanation for why electric charges must be quantised as multiples of a unit of electric charge. <br />
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In the 1970's it was realised by 't Hooft and Polyakov that grand unified theories which might unify the strong and electro-weak forces would get around the problem of the singular gauge potential because they had a more general gauge structure. In fact these theories would predict the existence of magnetic monopoles. Even their classical formulation could contain these particles which would form out of the matter fields as topological solitons.<br />
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There is a simple model which gives an intuitive idea of what a topological soliton is. Imagine first a straight wire pulled tight like a washing line with many clothes pegs strung along it. Imagine that the clothes pegs are free to rotate about the axis of the line but that each one is attached to its neighbours by elastic bands on the free ends. If you turn up one peg it will pull those nearby up with it. When it is let go it will swing back like a pendulum but the energy will be carried away by waves which travel down the line. The angle of the pegs approximate a field along the one dimensional line. The equation for the dynamics of this field is known as the sine-Gordon equation. It is a pun on the Klien-Gordon equation which is the correct linear equation for a scalar field and which is the first order approximation to the sine-Gordon equation for small amplitude waves. If the sine-Gordon equation is quantised it will be found to be a description of interacting scalar fields in one dimension. <br />
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The interesting behaviour of this system appears when some of the pegs are swung through a large angle of 360 degrees over the top of the line. If you grab one peg and swing it over in this way you would create two twists in the opposite sense around the line. These twists are quite stable and can be made to travel up and down the line. A twist can only be made to disappear in a collision with a twist in the opposite direction.<br />
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These twists are examples of topological solitons. They can be regarded as being like particles and antiparticles but they exist in the classical physics system and are apparently quite different from the scalar particles of the quantum theory. In fact the solitons also exist in the quantum theory but they can only be understood non-perturbatively. So the quantised sine-Gordon equation has two types of particle which are quite different.<br />
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What makes this equation so remarkable is that there is a non-local transformation of the field which turns it into another one dimensional equation known as the Thirring model. The transformation maps the soliton particles of the sine-Gordon equation onto the ordinary quantum excitations of the Thirring model, so the two types of particle are not so different after all. We say that there is a duality between the two models, the sine-Gordon and the Thirring. They have different equations but they are really the same.<br />
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The relevance of this is that the magnetic monopoles predicted in GUT's are also topological solitons, though the configuration in three dimensional space is more difficult to visualise than for the one dimensional of the clothes line. Wouldn't it be nice if there was a similar duality between electric and magnetic charges as the one discovered for the sine-Gordon equation? If there was then a duality between electric and magnetic fields would be demonstrated. It would not quite be a perfect symmetry because we know that magnetic monopoles must be very heavy if they exist.<br />
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In 1977 Olive and Montenen conjectured that this kind of duality could exists, but the mathematics of field theories in 3 space dimensions is much more difficult than that of one dimension and it seems beyond hope that such a duality transformation can be constructed. But they made one step further forward. They showed that the duality could only exist in a supersymmetric version of a GUT. This is quite tantalising given the increasing interest in supersymmetric GUT's which are now considered more promising than the ordinary variety of GUT's for a whole host of reasons.<br />
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Until 1994 most physicists thought that there was no good reason to believe that there was anything to the Olive-Montenen conjecture. Then Seiberg and Witten made a fantastic breakthrough. By means of a special set of equations they demonstrated that a certain supersymmetric field theory did indeed exhibit electro-magnetic duality. As a bonus their method can be used to solve many unsolved problems in topology and physics.<br />
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Now at last we turn to string theory with the realisation that duality in string theory is very natural. In the last year physicists have discovered how to apply tests of duality to different string and p-brane theories in various dimensions. A series of conjectures have been made and tested. This does not prove that the duality is correct but each time a test has had the potential to show an inconsistency it has failed to destroy the conjectures. What makes this discovery so useful is that the dualities are a non-perturbative feature of string theory. Now many physicists see that p-brane theories can be as interesting as string theories in a non-perturbative setting. The latest result in this effort is the discovery that all four string theories which are known to be perturbatively finite are now thought to be derivable from a single theory in 11 dimensions known as M-theory. M-theory is a hypothetical quantum field theory which describes 2-branes and 5-branes related through a duality.<br />
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It would be wrong to say that very much of this is understood yet. There is still nothing like a correct formulation of M-theory or p-brane theories in their full quantum form, but there is new hope because now it is seen that all the different theories can be seen as part of one unique theory.<br />
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Black Strings<br />
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As if one major conceptual breakthrough was not enough, string theorists have been coming to terms with another which turned up last year. Just as physicists have been quietly speculating about electro-magnetic duality for decades, a few have also speculated that somehow elementary particles could be the same things as black holes so that matter could be regarded as a feature of the geometry of space-time. The idea actually goes back at least as far as Riemann. <br />
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The theory started to look a little less ridiculous when Hawking postulated that black holes actually emit particles. The process could be likened to a very massive particle decaying. If a black hole were to radiate long enough it would eventually lose so much energy that its mass would reduce to the Planck scale. This is still much heavier than any elementary particle we know but quantum effects would be so overwhelming on such a black hole that it would be difficult to see how it might be distinguished from an extremely unstable and massive particle in its final explosion.<br />
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To make such an idea concrete requires a full theory of quantum gravity and since string theory claims to be just that it seems a natural step to compare string states and black holes. We know that strings can have an infinite number of states of ever increasing spin, mass and charge. Likewise a black hole, according to the no hair conjecture is also characterised only by its spin, mass and charge. It is therefore quite plausible that there is a complementarity between string states and black hole states, and in fact this hypothesis is quite consistent with all tests which have been applied. It is not something which can be established with certainty simply because there is not a suitable definition of string theory to prove the identity. <br />
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Nevertheless, many physicists now consider it reasonable to regard black holes as being single string states which are continually decaying to lower states through Hawking radiation.<br />
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The recent breakthrough due to Strominger, Greene and Morrison is the discovery that if you consider Planck mass black holes in the context of string theory then it is possible for space-time to undergo a smooth transition from one topology to another. This means that many of the possible topologies of the curled up dimensions are connected and may pave a way to a solution of the selection of vacuum states in string theory.<br />
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String Symmetry<br />
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Superstring theory is full of symmetries. There are gauge symmetries, supersymmetries, covariance, dualities, conformal symmetries and many more. But superstring theory is supposed to be a unified theory which should mean that its symmetries are unified. In the perturbative formulation of string theory that we have, the symmetries are not unified.<br />
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One thing about string theory which was discovered very early on was that at high temperatures it would undergo a phase transition. The temperature at which this happens is known as the Hagedorn temperature after a paper written by Hagedorn back in 1968, but it was in the 1980's that physicists such as Witten and Gross explored the significance of this for string theory.<br />
The Hagedorn temperature of superstring theory is almost very high, such temperatures would only have existed during the first 10-43 seconds of the universe existence, if indeed it is meaningful to talk about time in such situations at all.<br />
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Calculations suggest that certain features of string theory simplify above this temperature. The implication seems to be that a huge symmetry is restored. This symmetry would be broken or hidden at lower temperatures, presumably leaving the known symmetries as residuals.<br />
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The problem then is to understand what this symmetry is. If it was known then it might be possible to figure out what string theory is really all about and answer all the puzzling questions it poses. This is the superstring mystery.<br />
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A favourite theory is that superstring theory is described by a topological quantum field theory above the Hagedorn temperature. TQFT is a special quantum field theory which has the same number of degrees of gauge symmetry as it has fields, consequently it is possible to transform away all field variables except those which depend on the topology of space-time. Quantum gravity in 2+1 dimensional space-time is a TQFT and is sufficiently simple to solve, but in the real world of 3+1 dimensional Einstein Gravity this is not the case, or so it would seem.<br />
But TQFT in itself is not enough to solve the superstring mystery. If space-time topology change is a reality then there must be more to it than that.<br />
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Most physicists working in string theory believe that a radical change of viewpoint is needed to understand it. At the moment we seem to be faced with the same kind of strange contradictions that physicists faced exactly 100 years ago over electromagnetism. That mystery was finally resolved by Einstein when he dissolved the ether. To solve string theory it may be necessary to dissolve space-time altogether.<br />
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In string theory as we understand it now, space-time curls up and changes dimension. A fundamental minimum length scale is introduced, below which all measurement is possible. It will probably be necessary to revise our understanding of space-time to appreciate what this means.<br />
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Even the relation between quantum mechanics and classical theory seems to need revision. String theory may explain why quantum mechanics works according to some string theorists.<br />
All together there seem to be rather a lot of radical steps to be made and they may need to be put together into one leap in the dark.<br />
<br />
Those who work at quantum gravity coming from the side of relativity rather than particle physics see things differently. They believe that it is essential to stay faithful to the principles of diffeomorphism invariance from general relativity rather than working relative to a fixed background metric as string theorists do. They do not regard renormalisability as an essential feature of quantum gravity.<br />
<br />
Working from this direction they have developed a canonical theory of quantum gravity which is also incomplete. It is a theory of loops, tantalisingly similar in certain ways to string theory, yet different. Relativists such as Lee Smolin hope that there is a way to bridge the gap and develop a unified method.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Science_of_Mechanics_(1915)&diff=1842The Science of Mechanics (1915)2021-03-31T07:43:53Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/the_science_of_mechanics-1915.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Quantum_Gravity_Challenge&diff=1841The Quantum Gravity Challenge2021-03-31T07:42:20Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "Quantum Gravity Quantum Gravity is reputed to be one of the most difficult puzzles of science. In practical terms it is probably of no direct relevance and may even be imposs..."</p>
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<div>Quantum Gravity<br />
<br />
Quantum Gravity is reputed to be one of the most difficult puzzles of science. In practical terms it is probably of no direct relevance and may even be impossible to verify by experiment. But for physicists it is the holy grail which may enable them to complete the unification of all fundamental laws of physics.<br />
<br />
The problem is to put together general relativity and quantum mechanics into one self consistent theory. The difficulty is that the two parts seem to be incompatible, both in concept and in practice. Conceptually, it is the nature of space and time which present fundamental differences. A direct approach, attempting to combine general relativity and quantum mechanics, while ignoring conceptual differences, leads to a meaningless quantum field theory with unmanageable divergences.<br />
<br />
There have, in fact, been many attempts to create a theory of quantum gravity. In this article I will first outline the nature of general relativity and quantum mechanics with emphasis on their similarities and differences. Then I will briefly review some of the main stream approaches to quantum gravity. Finally I will talk about some ways in which these ideas now seem to be converging.<br />
<br />
<br />
General Relativity<br />
<br />
General relativity is Einstein's monumental theory of gravity. It is based on two fundamental principles:<br />
<br />
The principle of relativity which states that all basic laws of physics should take a form which is independent of any reference frame, and<br />
<br />
The principle of equivalence which states that it is impossible to distinguish the effects of gravity from the effects of being in an accelerated frame of reference.<br />
<br />
Einstein struggled with the consequences of these principles for several years, constructing many thought experiments to try to understand what they meant. Finally he learnt about Riemann's mathematics of curved geometry and realised that a new theory could be constructed in which the force of gravity was a consequence of the curvature of space-time.<br />
<br />
In constructing that theory, Einstein was not significantly influenced by any experimental result which was at odds with the Newtonian theory of gravity. He knew, however, that Newtonian gravity was inconsistent with his theory of special relativity and he knew there must be a more complete self consistent theory. A similar inconsistency now exists between quantum mechanics and general relativity and, even though no experimental result is known to violate either theory, physicists now seek a more complete theory.<br />
<br />
In the decades that have followed Einstein's discovery, a number of experimental confirmations of general relativity have been found but there still remains a possibility that it may not be accurate on very large scales, or under very strong gravitational forces. In any case, it is sure to break down under the conditions which are believed to have existed at the big bang where quantum gravity effects were important.<br />
<br />
One of the most spectacular predictions of general relativity is that a dying star of sufficient mass will collapse under its gravitational weight into an object so compressed that not even light can escape its pull. These objects are known as black holes. Astronomers now have a growing list of celestial objects which they believe are black holes because of their apparent high density. The accuracy of Einstein's theory may be stringently tested in the near future when gravitational wave observatories such as LIGO come on-line to observe such catastrophic events as the collisions between black holes.<br />
<br />
<br />
Quantum Mechanics<br />
<br />
The Quantum theory was founded before Einstein began his theory of relativity and took much longer to be completed and understood. It was Planck's observations of quanta in the spectrum of black body radiation which first produced signs that the classical theories of mechanics were due for major revisions. <br />
<br />
Unlike general relativity which was essentially the work of one man, the quantum theory required major contributions from Bohr, Einstein, Heisenberg, Schroedinger, Dirac and many others, before a complete theory of quantum electrodynamics was formulated. In practical terms, the consequences of the theory are more far reaching than those of general relativity. Applications such as transistors and lasers are now an integral part of our lives and, in addition, the quantum theory allowed us to understand chemical reactions and many other phenomena.<br />
<br />
In the 1960's and 70's, further discoveries in quantum field theory have led to successful theories of the nuclear reactions and, in consequence, almost all ordinary physical phenomena can now be attributed to quantum interactions, even if the exact mechanisms are not always fully understood. The electromagnetic and weak nuclear interactions are unified into one force while the strong nuclear interaction is a force of a similar nature known as a gauge theory. Together these forces and all observed particles are combined into one self consistent theory known as the standard model of particle physics.<br />
<br />
Despite such spectacular success, confirmed in ever more detail in high energy accelerator experiments, the quantum theory is still criticised by some physicists who feel that its indeterministic nature and its dependency on the role of observer suggest an incompleteness. <br />
<br />
<br />
Unification<br />
<br />
Since Newton set the foundations of physics, progress has come mostly in the form of unification. Maxwell unified electricity, magnetism and light into one theory of electromagnetism. Einstein unified space, time and gravity into one theory of general relativity. More recently, the nuclear forces have been (partially) unified with the electromagnetic force by Weinberg and others.<br />
<br />
According to conventional wisdom among physicists, the process of unification will continue until all physics is unified into one neat and tidy theory. There is no a priori reason to be so sure of this. It is quite possible that physicists will always be discovering new forces, or finding new layers of structure in particles, without ever arriving at a final theory. It is quite simply the nature of the laws of physics as we currently know them that inspires the belief that we are getting closer to the end.<br />
<br />
After physicists discovered the atom, they went on to discover that it was composed of electrons and a nucleus, then that the nucleus was composed of protons and neutrons, then that the protons and neutrons were composed of quarks. Should we expect to discover that quarks and electrons are made of smaller particles? This is possible but there are a couple of reasons to suppose not. Firstly there are far fewer particles at this level than there ever were at higher levels. Secondly, their interactions are described by a clean set of gauge bosons through renormalisable field theories. Composite interactions, such as pion exchange, do not take such a tidy form. These reasons in themselves are not quite enough to rule out the possibility that quarks, electrons and gauge bosons are composite but they reduce the number of ways such a theory could be constructed. In fact all viable theories of this type which have been proposed are now all but ruled out by experiment. There may be a further layer of structure but it is likely to be different. It is more common now for theorists to look for ways that different elementary particles can be seen as different states of the same type of object. The most popular candidate for the ultimate theory of this type is superstring theory, in which all particles are just different vibration modes of very small loops of string.<br />
<br />
Note added: Just a few weeks after writing this, experimenters at Fermilab announced the discovery of evidence for structure within quarks!<br />
<br />
Physicists construct particle accelerators which are sort of like giant microscopes. The higher the energy they can produce, the smaller the wavelength of the colliding particles and the smaller the distance scale they probe. In this way physicists can see the quarks inside protons, not through direct pictures but through scattering data. Other things that happen as the energy increases is that new heavy particles are formed and forces become unified. It is impossible to be sure about what will happen the next time a new, more powerful accelerator is built, but physicists can make theories about it.<br />
<br />
In the next decade new accelerator experiments at CERN will probe beyond the electro-weak scale. There is some optimism that new physics will be found but nothing is certain.<br />
<br />
<br />
Planck Scale<br />
<br />
At first sight it might seem ridiculous to suppose that we can invent valid theories about physics at high energies before doing experiments. However, theorists have already demonstrated a remarkable facility for doing just that. The standard model of particle physics was devised in the 1960's and experimentalists have spent the last three decades verifying it. The reason for this success is that physicists recognised the importance of certain types of symmetry and self-consistency conditions in quantum field theory which led to an almost unique model for physics up to the electro-weak unification energy scale, with only a few parameters such as particle masses to be determined.<br />
<br />
The situation now is a little different. Experimentalists are about to enter a new scale of energies and theorists do not have a single unique theory about what can be expected. They do have some ideas, in particular it is hoped that supersymmetry may be observed, but we will have to wait and see.<br />
<br />
Despite these unknowns there are other more general arguments which tell us things about what to expect at higher energies. When Planck initiated the quantum theory he recognised the significance of fundamental constants in physics, especially the speed of light (known as c) and his newly discovered Planck constant (known as h). Scientists and engineers have invented a number of systems of units for measuring lengths, masses and time, but they are entirely arbitrary and must be agreed by international convention. Planck realised that there should be a natural set of units in which the laws of physics take a simpler form. The most fundamental constants, such as c and h would simply be one unit in that system.<br />
<br />
If one other suitable fundamental constant could be selected, then the units for measuring mass, length and time would be determined. Planck decided that Newton's gravitational constant (known as G) would be a good choice. Actually there were not many other constants, such as particle masses known at that time, otherwise his choice might have been more difficult. By combining c, h and G Planck defined a system of units now known as the Planck scale. He calculated that the Planck unit of length is very small, about 10-35 (ten to the power of minus 35) metres. To build an accelerator which could see down to such lengths would require energies about 1015 times larger than those currently available. Note that units of speed and energy can be built from the three basic Planck units but to measure temperature and charge as well we have to also set Boltzmann's constant and the charge on the electron to one unit. In this way we can devise a fundamental system of measurement for all physical quantities.<br />
<br />
Physicists have since sought to understand what the Planck scale of units signifies. Those who work with particles believe that at the Planck scale all the four forces of nature, including gravity, are unified. Physicists who specialise in general relativity have a different idea. In 1955 John Wheeler argued that when you combine general relativity and quantum mechanics you will have a theory in which the geometry of space-time is subject to quantum fluctuations, He computed that these fluctuations would become significant if you could look at space-time on length scales as small as the Planck length. Sometimes physicists talk about a space-time foam at this scale but we don't yet know what it really means. For that we will need the theory of quantum gravity.<br />
<br />
Without really knowing too much for certain physicists guess that at the Planck scale all forces of nature are unified and quantum gravity is significant. It is at the Planck scale that they expect to find the final and completely unified theory of the fundamental laws of physics.<br />
<br />
<br />
The Small Scale Structure of Space-Time<br />
<br />
It seems clear that to understand quantum gravity we must understand the structure of space-time at the Planck length scale. In the theory of general relativity space-time is described as a smooth continuous manifold but we cannot be sure that this is correct for very small lengths and times. We could compare general relativity with the equations of fluid dynamics for water. They describe a continuous fluid with smooth flows in a way which agrees very well with experiment. Yet we know that at atomic scales water is something very different and must be understood in terms of forces between molecules whose nature is completely hidden in the ordinary world. If space-time also has a complicated structure at the tiny Planck length, way beyond the reach of any conceivable accelerator, can we possibly hope to discover what it is?<br />
<br />
If you asked a bunch of mathematicians to look for theories which could explain the fluid dynamics of water, without them knowing anything about other physics and chemistry, then they would probably succeed in devising a whole host of mathematical models which work. All those models would probably be very different, limited only by the imagination of the mathematicians. None of them would correspond to the correct description of water molecules and their interactions. The same might be true of quantum gravity. Nevertheless, the task of putting together general relativity and quantum mechanics together into one self consistent theory has not produced a whole host of different and incompatible theories. The clever ideas which have been developed have enigmatic things in common. It is quite possible that all the ideas are partially correct and are aspects of one underlying theory which is within our grasp. It is time now to look at some of those ideas.<br />
<br />
<br />
Attempts to do Quantum Gravity<br />
<br />
The most direct way to try to quantise quantum gravity is to use perturbative quantum field theory. This is a procedure which has been applied with great success to electrodynamics. To do the same thing for gravity it is necessary to first construct a system of non-interacting gravitons which represent a zero order approximation to quantised gravitational waves in flat space-time. These hypothetical gravitons must be spin two massless particles because of the form of the metric field in general relativity. <br />
<br />
The next step is to describe the interactions of these gravitons using the perturbation theory of quantum mechanics, which are defined by a set of Feynman diagrams derived from Einstein's gravitational field equations. For electrodynamics this can be made to work, but only after conveniently cancelling divergent anomalies which appear in the calculations. For gravity this simply cannot be done. The resulting quantum field theory is said to be unrenormalisable and is incapable of giving any useful result.<br />
<br />
Because quantum gravity is an attempt to combine two different fields of physics, there are two distinct groups of physicists involved. These two groups form a different interpretation of the failure of the direct attack. The relativists say that it is because gravity cannot be treated perturbatively. To try to do so destroys the basic principles on which relativity was founded. It is, for them, no surprise that this should not work. Particle physicists say that if a field theory is non-renormalisable then it is because it is incomplete. The theory must be modified and new fields must be added to cancel divergences.<br />
<br />
<br />
Supersymmetry<br />
<br />
The first significant progress in the problem of quantum gravity was made by particle physicists. They discovered that a new kind of symmetry called supersymmetry was very important. particles can be classed into two types; fermions such as quarks and electrons, and bosons such as photons and Higgs particles. Supersymmetry allows the two types to intermix. With supersymmetry we have some hope to unify the matter fields with radiation fields.<br />
<br />
Particle physicists discovered that if the symmetry of space-time is extended to include supersymmetry, then it is necessary to supplement the metric field of gravity with other matter fields. Miraculously these fields led to cancellations of many of the divergences in perturbative quantum gravity. This has to be more than coincidence. At first it was thought that such theories of Supergravity might be completely renormalisable. After many long calculations this hope faded.<br />
<br />
A funny thing about supergravity was that it works best in ten dimensional space-time. This inspired the revival of an old theory called Kaluza-Klein theory, which suggests that space-time has more dimensions than the four obvious ones. The extra dimensions are not apparent because they are curled up into a small sphere with a circumference as small as the Planck length. This theory provides a means to unify the gauge symmetry of general relativity with the internal gauge symmetries of particle physics.<br />
<br />
The next big step taken by particle physicists came along shortly after. Green and Schwarz realised that a theory which had originally been studied as a theory of the strong nuclear force was actually more interesting as a theory of gravity. This was the beginning of string theory. Combining string theory and supergravity to form superstring theory quickly led to some remarkable discoveries. A small set of string theories in ten dimensions were perfectly renormalisable. This was exactly what they were looking for.<br />
<br />
It seemed once again that the solution was near at hand, but nature does not give up its secrets so easily. The problem now was that there is a huge number of ways to apply Kaluza-Klein theory to the superstring theories. Hence there seem to be a huge number of possible unified theories of physics. The perturbative formulation of string theory makes it impossible to determine the correct way.<br />
<br />
Recently there has been renewed hope for string theory from the discovery that different string theories are connected. They may all be parts of one unique theory after all.<br />
<br />
<br />
Canonical Quantum Gravity<br />
<br />
While particle physicists were making a lot of noise about superstring theory, relativists have been quietly trying to do things differently. Many of them take the view that to do quantum gravity properly you must respect its diffeomorphism symmetry. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation together with a Hamiltonian constraint equation, describe the way in which the quantum state vector should evolve according to this canonical approach.<br />
<br />
For a long time there seemed little hope of finding any solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then in 1986 Ashtekar found a way to reformulate Einstein's equations of gravity in terms of new variables. Soon afterwards a way was discovered to find solutions to the equations. This is now known as the loop representation of quantum gravity. Mathematicians were surprised to learn that knot theory was an important part of the concept.<br />
<br />
The results from the canonical approach seem very different from those of string theory. There is no need for higher dimensions or extra fields to cancel divergences. Relativists point to the fact that a number of field theories which appear to be unrenormalisable have now been quantised exactly. There is no need to insist on a renormalisable theory of quantum gravity. On the other hand, the canonical approach still has some technical problems to resolve. It could yet turn out that the theory can only be made fully consistent by including supersymmetry.<br />
<br />
As well as their differences, the two approaches have some striking similarities. In both cases they are trying to be understood in terms of symmetries based on loop like structures. It seems quite plausible that they are both aspects of one underlying theory. Other mathematical fields are common features of both, such as knot theory and topology. Indeed there is now a successful formulation of quantum gravity in three dimensional space-time which can be regarded as either a loop representation or a string theory. A number of physicists such as Lee Smolin are looking for a more general common theory uniting the two approaches.<br />
<br />
<br />
Black Hole Thermodynamics<br />
<br />
Although there is no direct empirical input into quantum gravity, physicists hope to accomplish unification by working on the requirement that there must exist a mathematically self consistent theory which accounts for both general relativity and quantum mechanics as they are separately confirmed experimentally. It is important to stress the point that no complete theory satisfying this requirement has yet been found. If just one theory could be constructed then it would have a good chance of being correct.<br />
<br />
Because of the stringent constraints that self consistency enforces, it is possible to construct thought experiments which provide strong hints about the properties a theory of quantum gravity has to have. There are two physical regimes in which quantum gravity is likely to have significant effects. In the conditions which existed during the first Planck unit of time in our universe, matter was so dense and hot that unification of gravity and other forces would have been realised. Likewise, a small black hole who's mass corresponds to the Planck unit of mass provides a thought laboratory for quantum gravity.<br />
<br />
Black holes have the property that the surface area of their event horizons must always increase. This is suggestively similar to the law that entropy must increase, and it led Bekenstein to conjecture that the area of the event horizon of a black hole is in fact proportional to its entropy. If this is the case then a black hole would have to have a temperature and obey the laws of thermodynamics. In the 1970's Stephen Hawking investigated the effects of quantum mechanics near a black hole using semi-classical approximations to quantum gravity. He discovered the unexpected result that black holes do emit thermal radiation in a way consistent with the entropy law of Bekenstein.<br />
<br />
This forces us to conclude that black holes can emit particles and eventually evaporate. For astronomical sized black holes the temperature of the radiation is minuscule and certainly beyond detection, but for small black holes the temperature increases until they explode in one final blast. Hawking realised that this creates a difficult paradox which would surely tell us a great deal about the nature of quantum gravity if we could understand it. <br />
<br />
The entropy of a system can be related to the amount of information required to describe it. When objects are thrown into a black hole the information they contain is hidden from outside view because no message can return from inside. Now if the black hole evaporates, this information will be lost in contradiction to the laws of thermodynamics. This is known as the black hole information loss paradox.<br />
<br />
A number of ways on which this paradox could be resolved have been proposed. The main ones are,<br />
<br />
* The lost information escapes to another universe <br />
* The final stage of black hole evaporation halts leaving a remnant particle which holds the information. <br />
* There are strict limits on the amount of information held within any region of space to ensure that the information which enters a black hole cannot exceed the amount represented by its entropy. <br />
* Something else happens which is so strange we can't bring ourselves to think of it. <br />
<br />
The first solution would imply a breakdown of quantum coherence. We would have to completely change the laws of quantum mechanics to cope with this situation. The second case is not quite so bad but it does seem to imply that small black holes must have an infinite number of quantum numbers which would mean their rate of production during the big bang would have been divergent. It might be possible to find a way round this but anyway, it is an ugly solution!<br />
<br />
Assuming that I have not missed something out, which is a big assumption, we must conclude that the amount of entropy which can be held within a region of space is limited by the area of a surface surrounding it. This is certainly counterintuitive because you would imagine that you could write information on bits of paper and the amount you could cram in would be limited by the volume only. This is false because any attempt to do that would eventually cause a black hole to form. Note that this rule does not force us to conclude that the universe must be finite because there is a hidden assumption that the region of space is static which I did not mention.<br />
<br />
If the amount of information is limited then the number of physical degrees of freedom in a field theory of quantum gravity must also be limited. Inspired by this observation, Gerard 't Hooft, Leonard Susskind and others have proposed that the laws of physics should be described in terms of a discrete field theory defined on a space-time surface rather than throughout space-time. They liken the way this might work to that of a hologram which holds a three dimensional image within its two dimensional surface.<br />
<br />
Rather than being rejected as a crazy idea, this theory has been recognised by many other physicists as being consistent with other ideas in quantum gravity. <br />
<br />
<br />
Quantised Space-time<br />
<br />
Although there has been considerable progress on the problem of quantising gravity, it seems likely that it will not be possible to complete the solution without some fundamental change in the way we think about space-time. All the approaches I have described suggest that the Planck units of length and time define a minimum scale of measurement. Indeed the same conclusion can be reached using fairly general arguments based on the Heisenberg uncertainty principle applied to the metric field of gravity.<br />
<br />
One possibility would be that space-time is some kind of lattice structure at small scales. A regular cubic lattice structure is generally regarded as an unacceptable alternative because it destroys space-time symmetry. A random lattice is more plausible. Numerical studies of statistical randomly triangulated surfaces are quite encouraging. The Regge calculus describes such a discretisation of gravity and is akin to topological lattice quantum field theories as models of quantum gravity in three dimensions. <br />
<br />
As far back as 1947, Synder attempted to quantise space-time by treating space-time co-ordinates as non-commutating operators. The original formulation was unsuccessful but recent work on quantum groups have initiated a revival of this approach. This approach also leads to a discrete interpretation of space-time. Another related topic is non-commutative geometry in which space-time itself is regarded as secondary to the algebra of fields which can be generalised to have non-commuting products. <br />
<br />
Still this seems to be not quite radical enough to account for quantum gravity. Some physicists believe that we must modify our views sufficiently to allow for dynamical changes in the number of space-time dimensions.<br />
<br />
To face the quantum gravity challenge we need new insights and new principles like those which guided Einstein to the correct theory of gravity.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Quantum_and_Beyond&diff=1840The Quantum and Beyond2021-03-27T08:11:30Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> New Version 1.2 Still under construction May, 1996 The Heisenberg-Bohr tranquilizing philosophy--or religion? --is so delicately contrive..."</p>
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<div><pre><br />
New Version 1.2<br />
<br />
Still under construction May, 1996 <br />
<br />
<br />
The Heisenberg-Bohr tranquilizing philosophy--or religion? --is so <br />
delicately contrived that, for the time being, it provides a gentle <br />
pillow for the true believer from which he cannot very easily be aroused. <br />
So let him lie there.<br />
<br />
-Albert Einstein<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
NEW FEATURE, Feb 1996<br />
<br />
See Jack Sarfatti right now on digital TV on the World Wide Web if you have<br />
Netscape 2.0 on Win 95 or NT. Get the vdolive and Amber plug ins and then get<br />
the VDO Lecture and the Amber versions. You can also see the .pdf Amber<br />
version with any form of Acrobat Reader.<br />
<br />
_____________<br />
<br />
The Quantum and Beyond<br />
<br />
<br />
by Jack Sarfatti<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
New Feature 2/96<br />
<br />
Sarfatti<br />
Commentaries on the Tucson II<br />
Conference on Physics and Consciousness<br />
<br />
<br />
The Blackhole and the Brain<br />
<br />
(title copyrighted) Jack Sarfatti's reply to Murray Gell-Mann's The Quark and the Jaguar<br />
<br />
<br />
"You can fly faster-than-light if you want to.<br />
High as a kite, if you want to.<br />
Speeding through the universe.<br />
Thinking is the best way to travel."<br />
<br />
-Moody Blues<br />
<br />
-----<br />
<br />
"We are such dreams as stuff is made from." <br />
<br />
- Anonymous on the Copenhagen Interpretation in a variation on Shakespeare.<br />
<br />
<br />
The mathematics of quantum mechanics today explains the measurable behavior of non-living matter from the tiny subnuclear scale all the way up to the scale of rotating neutron stars.<br />
<br />
<br />
Classical physics pictures matter as made from tiny point-like elementary particles, or sources, and their fundamental force fields which are spread out all over space and changing in time. In my point of view, quantum mechanics adds elemental mind to classical matter in the form of wave functions for the elementary particles and their fundamental force fields. The mental wave functions act on their individual particles causing them to deviate from the classical motion determined by force fields that act on them. Classical force fields also have their own kind of quantum wave functionals which act on them. The two together form a new structure called the quantum field<br />
<br />
The quantum measurement problem refers to the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr, Heisenberg, von Neumann and others. It is the accepted interpretation of the meaning of quantum mechanics. It asserts that the quantum wave function is a complete description of physical reality at the fundamental individual event level. There are no classical-like source particles with definite paths in spacetime in the Copenhagen interpretation. Similarly, there are no local classical force fields there as well. The classical particles and fields somehow emerge in the "classical limit" when Planck's constant hbar is small compared to the dynamical actions of the observed system. This interpretation leads to a puzzling faster-than-light collapse of the spread out wave function in a measurement. David Bohm, under Einstein's influence, realized that Bohr and company threw the baby out with the bath water. For more details of Bohm's interpretation of quantum mechanics click here. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Above we have a computer simulation of the actual paths of massive particles in a double slit interference experiment. Such a picture is not even thinkable in the Smoky Dragon picture of the Copenhagen interpretation. Notice that in every individual case a particle only goes through one slit and it never crosses the plane midway between the slits. Each particle is guided into a wave pattern by a physical quantum potential shown in the next picture below as seen from the screen where the fringes are. The nonlocal (i.e. "organic" or "wholistic" or "context-dependent") quantum potential only depends on the shape or form of the wave function not on its magnitude. The negative spatial gradient of the quantum potential is the quantum force on the particle. The quantum force is very different from classical forces like the Lorentz force on a charged particle. The quantum force can be large even when the wave function is very small. This is why quantum effects can be large over long distances. It is not true that quantum effects are only big for tiny atoms. This is the problem of how the classical world emerges from the quantum world. It is more subtle than discussions based on the Copenhagen interpretation permit. Several generations of physicists have been mesmerized by an incomplete picture of quantum reality. Einstein was right after all and Bohr was wrong.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Relativistic source (fermion) and force (boson) quantum fields create and destroy particles called quanta. The force quanta are emitted and absorbed by the elementary source particles which carry the charges of the force fields. The electromagnetic force field is not charged, but the weak and strong forces fields are. There are three "flavor" types of charges for the weak field and eight "color" types of charges for the strong field. There is only one type of electromagnetic charge. <br />
<br />
For example, the unified classical electromagnetic field of microwaves, radio, infrared, light, x rays and gamma rays, together with its quantum wave functional, forms the quantum electrodynamic force field part of quantum electrodynamics (QED). The quanta of the QED force field are called photons. The classical distinction between particles and fields gets blurred at the quantum level. Basically, all forms of matter, whether sources or forces, are quantum fields that create and destroy particle-like quanta. So, for example, the quanta of the QED source field are electrons and their antiparticles.<br />
<br />
The quanta come in two forms called real and virtual. Real quanta can be detected directly and obey the mass shell equation that connects their energy and momentum in terms of their frame-invariant proper mass. Classical electromagnetic radiation is made out of real photons. Virtual quanta can only be detected indirectly and they do not obey the mass shell equation. This means that virtual quanta can travel faster than the speed of classical light radiation. For example, a virtual photon can be spacelike outside the classical light cone. Indeed, the near field, e.g., Coulomb field of electrostatics, is made mostly from virtual spacelike photons of longitudinal and timelike polarizations. These faster-than-light (FTL) virtual quanta cannot be used to send signals because they cannot be directly detected over long distances. Real quanta obey the Heisenberg uncertainty principle which says that the uncertainty in an energy (momentum) measurement must be larger than Planck's constant divided by the uncertainty in a simultaneous time (position) measurement. In contrast, the total energy (momentum) of a virtual quantum must be smaller than Planck's constant divided by its lifetime (size) as a fluctuation out of the vacuum in which there are no real quanta. Hoyle and Narlikar have an alternative point of view in which there are no photons, real or virtual, and the future universe influence functional is responsible for spontaneous emission and other vacuum fluctuation effects. <br />
<br />
Collections of identical classical elementary particles, that share the same entangled wavefunction, have special permutational quantum forces that repel each other, even if they are not exchanging virtual quanta of their fundamental classical forces. In contrast, collections of identical quanta of classical force fields of spin 1 called bosons, that share the same wave function, have permutational quantum forces that attract each other, even if they are not exchanging virtual versions of themselves. This is shown by the image on the left of the picture below for a system of two identical bosons in which possible paired particle trajectories in Bohm's theory are plotted. <br />
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<br />
The image on the right shows the repulsive permutational quantum force between the possible trajectories of two identical fermions of spin 1/2. In both cases the particles are in external classical harmonic potential force fields with no classical force coupling between them. <br />
<br />
The quanta of the classical forces spin exactly twice as fast as do the elementary particles that emit and absorb them. The elementary particles are quarks and leptons. Their wave functions are called spinors because of their odd properties under spatial rotation. The spinor wave function of a single elementary particle is multiplied by -1 under a full circle rotation. For example, a neutron is made out of three quarks, therefore it also has a spinor wave function. If a beam of unentangled neutrons is passed through a crystal interferometer, their individual wave functions are each split into two pieces along two separate paths and are then recombined with two outputs fed into two detectors A and B. First the experiment is done with the paths adjusted so that detector A has constructive interference while detector B has destructive interference. Therefore, detector B is silent. Now imagine a special magnetic coil placed in one of the paths. It is designed in such a way that it rotates the magnetic moment of the spinning neutron by a full circle of 360 degrees in the plane perpendicular to the path. This means that the piece of the wave function on that path is multiplied by a factor of -1 compared to what it was before the magnetic field was switched on. The result is that detector A switches from constructive to destructive interference and falls silent, while detector B does the opposite and begins to "click". <br />
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<br />
A similar experiment can be done with photons using polarizers instead of magnetic coils. In contrast, the photon wave function is not a spinor but a vector, and, consequently, it does not get multiplied by a -1 under a full circle rotation. Therefore, there is no spinor switching of the firing rates in detectors A and B for photons in optical interferometers.<br />
<br />
The new mental nonlocal quantum force is qualitatively different from the classical material force fields. This "telepathic" quantum force does not weaken as space and time separations increase. <br />
<br />
Correlated quanta do not have to be identical, so that the permutational quantum forces need not exist for them. Correlated quanta do not have local wave functions of their own. They do have local reduced density matrices which have a higher positive thermodynamic entropy than their common wave function has. Indeed, if the correlated quanta share a single "pure" entangled wave function, its thermodynamic entropy is zero. This implies that the nonlocal entropy of correlation is negative. Therefore, the correlated quantum whole is greater than the simple sum of its parts. Thus, the nonlocal quantum connection allows new collective coherent emergent properties of higher levels of organization of matter in which "more is different".<br />
<br />
The telepathic quantum force not only depends upon where and when all the particles are macroscopically detected, it also depends on a mind-like informational pattern that exists in extra-dimensional Hilbert space beyond the spacetime of Einstein's theory of relativity. Furthermore, the quantum force does not care whether the separations between particles at their macroscopic detections are spacelike. That is, the quantum force acts faster-than-the speeding photon.<br />
<br />
The above world picture arises out of the late David Bohm's "nonlocal hidden variable" interpretation of quantum mechanics today. The hidden variables are the positions of the actual tiny particles and the spread out configurations of the actual classical force fields. The nonlocality is in the action of the objective quantum force made out of the wavefunction on the "hidden" actual particles and on the "hidden" actual classical force field configurations. This telepathic force that is different from the fundamental classical forces, appears as a quantum potential in the Hamilton-Jacobi form of Newton's second law of motion for the particle, and as a "superpotential" in the corresponding form of the classical field equations which are now highly nonlinear and nonlocal even in charge-free regions of spacetime.<br />
<br />
In contrast, the dominant "Copenhagen interpretation" assumes that there are no hidden variables. There are only mental wave functions of coherently superposed dreamy fixed possibilities of an "observable frame of reference". These fixed possibilities called "eigenfunctions of the observable" describe alternative classical situations that are mutually exclusive or "orthogonal". In simple language, the possibilities contradict each other.<br />
<br />
The fixed possibilities form the extra linearly independent basic dimensions of the Hilbert space. The coherent linear superposition of these contradictory classical possibilities is represented by a "point" that, for an isolated system, moves rigidly in time on the surface of a unit hypersphere in this complex Hilbert space that exists beyond spacetime. The rigid evolution of isolated systems is described by the Schrodinger equation and its generalization to the relativistic Dirac equation for the elementary particles. The linearity means that the different fixed possibilities do not distort or impede each other. The rigidity consists in the invariance under changes in perspective of the "right angles" between the fixed possibilities. A mathematical change in perspective has an operational definition as a change in the total experiment arrangement as defined by Bohr.<br />
<br />
The superposition mysteriously squashes or "collapses" in a measurement (i.e., macroscopic detection) in which only one of the several fixed possibilities actually happens. The non-rigid collapse process is fundamentally different in kind from the rigid time evolution of the quantum system when it is not being observed. The collapse squashes the full Hilbert space to a lower dimensional subspace with a definite probability The sum of all the probabilities for a complete set of fixed possibilities adds up to 1 (i.e. a certainty). This feature is conserved in time between measurements under the rigid evolution for the isolated or closed system.<br />
<br />
The Copenhagen interpretation suggests a strange kind of action backwards in time in the form of John Archibald Wheeler's delayed choice experiment.<br />
<br />
There is no mysterious collapse in Bohm's theory because the hidden particle is actually present in one of the fixed possibilities which is an objective pattern of information. Correlations of the "empty" fixed possibilities with contradictory or "orthogonal" possibilities of huge numbers of particles and fields forming the environment make it extremely unlikely that the empty possibilities of the original particle will be able to act on that particle again. If we can control the interaction of our particle with the environment, we can, in principle, quantum erase the would-be measurement.<br />
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<br />
<br />
Bell's theorem shows that there must be faster-than-light quantum influences if the wave function describes individual quantum systems, and if there is counterfactuality in which what might happen but doesn't, nevertheless, has a definite observable influence on what does actually happen.<br />
<br />
Eberhard's theorem shows that these precisely observable faster-than-light influences (in the form of hindsight correlations) cannot be used for practical communication if quantum mechanics today is a complete theory of physical reality. Nevertheless, these spacelike correlations do have a practical application in the technology of untappable public key cryptography which will be in widespread use to secure commercial transactions on the world-wide-web of the Internet.<br />
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Bohm's hidden variable interpretation reproduces all of the statistical predictions of quantum mechanics today provided that we make the approximation that the mental wave functions of the particles and fields acts directly on them, but, in contrast, the particles and fields do not directly act back on their wave functions. In other words, the mindlike wave functions of inanimate organizations of matter are unmoved movers that move matter, but are not moved by matter. When we go beyond this approximation we find our conscious selves.<br />
<br />
More precisely, a direct action of matter back on mind destroys the rigid conservation of probability in the time evolution between measurements. I hypothesize that this, so-called, "nonunitary" violation of conservation of probability current is the fundamental mechanism for the creative evolution or "mutation" of cultural memes in living organizations of matter. Memes are the fundamental patterns of social behavior, defined in sociobiology, that are also subject to Darwinian selection pressures. A meme is like a gene at a higher level of organization of matter.<br />
<br />
There is another interpretation of quantum mechanics without hidden variables which does not have telepathic faster-than-light nonlocal influences between spacelike separated localized quanta that share the same entangled wavefunction. This interpretation, with minor variations, is called "many worlds", or "many minds", or "consistent histories", or "parallel universes", or "relative state". All of these minor variations on the same theme deny counterfactuality in some way, so that they can be local theories and still obey Bell's theorem. It is not necessary to imagine that the material universe actually splits, only that the mental wave functions do. There are no fundamental problems with energy conservation, for example.<br />
<br />
David Albert's quantum camera, that photographs "other worlds", has shown that many-minds type interpretations, in the presence of self-measurement, allow the observer to be directly aware of their parallel streams of consciousness in contradiction to Everett's initial assertion to the contrary. The self- measuring observer transcends the uncertainty principle in a limited way. The consequent multiple interpenetrating realities interpretation is consistent with the experiences of shamans, mystics and poets. It also explains the odd psychologies of "UFO contactees" as described in several books by Jacques Vallee. The cultural implications of this school of thought have been explored in great detail by Fred Alan Wolf in his books, Parallel Universes and The Dreaming Universe.<br />
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The late Richard Feynman also had a fundamental interpretation of quantum mechanics in terms of histories which naturally leads to the idea of information propagating both forward and backwards in time. Quantum interference appears in the form of loops in time over nonvanishing timelike slices of spacetime.<br />
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Bohm's famous student, Israeli physicist Yakir Aharonov has an interpretation of quantum mechanics that involves more than one wave function in which what happens now is determined by both past and future causes. The coherence of quantum states from different times permits Aharonov to conceptualize a very unreliable quantum time machine in which time travel to the past to before the machine is built, and to the future, to after it is destroyed, is possible, at least as a thought experiment. This is qualitatively different from the, in principle, reliable classical time travel through wormholes , built from exotic matter in which it makes no sense to travel to a time that was before the wormhole was created. Quantum time machines might be a model for a deep brain mechanism at the quantum gravity level which would permit rare memories of "past lives" as direct telepathic downloading of information reaching back in time and equally rare precognitions as direct telepathic downloading forward in time back from the future.<br />
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Recent studies of continuous measurements in open quantum systems and complex adaptive systems that measure themselves are opening up new ways of thinking that will take us beyond quantum mechanics today into a more magical, but still scientific, view of the world making Star Trek real taking us not only to the stars, but to the far future of the universe and back to as close to the Big Bang as we dare to go. "Make it so."<br />
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<br />
Quantum Back Action<br />
<br />
Does Consciousness Require a Violation of Orthodox Quantum<br />
Mechanics?<br />
<br />
(version 0.4)<br />
<br />
March 22, 1996<br />
<br />
Jack Sarfatti<br />
<br />
jsarfatti@aol.com<br />
<br />
The world, according to the late David Bohm, divides into objectively real, though mathematically complex-valued, quantum waves and objectively real classical particles and gauge fields. The classical particles and gauge fields always have quantum waves attached to them. For a many-particle system, the quantum wave function's domain is the system's classical-mechanical configuration space not physical space. This is in contrast to Copenhagen-type interpretations (i.e., Bohr, Heisenberg, von-Neumann, etc. -- all are a wee bit different) in which the quantum wave is fundamental and the classical particle is not. Indeed, Bohm's actual particle position in physical space has been called the "hidden variable". This is topsy-turvy since most practical measurements in quantum physics involve localized "particle" flashes in a detector. The quantum wave patterns build up in the statistics of the particle detections. It would be more appropriate to say that the wave is the hidden variable.<br />
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We restrict this discussion to non-relativistic quantum mechanics. Bohm's theory appears to violate the Lorentz transformations of Einstein's theory of special relativity at the individual quantum particle level. However, Lorentz symmetry is restored in the statistical quantum wave patterns. That is, there does appear to be a preferred rest frame in which the new nonlocal quantum forces act instantaneously. This fact is a bit ugly, but we must remember that there is a preferred global frame of reference in the standard cosmological "big bang" solution of Einstein's general relativity field equations. The "co-moving Hubble flow" provides a new kind of covariant aether in which the cosmic photons from the big-bang are isotropic with a temperature that obeys the Planck blackbody distribution. The isotropy establishes an absolute global "rest frame", and the temperature establishes an absolute measure of global cosmic time from the big bang. Bohm conjectures that the quantum force is instantaneous in this global frame which suggests an interesting connection between a solution to classical general relativity and low-energy quantum mechanics. Special relativity is a local tangent space symmetry in general relativity. Therefore, the big bang Friedmann solution is an example of the spontaneous broken symmetry familiar in solid-state physics and in the standard model of elementary quark-lepton fermion sources and gauge boson forces. On the other hand, if we look at quantum electrodynamics we find the counter-intuitive surprising fact that the near field of virtual longitudinal and timelike photons is also instantaneous in every Lorentz frame of reference. This is because every Lorentz transformation between inertial frames in relative uniform motion induces a compensating internal phase symmetry or "gauge" transformation that re-adjusts the near field to be instantaneous in every frame. Can we impose this feature on the special-relativistic generalization of Bohm's quantum force? This is a question for further research.<br />
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The quantum force is the negative spatial gradient of a context-dependent quantum potential that appears in the Hamilton-Jacobi equation for the particle derived from the linear Schrodinger wave equation. The quantum force's context-dependence explains the wave-like guidance of the individual particle in the famous double slit experiment which the late Richard Feynman called the "central mystery of quantum mechanics". Context-dependence means that the guiding quantum force only depends on the "form" of the quantum potential and not its intensity or strength. This is because the quantum potential is the Laplacian of the amplitude of the wave function divided by that same amplitude. Therefore, multiplying the wave function by a constant does not change the quantum potential. Bohm calls this quantum force "active information" in which a small expenditure of energy is able to control a much larger expenditure of energy. This feature is dramatically illustrated in the quantum Carnot engine operating between a hot negative temperature and a cold positive temperature. The quantum wave is a kind of information wave. This is the same idea that David Chalmers calls for in his criteria for a post-modern physics of consciousness although he does not appear to be aware of the relevance of Bohm's theory in this context.<br />
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There is an actual point-like particle with a well defined position and momentum at each moment. There is also an actual gauge force field configuration, but in this discussion we only discuss the source particles. In fact the momentum of the particle is context-dependent determined as the gradient of the phase of the wavefunction at the actual position of the particle at every moment. This particle passes through only one of the two slits, but its attached objective wave passes through both slits. The recombination of the waves from both slits exerts a quantum force on the particle whose effects exactly reproduce the observed statistical coherent wave patterns for ensembles of particles whose initial positions are postulated to obey the Born probability rule. The conservation of probability current, derived from the linear Schrodinger equation along with the Hamilton-Jacobi equation, then ensures that the Born probability rule holds for all times. There is no conflict with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle since the statistical deviations of position and momentum measurements obey that principle. The actual particle trajectories are classically chaotic so that a small change in an initial position generally will result in an unpredictable and uncontrollable large change in trajectory over a short time. This, the simplest form of Bohm's theory, is deterministic but not predictable. Bohm and Vigier later added a fundamental stochastic sub-quantal level which, according to Nanopoulos, originates in the virtual blackholes and super-string states of the quantum foam at the Planck scale of 10^-33 cm. In addition, the dependence of the wave of several particles on position in higher dimensional configuration space introduces the kind of "nonlocality" observed in the experiments testing Bell's locality inequality.<br />
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We now come to "back-action" which is the main idea of this paper . The origin of this idea is Newton's third law that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. We now know that this is a consequence of translational symmetry in physical space. Radiation resistance in Maxwell's electrodynamics is a kind of back-action of the field on its source. Wheeler and Feynman showed how this back-action is caused by advanced waves propagating backward in time from the future absorption of the radiation. Retarded causality then depends on the future final boundary condition of total absorption which is actually violated in the same standard big bang solution of general relativity I mentioned earlier -- as shown by Hoyle and Narlikar in the January 1995, Reviews of Modern Physics. It can also be shown that quantum spontaneous emission of real radiation by virtual zero point vacuum fluctuations can be explained as advanced wave effects from the future that are classically associated with radiation resistance. Feynman also used the term "back-action" to explain the generation of quantized vortices in superfluid helium.<br />
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The late Eugene Wigner, amplifying on von-Neumann's "collapse" postulate in the Copenhagen-like interpretations, suggested that "consciousness" is essential for the completion of the quantum measurement. This entails a violation of the linear Schrodinger equation. <br />
<br />
Note that the Hartree-Fock mean-field approximation for the spectra of many-electron atoms give an effective cubic nonlinear Schrodinger-like equation. The Heitler-London theory of the simple chemical bond and the Heisenberg model of ferromagnetism demand similar effective cubic nonlinearities which show up, for example, in the exchange integral. The exchange integral in the effective Lagrangian involves two electron densities or four wave function factors.The equation of motion from the action principle involves a functional derivative with respect to the wave function so the resultant nonlinearity is cubic. Cubic nonlinearities also show up in the Landau-Ginzburg equations for coherent macroscopic order parameters or giant effective quantum wavefunctions in second order phase transitions including superfluids, superconductors and lasers. The cubic nonlinearity is also found in the Higgs mechanism for mass generation of particles in the spontaneous breakdown of symmetry of the electro-weak force. The Goldstone modes from the symmetry breakdown add a new polarization component to the massless gauge bosons giving them rest mass. Fermion source particles can also acquire rest mass this way. The symmetry breakdown is from a tachyon field that undergoes Bose-Einstein condensation. The Goldstone modes are small subluminal quantized vibrations in the vacuum expectation value of the tachyon field. These nonlinearities in the Schrodinger equation which are generically induced in mean-field approximations to many-particle effects are swept away by second-quantizing the wavefunction so that it is now a creation and destruction operator of elementary excitations of collective modes in non-relativistic solid state physics. The second-quantized Schrodinger equation is now "linear" in the Fock space whose base states consist of different precise numbers of elementary excitations. Nevertheless, this is only a formal trick and the problems of the first-quantized theory are still there. The creation of antimatter at high energy has led to the idea that second-quantization is really more fundamental for relativistic theories, however, Bohm's theory which does not use second quantization may also be able to explain the creation and destruction of particles. This is also a problem for further research. Indeed Feynman's path integral formulation of relativistic quantum field theory does not use second-quantization and Bohm's picture can readily be integrated into Feynman's. Indeed, Feynman's theory is essentially an incomplete version of Bohm's without the actual trajectories. Therefore, in Bohm's theory as in Feynman's the creation and destruction of particle-antiparticle pairs at high energy correspond to actual particles turning around and moving backward in time. Feynman imposes a boundary condition which is a contour around the poles of the particle propagator in the complex-energy plane such that particles move forward in time with positive energy and backward in time with negative energy. This choice ensures microcausality. We must be prepared for exotic matter in which this boundary condition is violated. The exotic matter keeps star gate traversable wormholes from collapsing and permits the Alcubierre warp drive. One can also imagine new exotic processes in which the actual particles move in Hawking's imaginary time and also temporarily transform into tachyons on spacelike paths. These are all problems for further research. Note that the use of complex energy planes in Feynman's theory also demands the use of complex time planes since the two are related by a Fourier transform.<br />
<br />
Wigner invoked the metaphor of NewtonÕs third law in the new context of the<br />
mind-matter interaction. He said that matter affects mind, but there is no<br />
corresponding reaction of mind on matter without the collapse of the quantum<br />
wave function brought about by consciousness. As shown by John Archibald<br />
Wheeler in his classic essay, "Law Without Law", this view leads to "delayed<br />
choice" actions backward-in-time (BIT) because we did not exist in the early<br />
universe and yet we observe light from the early universe. In effect, it is the future<br />
that actualizes the past in the von-Neumann-Wignerean view of quantum reality.<br />
Indeed, Roger Penrose and Henry Stapp have physics of consciousness theories<br />
based on this approach.<br />
<br />
To summarize, Wigner uses the metaphor of back-action to say that mind acts on<br />
matter in the collapse of the wave function. Penrose and Stapp say that each<br />
qualia-event or moment of awareness requires a collapse in the wavefunction of<br />
the brain. It is assumed that there are mechanisms that preserve coherence over<br />
a time of the order of one second. The wave function is shielded from ordinary<br />
thermal fluctuations which would decohere it in times much shorter than one<br />
second. <br />
<br />
Bohm's theory is very different from the von Neumann-Wigner theory. First off, I identify "pre-mind" with the quantum wave attached to the relevant many-particle system. This is a new postulate that the potential for psychological "qualia" is a fundamental physical property of the universe in the sense defined by David Chalmers in his December 1995, Scientific American article. If we grant this postulate that the potential for qualia is as fundamental as charge or mass, and that this potential is identical with the quantum waves of certain particles of matter in biological and possibly other complex systems, then Bohm's quantum force immediately explains how mind moves matter. Furthermore, in Bohm's theory it is the quantum force that guides the particle into a given branch of the wave function in a measurement situation. This simulates Wigner's idea that "consciousness" collapses the wavefunction. Bohm's theory is one of "collapse without collapse". Therefore, I have given a more detailed explanation of Wigner's idea in terms of a deeper idea due to a combination of Bohm's and Chalmers's views. We now have a new way of looking at the modern theories of quantum consciousness of Penrose and Stapp. <br />
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To make more contact with the standard quantum mechanics, we now see why it is that the guidance of the particle by the "mind-like" quantum force into a particular "eigenfunction" of the "observable" is, under usual conditions, unpredictable and uncontrollable. The latter two features are due to the fact that the linear Schrodinger equation has zero back-action in the sense that I mean it. Whereas Wigner's idea of back-action was that of mind on matter, my idea is the exact reverse. The Bohmian back-action is the direct action of particulate matter on its attached guiding mind-like quantum wave whose support is in the configuration space of classical mechanics, and whose range is in Hilbert space. The result, however, is not incompatible with Wigner's main idea and it, in fact, explains it in a deeper more elegant way.<br />
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The absence of back-action in orthodox quantum mechanics is mentioned by Bohm and Hiley in their book, The Undivided Universe.<br />
<br />
"unlike what happens with MaxwellÕs equations for example, the<br />
Schrodinger equation for the quantum field does not have sources,<br />
nor does it have any other way by which the field could be directly<br />
affected by the conditions of the particles. This of course<br />
constitutes an important difference between quantum fields and<br />
other fields that have thus far been used. As we shall see, however,<br />
the quantum theory can be understood completely in terms of the<br />
assumption that the quantum field has no sources or other forms of<br />
dependence on the particles. We shall in chapter 14, section 14.6,<br />
go into what it would mean to have such a dependence and we<br />
shall see that this would imply that the quantum theory is an<br />
approximation with a limited domain of validity." p.30<br />
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By the term "back-action" I mean that the quantum wave field is "directly affected by the conditions of the particles". It is qualitatively obvious that such a direct dependence is the counter-force or reaction to the quantum force. The combination of the quantum force of wave on particle with the counter-force or back-action of particle on wave forms a feed-back control loop which is able to control the formerly uncontrollable guidance of the particle by its wave. This results in a distortion of the statistical patterns of orthodox quantum mechanics. This is the mechanism of intent or free will. Henry Stapp in the July 15. 1994 Physical Review A (p.18) has a theory with some of these features. If we accept the postulate that the quantum wave is "pre-mind", then the direct affect of the particles of matter on their attached wave is a change in that wave that is an internal representation or map of the material environment in the sense of models of artificial intelligence. It is this change in the "active information" wave form that is homomorphic to the external material configurations that constitutes the dynamic stream of perception and consciousness or qualia that is our most immediate sense of self and being in the world in conformity with David Chalmers's criteria.<br />
<br />
The relevant particles are probably the electrons whose spatial displacement controls the conformations of the protein dimers in the microtubules. It is their collective, perhaps Frohlich electric-dipole, wave form pumped far from thermal equilibrium which, I conjecture, is the physical substrate of our mental experience. All forms of life must have back-action in the sense defined above. Back-action is a necessary condition for the existence of any form of living matter in this theory.<br />
<br />
Having come this far, things really start to get interesting. Going to Bohm and Hiley's "section 14.6" we find:<br />
<br />
"Other changes of this sort that might be considered would be to<br />
make the Schrodinger wave equation nonlinear and to introduce<br />
terms that would relate the Schrodinger wave function to the<br />
particle positions. É One way to make SchrodingerÕs equation<br />
dependent on the particle positions (so that there would be a<br />
two-way relationship between wave and particle) can be seen by<br />
considering equation (14.1). In this equation, we regard Rn as the<br />
actual position of the nth particle. From the same arguments as<br />
apply to the GRW (Ghirardi, Rimini and Weber ) approach, it would<br />
follow that the overall wavefunction would tend to collapse<br />
towards the actual particle positions, so that in a large scale system,<br />
the empty wave packets of our interpretation would tend to<br />
disappear." pp.345-6.<br />
<br />
David Albert in his book The Quantum Theory of Experience and in his recent Scientific American article advocates a GRW theory. Here we see that the GRW theory is one realization of a deeper idea of direct back-action of particle on wave. The new Nanopoulos theory is a form of GRW in which the back-action is coming from the quantum foam of virtual black holes, baby universes and superstring states. Nanopoulos thinks his way of looking at the problem is a deeper explanation of Penrose's orchestrated "auto-collapse" of the wavefunction of the brain that he says forms the qualia in the stream of consciousness.<br />
<br />
It is important to realize that the idea of the mind doing a quantum computation requires that there be no collapse or decoherence whilst the computation is in progress. The GRW theories postulate that the decoherence time depends inversely as the number of particles N that form the quantum computing hardware unit. GRW introduce ad hoc two new fundamental constants of Nature of 10^-5 cm or 100 nanometers for the scale of collapse, and 10^16 sec or a billion years which divided by N gives the decoherence time beyond which quantum computing deteriorates. Nanopoulos gives a more fundamental derivations of the decoherence time in terms of the masses of the particles. If we use the Nanopoulos formulae and my hypothesis that the human quantum biocomputing unit is at the electron level rather than the proton level, then the decoherence time for the number of electrons in our bodies is of the order of 100 years or approximately one human lifetime. If we use protons as the basic unit, the decoherence time is a factor of 10^20 shorter for the same number of particles. This means one has to use a much smaller number of protons to get the same decoherence time as one would get for electrons. Using protons and a decoherence time of 1 second gives an estimate for the basic unit of our experience. The numbers for this computed by Nanopoulos and Penrose need to be compared. One can imagine that the continuity of our long-term memory that lasts a lifetime is at the electron level in our microtubules while our more immediate short-term moment-to-moment experiences are at the proton level having to do with hydrogen bonds. The coupling between short-term and long-term memories would then have to do with the interaction of hydrogen bonds with the controlling electrons in the protein dimers of the microtubules.<br />
<br />
One last wild idea before ending this rough first draft. Let's play with a cosmological connection in the GRW model since Nanopoulos has already linked the "quantum friction" of the fundamental decoherence time to the quantum gravity foam. Suppose, the basic decoherence time is the Hubble size of the universe divided by the speed light of about 10 billion years presently. This means that the basic decoherence time at the big bang before inflation was the Planck time of 10^-43 sec which is not unreasonable. Let us further suppose that the spatial scale of collapse, which does not appear to be in Nanopoulos's theory is the geometric mean between the Planck distance of 10^-33 cm and the Hubble size of the universe multiplied by the square of the dominating gauge force coupling constant. Why the square of the coupling constant? Because that is what happens in the basic Feynman diagram for any interaction force between two sources via the exchange of a virtual boson. Every thing that happens is a composite of such Feynman diagrams in standard field theory. Well if we do this, we get about 10^-5 cm for the present epoch which agrees with GRW using the fine structure constant for QED and we get the Planck scale of 10^-33 cm at the big bang since all the coupling constants grand-unify to 1 before they get to the Planck scale in the standard ideas on the subject. So first homework problem - is there anything in astronomy which would falsify this idea? Can it explain the missing-mass problem and the apparent presence of stars older than the universe? It makes a very interesting prediction. It says that, in an open universe (e.g. Freeman Dyson's "Time Without End") things get more and more quantum mechanical as the expanding universe gets older and older. That is larger and larger numbers of particles preserve their nonlocal quantum connections to each other over longer and longer coherence times, and therefore show macroscopic quantum effects over wider and wider spatial separations in the far future of the universe even though the density of particles may be decreasing to zero asymptotically. This is a prediction for the "Mind of God" (e.g. end of Hawking's book, A Brief History of Time) because, on the basis of my idea that the act of quantum computing requires the suspension of decoherence, eventually all the matter in the universe will be quantum mechanical on the cosmological scale. If back-action is present, direct faster-than-light (FTL) communication between distant regions of matter in the open universe can happen. Eberhard's theorem prohibiting such communication using nonlocal quantum connectivity only works in the limit of zero back-action. In this wild idea all the matter of the open immortal universe becomes part of a Vast Active Living Intelligence (i.e. Phillip Dick's VALIS) or cosmological brain whose quantum wave function is the "Mind of God" in Hawking's sense. This model is different from Frank Tipler's Omega Point which requires a closed universe. My model is consistent with I.J. Good's notion of "GOD(D)" that he introduced about fifteen years ago. Good worked with Alan Turing breaking the Nazi War Code.<br />
<br />
Related papers<br />
<br />
Nobel Prize Physicist, Brian Josephson on the use of quantum nonlocality by living matter.<br />
<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Metaphysics_of_Space-Time&diff=1839The Metaphysics of Space-Time2021-03-27T08:07:53Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "Space and time have been favourite subjects for philosophers since at least the ancient Greeks. The paradoxes of the infinite and the infinitesimal are reinvented each day by..."</p>
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<div>Space and time have been favourite subjects for philosophers since at least the ancient Greeks. The paradoxes of the infinite and the infinitesimal are reinvented each day by children with inquisitive minds. How can space be infinite? If it is not infinite what would lie beyond the end? Can the universe have a beginning and an end? How have modern physicists and philosophers learnt to deal with these questions?<br />
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The simplest answer is that they use mathematics to construct models of the universe from basic axioms. Mathematicians can define the system of real numbers from set theory and prove all the necessary theorems of calculus that physicists need. With the system of real numbers they can go on to define many different types of geometry. In this way it was possible to discover non-Euclidean geometries in the nineteenth century which were used to build the theory of general relativity in the twentieth.<br />
<br />
The self consistency of general relativity can be proven mathematically from the fundamental axioms. This does not make it correct, but it does make it a viable model who's accuracy can be tested against observation. In this way there are no paradoxes of the infinite or infinitesimal. The universe could be infinite or finite, with or without a boundary. There is no need to answer questions about what happened before the beginning of the universe because we can construct a self-consistent mathematical model of space-time in which time has a beginning with no before. Notice that I say no before not nothing before. There is not even a time before when there was nothing.<br />
<br />
So long as we have a consistent mathematical model we know there is no paradox, but nobody yet has an exact model of the whole universe. Newton used a very simple model of space and time described by Euclidean geometry. In that model space and time are separate, continuous, infinite and absolute. <br />
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This is consistent with what we observe in ordinary experience. Clocks measure time and normally they can be made to keep the same time within the accuracy of their working mechanisms. It as if there was some universal absolute standard of time which flows constantly. It can be measured approximately with clocks but never directly. <br />
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So long as there is no complete theory of physics we know that any model of space-time is likely to be only an approximation to reality which applies in a certain restricted domain. A more accurate model may be found later and although the difference in predicted measurement may be small, the new and old model may be very different in nature. This means that our current models of space and time may be very unrealistic descriptions of what they really are even though they give very accurate predictions in any experiment we can perform.<br />
<br />
Philosophers try to go beyond what physicists can do. Using thought alone they consider what space and time might be beyond what can be observed. Even at the time of Newton there was opposition to the notion of absolute space and time from his German rival Leibnitz. He, and many other philosophers who came after, have argued that space and time do not exist in an absolute form as described by Newton. Newton himself appreciated that he was making a big working assumption.<br />
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If we start from the point of view of our experiences, we must recognise that our intuitive notions of space and time are just models in our minds which correspond to what our senses find. This is a model which exists like a computer program in our head. It is one which has been created by evolution because it works. In that case there is no assurance that space and time really exist in any absolute sense.<br />
<br />
The philosophical point of view developed by Leibnitz, the Bishop Berkeley and Mach is that space and time should be seen as formed from the relationships between objects. Objects themselves are formed from relationships between our experiences. Only our experiences are absolute. The mathematical models used by physicists turn this upside-down. They start with space and time, then they place objects in it, then they predict our experiences as a result of how the objects interact.<br />
<br />
Mach believed that space and time do not exist in the absence of matter. The inertia of objects should be seen as being a result of their relation with other objects rather than their relation with space and time. Einstein was greatly influenced by Mach's principle and hoped that it would follow from his own principles of relativity.<br />
<br />
In the theory of special relativity he found that space and time do not exist as independent absolute entities but space-time exists as a combination of the two. In General Relativity he found, ironically, that the correct description of his theory must use the mathematics of Riemannian geometry. Instead of confirming Mach's principle he found that space-time can have a dynamic structure in it's own right. Not only could space-time exists independent of matter but it even had interesting behaviour on it's own. His most startling prediction that there should exist gravitational waves, ripples in the fabric of space-time itself, may soon be directly confirmed by detection in gravitational wave observatories.<br />
<br />
Einstein's use of geometry was so elegant and compelling that physicists thereafter have always sought to extend the theory to a unified description of matter through geometry. Examples include the Kaluza-Klein models in which space-time is supposed to have more than four dimensions with all but four compacted into an undetectably small geometry. Thus physicists and philosophers have become alienated during the twentieth century.<br />
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Recent theories of particle physics have been so successful that it is now very difficult to find an experimental result which can help physicists go beyond their present theories. As a result they have themselves started to sound more philosophical and are slowly reviewing old ideas. The fundamental problem which faces them is the combination of general relativity and quantum theory into a consistent model.<br />
<br />
According to quantum theory a vacuum is not empty. It is a sea of virtual particles. This is very different from the way that space and time were envisioned in the days of Mach. In a theory of quantum gravity there would be gravitons, particles of pure geometry. Surely such an idea would have been a complete anathema to Mach. But suppose gravitons could be placed on a par with other matter. Perhaps then Mach would be happy with gravitons after all. The theory could be turned on its head with space-time being a result of the interactions between gravitons.<br />
In string theory, the most promising hope for a complete unified theory of physics, we find that gravitons are indeed on an equal footing with other particles. All particles are believed to be different modes of vibration in loops of string. Even black holes, one of the ultimate manifestations of the geometry of space-time are thought to be examples of single loops of string in a very highly energised mode. There is no qualitative distinction between black holes and particles, or between matter and space-time.<br />
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The problem is that there is as yet no mathematical model which makes this identity evident. The equations we do have for strings are somewhat conventional. They describe strings moving in a background space-time. And yet, the mathematics hold strange symmetries which suggest that string theories in different background space-times and even different dimensions are really equivalent. To complete our understanding of string theory we must formulate it independently of space-time. The situation seems to be analogous to the status of electrodynamics at the end of the 19th century. Maxwell's equations were described as vibrations in some ether pervading space. The Michelson-Morley experiments failed to detect the hypothetical ether and signalled the start of a scientific revolution. <br />
<br />
Just as Einstein banished the ether as a medium for electromagnetism we must now complete his work by banishing space-time as a medium for string theory. The result will be a model in which space-time is recovered as a result of the relationship between interacting strings. It will be the first step towards a reconciliation of physics and philosophy. Perhaps it will be quickly followed by a change of view, to a point from where all of our universe can be seen as a consequence of our possible experiences just as the old philosophers wanted us to see it. What other ways will we have to modify our understanding to accommodate such a theory? Not all can be foreseen.<br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Fourth_Dimension&diff=1838The Fourth Dimension2021-03-27T08:06:07Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "By Charles H. Hinton 1904 [This selection includes excerpts of The Fourth Dimension (1904) including material from Chapters 1, 4, and 5. Copy-text: pp 120-141, Speculatio..."</p>
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<div>By Charles H. Hinton <br />
<br />
<br />
1904 <br />
<br />
[This selection includes excerpts of The Fourth Dimension (1904) including material from Chapters 1, 4, and 5. Copy-text: pp 120-141, Speculations on the Fourth Dimension, Selected Writings of Charles H. Hinton, Copyright 1980 by Dover Publications, Inc., ISBN 0-486-23916-0, LC 79-54399.] <br />
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<br />
Four-Dimensional Space <br />
<br />
There is nothing more indefinite, and at the same time more real, than that which we indicate when we speak of the "higher." In our social life we see it evidenced in a greater complexity of relations. But this complexity is not all. There is, at the same time, a contact with, an apprehension of, something more fundamental, more real. <br />
<br />
With the greater development of man there comes a consciousness of something more than all the forms in which it shows itself. There is a readiness to give up all the visible and tangible for the sake of those principles and values of which the visible and tangible are the representation. The physical life of civilized man and of a mere savage are practically the same, but the civilized man has discovered a depth in his existence, which makes him feel that that which appears all to the savage is a mere externality and appurtenage to his true being. <br />
<br />
Now, this higher--how shall we apprehend it? It is generally embraced by our religious faculties, by our idealizing tendency. But the higher existence has two sides. It has a being as well as qualities. And in trying to realize it through our emotions we are always taking the subjective view. Our attention is always fixed on what we feel, what we think. Is there any way of apprehending the higher after the purely objective method of a natural science? I think that there is. <br />
<br />
Plato, in a wonderful allegory, speaks of some men living in such a condition that they were practically reduced to be the denizens of a shadow world. They were chained, and perceived but the shadows of themselves and all real objects projected on a wall, towards which their faces were turned. All movements to them were but movements on the surface, all shapes but the shapes of outlines with no substantiality. <br />
<br />
Plato uses this illustration to portray the relation between true being and the illusions of the sense world. He says that just as a man liberated from his chains could learn and discover that the world was solid and real, and could go back and tell his bound companions of this greater higher reality, so the philosopher who has been liberated, who has gone into the thought of the ideal world, into the world of ideas greater and more real than the things of sense, can come and tell his fellow men of that which is more true than the visible sun--more noble than Athens, the visible state. <br />
<br />
Now, I take Plato's suggestion; but literally, not metaphorically. He imagines a world which is lower than this world, in that shadow figures and shadow motions are its constituents; and to it he contrasts the real world. As the real world is to this shadow world, so is the higher world to our world. I accept his analogy. As our world in three dimensions is to a shadow or plane world, so is the higher world to our three-dimensional world. That is, the higher world is four-dimensional; the higher being is, so far as its existence is concerned apart from its qualities, to be sought through the conception of an actual existence spatially higher than that which we realize with our senses. <br />
<br />
Here you will observe I necessarily leave out all that gives its charm and interest to Plato's writings. All those conceptions of the beautiful and good which live immortally in his pages. <br />
All that I keep from his great storehouse of wealth is this one thing simply--a world spatially higher than this world, a world which can only be approached through the stocks and stones of it, a world which must be apprehended laboriously, patiently, through the material things of it, the shapes, the movements, the figures of it. <br />
<br />
We must learn to realize the shapes of objects in this world of the higher man; we must become familiar with the movements that objects make in his world, so that we can learn something about his daily experience, his thoughts of material objects, his machinery. <br />
<br />
The means for the prosecution of this enquiry are given in the conception of space itself. <br />
It often happens that that which we consider to be unique and unrelated gives us, within itself, those relations by means of which we are able to see it as related to others, determining and determined by them. <br />
Thus, on the earth is given that phenomenon of weight by means of which Newton brought the earth into its true relation to the sun and other planets. Our terrestrial globe was determined in regard to other bodies of the solar system by means of a relation which subsisted on the earth itself. <br />
And so space itself bears within it relations of which we can determine it as related to other space. For within space are given the conceptions of point and line, line and plane, which really involve the relation of space to a higher space. <br />
<br />
Where one segment of a straight line leaves off and another begins is a point, and the straight line itself can be generated by the motion of the point. <br />
One portion of a plane is bounded from another by a straight line, and the plane itself can be generated by the straight line moving in a direction not contained in itself. <br />
Again, two portions of solid space are limited with regard to each other by a plane; and the plane, moving in a direction not contained in itself, can generate solid space. <br />
Thus, going on, we may say that space is that which limits two portions of higher space from each other, and that our space will generate the higher space by moving in a direction not contained in itself. <br />
<br />
Another indication of the nature of four-dimensional space can be gained by considering the problem of the arrangement of objects. <br />
If I have a number of swords of varying degrees of brightness, I can represent them in respect of this quality by points arranged along a straight line. <br />
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<br />
If I place a sword at A, figure 22, and regard it as having a certain brightness, then the other swords can be arranged in a series along the line, as at A, B, C, etc., according to their degrees of brightness. <br />
If now I take account of another quality, say length, they can be arranged in a plane. Starting from A, B, C, I can find points to represent different degrees of length along such lines as AF, BD, CE, drawn from A and B and C (see fig. 23). Points on these lines represent different degrees of length with the same degree of brightness. Thus the whole plane is occupied by points representing all conceivable varieties of brightness and length. <br />
Bringing in a third quality, say sharpness, I can draw, as in figure 24, any number of upright lines. Let distances along these upright lines represent degrees of sharpness, thus the points F and G will represent swords of certain definite degrees of the three qualities mentioned, and the whole of space will serve to represent all conceivable degrees of these three qualities. <br />
If now I bring in a fourth quality, such as weight, and try to find a means of representing it as I did the other three qualities, I find a difficulty. Every point in space is taken up by some conceivable combination of the three qualities already taken. <br />
To represent four qualities in the same way as that in which I have represented three, I should need another dimension of space. <br />
Thus we may indicate the nature of four-dimensional space by saying that it is a kind of space which would give positions representative of four qualities, as three-dimensional space gives positions representative of three qualities. <br />
<br />
<br />
A Chapter in the History of Four Space <br />
<br />
Parmenides, and the Asiatic thinkers with whom he is in close affinity, propound a theory of existence which is in close accord with a conception of a possible relation between a higher and a lower dimensional space. This theory, prior and in marked contrast to the main stream of thought, which we shall afterwards describe, forms a closed circle by itself. It is one which in all ages has had a strong attraction for pure intellect, and is the natural mode of thought for those who refrain from projecting their own volition into nature under the guise of causality. <br />
According to Parmenides of the school of Flea, the all is one, unmoving and unchanging. The permanent amid the transient--that foothold for thought, that solid ground for feeling, on the discovery of which depends all our life--is no phantom; it is the image amidst deception of true being, the eternal, the unmoved, the one. Thus says Parmenides. <br />
But how explain the shifting scene, these mutations of things! <br />
<br />
"Illusion," answers Parmenides. Distinguishing between truth and error, he tells of the true doctrine of the one--the false opinion of a changing world. He is no less memorable for the manner of his advocacy than for the cause he advocates. It is as if from his firm foothold of being he could play with the thoughts under the burden of which others labored, for from him springs that fluency of supposition and hypothesis which forms the texture of Plato's dialectic. <br />
<br />
Can the mind conceive a more delightful intellectual picture than that of Parmenides, pointing to the one, the true, the unchanging, and yet on the other hand ready to discuss all manner of false opinion, forming a cosmogony too, false "but mine own" after the fashion of the time? <br />
In support of the true opinion he proceeded by the negative way of showing the self-contradictions in the ideas of change and motion. It is doubtful if his criticism, save in minor points, has ever been successfully refuted. To express his doctrine in the ponderous modern way we must make the statement that motion is phenomenal not real. <br />
Let us represent his doctrine. <br />
<br />
Imagine a sheet of still water into which a slanting stick is being lowered with a motion vertically downwards. Let 1, 2, 3 (fig. 25), be three consecutive positions of the stick. A, B, C, will be three consecutive positions of the meeting of the stick with the surface of the water. As the stick passes down, the meeting will move from A on to B and C. <br />
<br />
<br />
Suppose now all the water to be removed except a film. At the meeting of the film and the stick there will be an interruption of the film. If we suppose the film to have a property, like that of a soap bubble, of closing up round any penetrating object then as the stick goes vertically downwards the interruption in the film will move on. <br />
<br />
If we pass a spiral through the film, the intersection will give a point moving in a circle shown by the dotted lines (fig. 26). Suppose now the spiral to be still and the film to move vertically upwards the whole spiral will be represented in the film of the consecutive positions of the point of intersection. In the film the permanent existence of the spiral is experienced as a time series--the record of traversing the spiral is a point moving in a circle. If now we suppose a consciousness connected with the film in such a way that the intersection of the spiral with the film gives rise to a conscious experience, we see that we shall have in the film a point moving in a circle, conscious of its motion, knowing nothing of that real spiral the record of the successive intersections of which by the film is the motion of the point. <br />
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It is easy to imagine complicated structures of the nature of the spiral, structures consisting of filaments, and to suppose also that these structures are distinguishable from each other at every section. If we consider the intersections of these filaments with the film as it passes to be the atoms constituting a filmar universe, we shall have in the film a world of apparent motion; we shall have bodies corresponding to the filamentary structure, and the positions of these structures with regard to one another will give rise to bodies in the film moving amongst one another. This mutual motion is apparent merely. The reality is of permanent structures stationary, and all the relative motions accounted for by one steady movement of the film as a whole. <br />
<br />
Thus we can imagine a plane world, in which all the variety of motion is the phenomenon of structures consisting of filamentary atoms traversed by a plane of consciousness. Passing to four dimensions and our space, we can conceive that all things and movements in our world are the reading off of a permanent reality by a space of consciousness. Each atom at every moment is not what it was, but a new part of that endless line which is itself. And all this system successively revealed in the time which is but the succession of consciousness, separate as it is in parts, in its entirety is one vast unity. Representing Parmenides' doctrine thus, we gain a firmer hold on it than if we merely let his words rest, grand and massive, in our minds. And we have gained the means also of representing phases of that Eastern thought to which Parmenides was no stranger. Modifying his uncompromising doctrine, let us suppose, to go back to the plane of consciousness and the structure of filamentary atoms, that these structures are themselves moving--are acting, living. Then, in the transverse motion of the film, there would be two phenomena of motion, one due to the reading off in the film of the permanent existences as they are in themselves, and another phenomenon of motion due to the modification of the record of the things themselves, by their proper motion during the process of traversing them. <br />
<br />
Thus a conscious being in the plane would have, as it were, a twofold experience. In the complete traversing of the structure, the Intersection of which with the film gives his conscious all, the main and principal movements and actions which he went through would be the record of his higher self as it existed unmoved and unacting. Slight modifications and deviations from these movements and actions would represent the activity and self-determination of the complete being, of his higher self. <br />
<br />
It is admissible to suppose that the consciousness in the plane has a share in that volition by which the complete existence determines itself. Thus the motive and will, the initiative and life, of the higher being, would be represented in the case of the being in the film by an initiative and a will capable, not of determining any great things or important movements in his existence, but only of small and relatively insignificant activities. In all the main features of his life his experience would be representative of one state of the higher being whose existence determines his as the film passes on. But in his minute and apparently unimportant actions he would share in that will and determination by which the whole of the being he really is acts and lives. <br />
<br />
An alteration of the higher being would correspond to a different life history for him. Let us now make the supposition that film after film traverses these higher structures, that the life of the real being is read off again and again in successive waves of consciousness. There would be a succession of lives in the different advancing planes of consciousness, each differing from the preceding, and differing in virtue of that will and activity which in the preceding had not been devoted to the greater and apparently most significant things in life, but the minute and apparently unimportant. In all great things the being of the film shares in the existence of his higher self as it is at any one time. In the small things he shares in that volition by which the higher being alters and changes, acts and lives. <br />
<br />
Thus we gain the conception of a life changing and developing as a whole, a life in which our separation and cessation and fugitiveness are merely apparent, but which in its events and course alters, changes, develops; and the power of altering and changing this whole neŽ�lies in the will and power the limited being has of directing, guiding, altering himself in the minute things of his existence. <br />
<br />
Transferring our conceptions to those of an existence in a higher dimensionality traversed by a space of consciousness, we have an illustration of a thought which has found frequent and varied expression. When, however, we ask ourselves what degree of truth there lies in it, we must admit that, as far as we can see, it is merely symbolical. The true path in the investigation of a higher dimensionality lies in another direction. <br />
<br />
The significance of the Parmenidean doctrine lies in this: that here, as again and again, we find that those conceptions which man introduces of himself, which he does not derive from the mere record of his outward experience, have a striking and significant correspondence to the conception of a physical existence in a world of a higher space. How close we come to Parmenides' thought by this manner of representation it is impossible to say. What I want to point out is the adequateness of the illustration, not only to give a static model of his doctrine, but one capable as it were, of a plastic modification into a correspondence into kindred forms of thought. Either one of two things must be true-that four-dimensional conceptions give a wonderful power of representing the thought of the East, or that the thinkers of the East must have been looking at and regarding four-dimensional existence. <br />
<br />
And from the numerical idealism of Pythagoras there is but a step to the more rich and full idealism of Plato. That which is apprehended by the sense of touch we put as primary and real, and the other senses we say are merely concerned with appearances. But Plato took them all as valid, as giving qualities of existence. That the qualities were not permanent in the world as given to the senses forced him to attribute to them a different kind of permanence. He formed the conception of a world of ideas, in which all that really is, all that affects us and gives the rich and wonderful wealth of our experience, is not fleeting and transitory, but eternal. And of this real and eternal we see in the things about us the fleeting and transient images. <br />
And this world of ideas was no exclusive one, wherein was no place for the innermost convictions of the soul and its most authoritative assertions. Therein existed justice beauty-the one, the good, all that the soul demanded to be. The world of ideas, Plato's wonderful creation preserved for man, for his deliberate investigation and their sure development, all that the rude incomprehensible changes of a harsh experience scatters and destroys. <br />
<br />
Plato believed in the reality of ideas. He meets us fairly and squarely. Divide a line into two parts, he says (fig. 27); one to represent the real objects in the world, the other to represent the transitory appearances, such as the image in still water, the glitter of the sun on a bright surface, the shadows on the clouds. <br />
<br />
<br />
Take another line and divide it into two parts (fig. 28), one representing our ideas, the ordinary occupants of our minds, such as whiteness, equality, and the other representing our true knowledge, which is of eternal principles, such as beauty, goodness. <br />
<br />
<br />
Then as A is to B, so is A' to B'. <br />
<br />
That is, the soul can proceed, going away from real things to a region of perfect certainty, where it beholds what is, not the scattered reflections; beholds the sun, not the glitter on the sands; true being, not chance opinion. <br />
<br />
Now, this is to us, as it was to Aristotle, absolutely inconceivable from a scientific point of view. We can understand that a being is known in the fullness of his relations; it is in his relations to his circumstances that a man's character is known; it is in his acts under his conditions that his character exists. We cannot grasp or conceive any principle of individuation apart from the fullness of the relations to the surroundings. <br />
<br />
But suppose now that Plato is talking about the higher man--the four-dimensional being that is limited in our external experience to a three-dimensional world. Do not his words begin to have a meaning? Such a being would have a consciousness of motion which is not as the ! ��motion he can see with the eyes of the body. He, in his own being, knows a reality to which the outward matter of this too solid earth is flimsy superficiality. He too knows a mode of being, the fullness of relations, in which can only be represented in the limited world of sense, as the painter unsubstantially portrays the depths of woodland, plains, and air. Thinking of such a being in man, was not Plato's line well divided? <br />
<br />
It is noteworthy that, if Plato omitted his doctrine of the independent origin of ideas, he would present exactly the four-dimensional argument; a real thing as we think it is an idea. A plane being's idea of a square object is the idea of an abstraction, namely, a geometrical square. Similarly our idea of a solid thing is an abstraction, for in our idea there is not the four-dimensional thickness which is necessary, however slight, to give reality. The argument would then run, as a shadow is to a solid object, so is the solid object to the reality. Thus A and B' would be identified. <br />
<br />
In the allegory which I have already alluded to, Plato in almost as many words shows forth the relation between existence in a superficies and in solid space. And he uses this relation to point to the conditions of a higher being. <br />
<br />
He imagines a number of men prisoners, chained so that they look at the wall of a cavern in which they are confined, with their backs to the road and the light. Over the road pass men and women, figures and processions, but of all this pageant all that the prisoners behold is the shadow of it on the wall whereon they gaze. Their own shadows and the shadows of the things in the world are all that they see, and identifying themselves with their shadows related as shadows to a world of shadows, they live in a kind of dream. <br />
Plato imagines one of their number to pass out from amongst them into the real space world, and then returning to tell them of their condition. <br />
<br />
Here he presents most plainly the relation between existence in a plane world and existence in a three-dimensional world. And he uses this illustration as a type of the manner in which we are to proceed to a higher state from the three-dimensional life we know. <br />
<br />
It must have hung upon the weight of a shadow which path he took! Whether the one we shall follow toward the higher solid and the four-dimensional existence, or the one which makes ideas the higher realities, and the direct perception of them the contact with the truer world. <br />
<br />
<br />
Metageometry <br />
<br />
The theories which are generally connected with the names of Lobatchewsky and Bolyai bear a singular and curious relation to the subject of higher space. <br />
In order to show what this relation is, I must ask the reader to be at the pains to count carefully the sets of points by which I shall estimate the volumes of certain figures. <br />
No mathematical processes beyond this simple one of counting will be necessary. <br />
Let us suppose we have before us in figure 29 a plane covered with points at regular intervals, so placed that every four determine a square. <br />
Now it is evident that as four points determine a square, so four squares meet in a point. <br />
Thus, considering a point inside a square as belonging to it, we may say that a point on the corner of a square belongs to it and to four others equally: belongs a quarter of it to each square. <br />
<br />
<br />
Thus the square ACDE (fig. 31) contains one point, and has four points at the four corners. Since one-fourth of each of these four belongs to the square, the four together count as one point, and the point value of the square is two points--the one inside and the four at the corner make two points belonging to it exclusively. <br />
Now the area of this square is two unit squares, as can be seen by drawing two diagonals in figure 32. <br />
We also notice that the square in question is equal to the sum of the squares on the sides AB, BC, of the right-angled triangle ABC. Thus we recognize the proposition that the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the sum of the squares on the two sides of a right-angled triangle. <br />
Now suppose we set ourselves the question of determining whereabouts, in the ordered system of points, the end of a line would wE�come when it turned about a point keeping one extremity fixed at the point. <br />
We can solve this problem in a particular case. If we can find a square lying slantwise amongst the dots which is equal to one which goes regularly, we shall know that the two sides are equal, and that the slanting side is equal to the straight-way side. Thus the volume and shape of a figure remaining unchanged will be the test of its having rotated about the point, so that we can say that its side in its first position would turn into its side in the second position. <br />
Now, such a square can be found in the one whose side is five units in length. <br />
<br />
<pre><br />
In figure 33, in the square on AB, there are <br />
<br />
<br />
9 points interior 9<br />
<br />
4 at the corners 1<br />
<br />
4 sides with 3 on each side, 6 <br />
considered as 1 1/2, on each <br />
side, because belonging <br />
equally to two squares<br />
<br />
<br />
The total is 16. There are 9 points in the square on BC. In the square on AC there are-- <br />
<br />
<br />
24 points inside 24<br />
<br />
4 at the corners 1<br />
<br />
<br />
or 25 altogether.<br />
Hence we see again that the square on the hypotenuse is equal to the squares on the sides. <br />
Now take the square AFHC, which is larger than the square on AB. It contains 25 points. <br />
<br />
<br />
16 inside 16 <br />
<br />
16 on the sides, counting as 8 <br />
<br />
4 on the corners 1 <br />
<br />
<br />
making 25 altogether. <br />
</pre><br />
<br />
If two squares are equal we conclude the sides are equal. Hence, the line AF turning round A would move so that it would after a certain turning coincide with AC. <br />
This is preliminary, but it involves all the mathematical difficulties that will present themselves. <br />
There are two alterations of a body by which its volume is not changed. <br />
One is the one we have just considered, rotation, the other is what is called shear. <br />
Consider a book, or heap of loose pages. They can be slid so that each one slips over the preceding one, and the whole assumes the shape b in figure 34. <br />
<br />
<br />
The deformation is not shear alone, but shear accompanied by rotation. <br />
Shear can be considered as produced in another way. <br />
<br />
<br />
Take the square ABCD (fig. 35), and suppose that it is pulled out from along one of its diagonals both ways, and proportionately compressed along the other diagonal. It will assume the shape in figure 36. <br />
This compression and expansion along two lines at right angles is what is called shear; it is equivalent to the sliding illustrated above combined with a turning round. <br />
In pure shear a body is compressed and extended in two directions at right angles to each other, so that its volume remains unchanged. <br />
Now we know that our material bodies resist shear--shear does violence to the internal arrangement of their particles, but they turn as wholes without such internal resistance. <br />
But there is an exception. In a liquid shear and rotation take place equally easily, there is no more resistance against a shear than there is against a rotation. <br />
Now, suppose all bodies were to be reduced to the liquid state, in which they yield to shear and to rotation equally easily, and then were to be reconstructed as solids, but in such a way that shear and rotation had interchanged places. <br />
That is to say, let us suppose that when they had become solids again they would shear without offering any internal resistance, but a rotation would do violence to their internal arrangement. <br />
That is, we should have a world in which shear would have taken the place of rotation. <br />
A shear does not alter the volume of a body: thus an inhabitant living in such a world would look on a body sheared as we look on a body rotated. He would say that it was of the same shape, but had turned a bit round. <br />
Let us imagine a Pythagoras in this world going to work to investigate, as is his wont.<br />
<br />
<br />
Figure 37 represents a square unsheared. Figure 38 represents a square sheared. It is not the figure into which the square in figure 37 would turn, but the result of shear on some square not drawn. It is a simple slanting placed figure, taken now as we took a simple slanting placed square before. Now, since bodies in this world of shear offer no internal resistance to shearing, and keep their volume when sheared, an inhabitant accustomed to them would not consider that they altered their shape under shear. He would call ACDE as much a square as the square in figure 37. We will call such figures shear squares. Counting the dots in ACDF, we find <br />
<br />
<pre><br />
2 inside 2<br />
<br />
4 at corners 1 <br />
<br />
<br />
or a total of 3. <br />
</pre><br />
<br />
Now, the square on the side AB has 4 points, that on BC has 1 point. Here the shear square on the hypotenuse has not 5 points but 3; it is not the sum of the squares on the sides, but the difference. <br />
This relation always holds. Look at figure 39. <br />
<br />
<pre><br />
Shear square on hypotenuse <br />
<br />
<br />
7 internal 7<br />
<br />
4 at corners 1<br />
<br />
__<br />
<br />
8 <br />
<br />
<br />
Square on one side--which the reader can draw for himself--<br />
<br />
<br />
4 internal 4<br />
<br />
8 on sides 4<br />
<br />
4 at corners 1<br />
<br />
__<br />
<br />
9 <br />
</pre><br />
<br />
The square on the other side is 1. Hence in this case again the difference is equal to the shear square on the hypotenuse, 9 - 1 = 8. <br />
Thus in a world of shear the square on the hypotenuse would be equal to the difference of the squares on the sides of a right-angled triangle. <br />
<br />
<br />
In figure 40 another shear square is drawn on which the above relation can be tested. <br />
What now would be the position a line on turning by shear would take up?<br />
We must settle this in the same way as previously with our turning.<br />
Since a body sheared remains the same, we must find two equal bodies, one in the straight way, one in the slanting way, which have the same volume. Then the side of one will by turning become the side of the other, for the two figures are each what the other becomes by a shear turning. <br />
We can solve the problem in a particular case--<br />
In the figure ACDE (fig. 41) there are <br />
<br />
<pre><br />
15 inside 15<br />
<br />
4 at corners 1 <br />
<br />
<br />
a total of 16. <br />
Now in the square ABCF, there are 16--<br />
<br />
<br />
9 inside 9<br />
<br />
12 on sides 6<br />
<br />
4 at corners 1<br />
<br />
__<br />
<br />
16<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
Hence the square on AB would, by the shear turning, become the shear square ACDE. <br />
And hence the inhabitant of this world would say that the line AB turned into the line AC. These two lines would be to him two lines of equal length, one turned a little way round from the other. <br />
<br />
That is, putting shear in place of rotation, we get a different kind of figure, as the result of the shear rotation, from what we got with our ordinary rotation. And as a consequence we get a position for the end of a line of invariable length when it turns by the shear rotation, different from the position which it would assume on turning by our rotation. <br />
A real material rod in the shear world would, on turning about A, pass from the position AB to the position AC. We say that its length alters when it becomes AC, but this transformation of AB would seem to an inhabitant of the shear world like a turning of AB without altering in length. <br />
If now we suppose a communication of ideas that takes place between one of ourselves and an inhabitant of the shear world, there would evidently be a difference between his views of distance and ours. <br />
<br />
We should say that his line AB increased in length in turning to AC. He would say that our line AF (fig. 33) decreased in length in turning to AC. He would think that what we called an equal line was in reality a shorter one. <br />
We should say that a rod turning round would have its extremities in the positions we call at equal distances. So would he--but the positions would be different. He could, like us, appeal to the properties of matter. His rod to him alters as little as ours does to us. <br />
Now, is there any standard to which we could appeal, to say which of the two is right in this argument? There is no standard. <br />
We should say that, with a change of position, the configuration and shape of his objects altered. He would say that the configuration and shape of our objects altered in what we called merely a change of position. Hence distance independent of position is inconceivable, or practically, distance is solely a property of matter. <br />
There is no principle to which either party in this controversy could appeal. There is nothing to connect the definition of distance with our ideas rather than with his, except the behavior of an actual piece of matter. For the study of the processes which go on in our world the definition of distance given by taking the sum of the squares is of paramount importance to us. But as a question of pure space without making any unnecessary assumptions, the shear world is just as possible and just as interesting as our world. <br />
It was the geometry of such conceivable worlds that Lobatchewsky and Bolyai studied. <br />
This kind of geometry has evidently nothing to do directly with four-dimensional space. <br />
<br />
But a connection arises in this way. It is evident that, instead of taking a simple shear as I have done, and defining it as that change of the arrangement of the particles of a solid which they will undergo without offering any resistance due to their mutual action, I might take a complex motion, composed of a shear and a rotation together, or some other kind of deformation. <br />
Let us suppose such an alteration picked out and defined as the one which means simple rotation; then the type, according to which all bodies will alter by this rotation, is fixed. <br />
Looking at the movements of this kind, we should say that the objects were altering their shape as well as rotating. But to the inhabitants of that world they would seem to be unaltered, and our figures in their motions would seem to them to alter. <br />
In such a world the features of geometry are different. We have seen one such difference in the case of our illustration of the world of shear, where the square on the hypotenuse was equal to the difference, not the sum, of the squares on the sides. <br />
In our illustration we have the same laws of parallel lines as in our ordinary rotation world, but in general the laws of parallel lines are different. <br />
In one of these worlds of a different constitution of matter, through one point there can be two parallels to a given line, in another of them there can be none; that is, although a line be drawn parallel to another it will meet it after a time. <br />
<br />
Now it was precisely in this respect of parallels that Lobatchewsky and Bolyai discovered these different worlds. They did not think of them as worlds of matter, but they discovered that space did not necessarily mean that our law of parallels is true. They made the distinction between laws of space and laws of matter, although that is not the form in which they stated their results. <br />
<br />
The way in which they were led to these results was the following. Euclid had stated the existence of parallel lines as a postulate--putting frankly this unproved proposition--that one line and only one parallel to a given straight line can be drawn, as a demand, as something that must be assumed. The words of his ninth postulate are these: "if a straight line meeting two other straight lines makes the interior angles on the same side of it equal to two right angles, the two straight lines will never meet." <br />
The mathematicians of later ages did not like this bald assumption, and not being able to prove the proposition they called it an axiom--the eleventh axiom. <br />
Many attempts were made to prove the axiom; no one doubted of its truth, but no means could be found to demonstrate it. At last an Italian, Sacchieri, unable to find a proof, said: "Let us suppose it not true." He deduced the results of there being possibly two parallels to one given line through a given point, but feeling the waters too deep for the human reason, he devoted the latter half of his book to disproving what he had assumed in the first part. <br />
<br />
Then Bolyai and Lobatchewsky with firm step entered on the forbidden path. There can be no greater evidence of the indomitable nature of the human spirit, or of its manifest destiny to conquer all those limitations which bind it down within the sphere of sense than this grand assertion of Bolyai and Lobatchewsky. <br />
Take a line AB and a point C. We say and see and know that through C can only be drawn one line parallel to AB. <br />
<br />
<br />
But Bolyai said: "I will draw two." Let CD be parallel to AB, that is, not meet AB however far produced, and let lines beyond CD also not meet AB; let there be a certain region between CD and CE, in which no line drawn meets AB. CE and CD produced backwards through C will give a similar region on the other side of C. <br />
<br />
Nothing so triumphantly, one may almost say so insolently, ignoring of sense had ever been written before. Men had struggled against the limitations of the body, fought them, despised them, conquered them. But no one had ever thought simply as if the body, the bodily eyes, the organs of vision, all this vast experience of space, had never existed. The age-long contest of the soul with the body, the struggle for mastery, had come to a culmination. Bolyai and Lobatchewsky simply thought as if the body was not. The struggle for dominion, the strife and combat of the soul were over; they had mastered, and the Hungarian drew his line. <br />
<br />
Can we point out any connection, as in the case of Parmenides, between these speculations and higher space? Can we suppose it was any inner perception by the soul of a motion not known to the senses, which resulted in this theory so free from the bonds of sense? No such supposition appears to be possible. <br />
<br />
Practically, however, metageometry had a great influence in bringing the higher space to the front as a working hypothesis. This can be traced to the tendency the mind has to move in the direction of least resistance. The results of the new geometry could not be neglected, the problem of parallels had occupied a place too prominent in the development of mathematical thought for its final solution to be neglected. But this utter independence of all mechanical considerations, this perfect cutting loose from the familiar intuitions, was so difficult that almost any other hypothesis was more easy of acceptance, and when Beltrami showed that the geometry of Lobatchewsky and Bolyai was the geometry of shortest lines drawn on certain curved surfaces, the ordinary definitions of measurement being retained, attention was drawn to the theory of a higher space. An illustration of Beltrami's theory is furnished by the simple consideration of hypothetical beings living on a spherical surface (fig. 44). <br />
<br />
<br />
Let ABCD be the equator of a globe, and AP, BP, meridian lines drawn to the pole, P. The lines AB, AP, BP would seem to be perfectly straight to a person moving on the surface of the sphere, and unconscious of its curvature. Now AP and BP both make right angles with AB. Hence they satisfy the definition of parallels. Yet they meet in P. Hence a being living on a spherical surface, and unconscious of its curvature, would find that parallel lines would meet. He would also find that the angles in a triangle were greater than two right angles. In the triangle PAB, for instance, the angles at A and B are right angles, so the three angles of the triangle PAB are greater than two right angles. <br />
<br />
Now in one of the systems of metageometry (for after Lobatchewsky had shown the way it was found that other systems were possible besides his), the angles of a triangle are greater than two right angles. <br />
<br />
Thus a being on a sphere would form conclusions about his space which are the same as he would form if he lived on a plane, the matter in which had such properties as are presupposed by one of these systems of geometry. Beltrami also discovered a certain surface on which there could be drawn more than one "straight" line through a point which would not meet another given line. I use the word straight as equivalent to the line having the property of giving the shortest path between any two points on it. Hence, without giving up the ordinary methods of measurement, it was possible to find conditions in which a plane being would necessarily have an experience corresponding to Lobatchewsky's geometry. And by the consideration of a higher space, and a solid curved in such a higher space, it was possible to account for a similar experience in a space of three dimensions. <br />
<br />
Now, it is far more easy to conceive of a higher dimensionality to space than to imagine that a rod in rotating does not move so that its end describes a circle. Hence, a logical conception having been found harder than that of a four-dimensional space, thought turned to the latter as a simple explanation of the possibilities to which Lobatchewsky had awakened it. Thinkers became accustomed to deal with the geometry of higher space--it was Kant, says Veronese, who first used the expression of "different spaces"--and with familiarity the inevitableness of the conception made itself felt. <br />
<br />
From this point it is but a small step to adapt the ordinary mechanical conceptions to a higher spatial existence, and then the recognition of its objective existence could be delayed no longer. Here, too, as in so many cases, it turns out that the order and connection of our ideas is the order and connection of things. <br />
<br />
What is the significance of Lobatchewsky's and Bolyai's work? <br />
<br />
It must be recognized as something totally different from the conception of a higher space; it is applicable to spaces of any number of dimensions. By immersing the conception of distance in matter to which it properly belongs, it promises to be of the greatest aid in analysis; for the effective distance of any two particles is the product of complex material conditions and cannot be measured by hard and fast rules. Its ultimate significance is altogether unknown. It is a cutting loose from the bonds of sense, not coincident with the recognition of a higher dimensionality, but indirectly contributory thereto. <br />
<br />
Thus, finally, we have come to accept what Plato held in the hollow of his hand; what Aristotle's doctrine of the relativity of substance implies. The vast universe, too, has its higher, and in recognizing it we find that the directing being within us no longer stands inevitably outside our systematic knowledge. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=A_Treatise_on_the_Calculus_of_Variations_(1881)&diff=1837A Treatise on the Calculus of Variations (1881)2021-03-27T08:01:09Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/the_calculus_of_variations-1881.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Theory_of_Theories&diff=1836Theory of Theories2021-03-27T07:54:44Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "The Theory That Flies As everybody knows, the job of a theoretical physicist is to invent theories of the universe. A layman might ask a physicist What is charge? or What is..."</p>
<hr />
<div>The Theory That Flies<br />
<br />
As everybody knows, the job of a theoretical physicist is to invent theories of the universe. A layman might ask a physicist What is charge? or What is Time?. He will be disappointed when the physicist replies that his theories do not even try to explain what these things are. Theories are just mathematical models which make predictions about how they will behave in experiments. <br />
When pressed the physicist will probably admit that he does physics because he too seeks deeper explanations for why things are the way they are in the universe. One day he hopes to understand the most basic laws of physics and he hopes that they will provide an answer to the most difficult question of all, Why do we exist?. Physicists can be justly proud of the fact that almost everything in physics can be accounted for with just a small number of basic equations embracing General Relativity and the Standard Model of particle physics. There remain many puzzles but those will probably be solved once a unified theory of quantum gravity and the other forces is found. Such a theory would be the final theory. It may be cast in other forms but they would always be exactly equivalent. There is no a priory reason why such a theory should exist but, as Steven Weinberg argues in Dreams of a Final Theory, the convergence of principles in modern physics seems to suggest that it does. <br />
<br />
How many physicists have not wondered what principle of simplicity and beauty underlies that final theory? Could we not take an intellectual leap and figure it out from what we already know? John Wheeler wrote his thoughts thus, ... Paper in white the floor of the room, and rule it off in one-foot squares. Down on one's hands and knees, write in the first square a set of equations conceived as able to govern the physics of the universe. Think more overnight. Next day put a better set of equations into square two. Invite one's most respected colleagues to contribute to other squares. At the end of these labours, one has worked oneself out into the door way. Stand up, look back on all those equations, some perhaps more hopeful than others, raise one's finger commandingly, and give the order Fly! Not one of those equations will put on wings, take off, or fly. Yet the universe flies.<br />
<br />
<br />
The Nature of Nature<br />
<br />
If there is really a unique principle on which the laws of physics are founded then to understand it we should look for clues in the nature of nature, or as Feynman puts it the character of physical law. One thing is clear: Nature uses mathematics. If this were not the case, if nature was governed instead by a committee of demons who made nature follow their whims, then there would be little hope for us to understand physics and predict the outcome of experiments or invent new technology. Scientists would be replaced by sorcerers. <br />
<br />
But the relationship between physics and mathematics seems to be much deeper than we yet understand. In Early history there was little distinction between a mathematician and a physicist but in modern times pure mathematicians have explored their subject independently of any potential application. Mathematics has an existence of its own. Those mathematicians have constructed a huge web of logical structures which have a remarkable inner beauty only visible to those who take the time to learn and explore it. They would usually say that they discovered new mathematics rather than invented it. It is almost certain that another intelligent race on another planet, or even in a different universe, would have mathematicians who discover the same theorems with just different notation. <br />
<br />
What becomes so surprising is the extent to which mathematical structures are applicable to physics. Sometimes a physicist will discover a useful mathematical concept only to be told by mathematicians that they have been studying it for some time and can help out with a long list of useful theorems. Such was the case when Heisenberg formulated a theory of quantum mechanics which used matrix operations previously unfamiliar to physicists. Other examples abound, Einstein's application of non-Euclidean geometry to gravitation and, in particle physics, the extensive use of the classification of Lie groups. Recently the mathematical theory of knots has found a place in theories of quantum gravity. Before that, mathematicians had considered it an area of pure mathematics without application (except to tying up boats of course). Now the role played by knots in fundamental physics seems so important that we might even guess that the reason space has three dimensions is that it is the only number of dimensions within which you can tie knots in strings. Such is the extent to which mathematics is used in physics that physicists find new theories by looking for beautiful mathematics rather than by trying to fit functions to empirical data as you might expect. Dirac explained that it was this way that he found his famous equation for the electron. The laws of physics seem to share the mathematician's taste for what is beautiful. It is a deep mystery as to why this should be the case. It is what Wigner called The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences.<br />
<br />
It has also been noted by Feynman that physical law seems to take on just such a form that it can be reformulated in several different ways. Quantum mechanics can be formulated in terms of Heisenberg's matrix mechanics, Schroedinger's wave mechanics or Feynman's path integrals. All three are mathematically equivalent but very different. It is impossible to say that one is more correct than the others.<br />
<br />
Perhaps there is a unique principle which determines the laws of physics and which explains why there is such a tight relationship between mathematics and physics? If the laws of physics were merely some isolated piece of mathematics chosen for its simple beauty then there would be no explanation why so much of mathematics is incorporated into physics. There is no reason why one set of equations should fly. The fundamental principle of physics must be something more general. Something which embraces all of mathematics. It is the principle which explains the nature of nature. So what is it?<br />
<br />
<br />
Many Anthropic Principles<br />
<br />
There are other aspects of the universe which provide clues as to what principle determines the laws of physics. The universe is populated by an impressive menagerie of objects which exhibit organised complexity. They exist on all length scales from the atomic to the cosmological. Most impressive of all (that we know of) are living beings like ourselves.<br />
<br />
Examination of the way that chemistry, nuclear physics, astrophysics, cosmology and other sciences are dependent on the details of the laws of physics suggests that the existence of so much complexity is no accident. The precise values of various constants of nature, such as the fine structure constant, seem to be just right to allow organised complexity to develop. Perhaps we might even say, to allow life to develop. <br />
<br />
This observation has inspired much faith among physicists and philosophers in the Anthropic Principle. The anthropic principle supposes that the laws of physics are indeed selected so that intelligent life has a maximum chance of developing in the universe. Believers ask us to consider first why our planet Earth is so well suited to the evolution of life while other planets in the solar system seem to be more hostile. The answer is that we would not be on this planet to consider the question if it were not suitable for life to evolve here. The same principle can then be extended to the whole universe. <br />
One way to understand the Anthropic Principle is to imagine that all possible universes exist with a validity which is equal to our own. When we say all possible universes we might mean any system which can be described by mathematics. Each such system has a set of physical laws which allow its structure to be determined in principle. Sometimes they will be simple and beautiful and often they will be complex and ugly. Sometimes the phenomenology of such a system will be dull or easily determined and nothing interesting will happen. Sometimes it will be so complicated that nothing can be determined, even a hypothetical computer simulation would reveal little of interest in the turmoil of those universes. Somewhere in between would exist our universe which has just the right balance of equations in its physical laws for intelligent life to exist and explore the nature of its environment. <br />
<br />
Another interpretation of the anthropic principle, developed by Lee Smolin, is that there is one universe with a set of physical laws much as we know them. Those laws may have a number of variables which determine the physical constants but which can vary in certain extreme situations such as the collapse of massive stars into black holes. Universes governed by such laws might give birth to baby universes with different physical constants. Through a process of natural selection universes might evolve over many generations to have constants which are conducive to further procreation. This might mean they are optimised for the production of black holes and, from them, more baby universes. Within this population of worlds there will be some with laws conducive to life, indeed, the production of black holes may be linked to the existence of advanced life-forms which could have an interest in fabricating black holes as energy sources. This scenario makes a number of demands on the nature of physical laws. In particular it is essential that some physical parameters such as the fine structure constants should be able to vary rather than being determined by some equation. Future theories of quantum gravity may tell us if this is so. <br />
<br />
<br />
Is the Anthropic Principle Enough?<br />
<br />
The Anthropic Principle is compelling enough for us to wonder if it can determine the laws of physics on its own. I know of no convincing argument that it can. There is nothing in the anthropic principle which explains why so many of the most elegant discoveries of mathematics are so important in physics. There is nothing to explain why there is so much symmetry in physics, or why the elegant principle of least action is important or even why the laws of physics should be the same in one place as they are in another.<br />
<br />
You might try to argue that the laws of physics have to take a certain form because otherwise they would be impossible to understand. I don't buy it! I am convinced that a suitable mathematical system, perhaps even something as simple as a cellular automata, can include sufficient complexity that intelligent life would evolve within it. There must be a huge variety of possible forms the laws of physics could have taken and there must be many in which life evolves. In the case of cellular automata, the cellular physicists living in it would probably be able to work out the rules of the automata because its discrete nature, and simple symmetry would be clear and easily uncovered. They would not need to know so much sophisticated mathematics as we do.<br />
<br />
Whether or not the principle is valid as an explanation for some of the characteristics of nature and the values of its parameters I believe that there must be some other principle which explains those other things.<br />
<br />
<br />
Universality<br />
<br />
For centuries mathematicians confined themselves to looking at specific structures with simple definitions and interesting behaviour. With the advent of powerful computers they are now looking at general behaviour of complex systems. It was Feigenbaum who made the discovery that a large class of complex systems of chaotic non-linear equations exhibit a universal behaviour characterised by the Feigenbaum constants. This type of universality has an independent existence which transcends details of the specific equations which generate it. Other examples of universality can be identified in physics and mathematics. Statistical physics looks at the behaviour of systems with many degrees of freedom. Such systems exhibit a universal behaviour which can be described by the laws of thermodynamics. The microscopic details of the forces between particles are reduced to just a few macroscopic parameters which describe the thermodynamic characteristics. <br />
<br />
A more mathematical example is the notion of computability. Computability of a sequence of integers can be defined in terms of a hypothetical programming language such as a Turing machine or a Minsky machine. Those languages and a large number of other possibilities turn out to give an equivalent definition of computability despite the fact that they look very different. There is no most natural or most simple way to define computability but computability itself is a natural and unambiguously defined concept. If we made contact with an alien intelligence we would probably find that they had an equivalent concept of computability but probably not quite the same definitions. Computability, then, can be seen as a universal characteristic of computing languages. <br />
<br />
The message I wish to draw from this is that the laws of physics may themselves be a universal behaviour of some general class of systems. If this is the case then we should not expect the laws of physics to be given by one most natural formulation. Like computability there may be many ways to describe them. The universal behaviour of a class of complex systems would be likely to display organised complexity itself. Furthermore, there is evidence that thermodynamics runs deeper than just a behaviour of particle systems. It is also found to be a useful description of black hole dynamics. We can also remark that quantum mechanics and statistical physics are closely related through an exchange of real and imaginary time. All these things are intimately related and hint at the importance of universality in nature at its most fundamental level.<br />
<br />
<br />
The Theory of Theories<br />
<br />
At last we come to the main hypothesis of this essay. If the laws of physics are to be seen as a universal behaviour of some class of systems then it is necessary to ask what class to choose. We can regard any possible mathematical system as a theory of physics. I suggest that the laws of physics are a universal behaviour to be found in the class of all possible mathematical systems. This is known as The Theory of Theories<br />
<br />
To understand the Theory of Theories we start from the same premise as we do with the anthropic principle, i.e. that all mathematically consistent models exist just as our own universe exists. We can simply take this to be our definition of existence. <br />
<br />
We know from Feynman's Path Integral formulation of quantum mechanics that the evolution of the universe can be understood as a supposition of all possible histories that it can follow classically. The expectation values of observables are dominated by a small subset of possibilities whose contributions are reinforced by constructive interference. The same principle is at work in statistical physics where a vast state space is dominated by contributions at maximum entropy leading to thermodynamic behaviour. We might well ask if the same can be applied to mathematical systems in general to reveal the laws of physics as a universal behaviour which dominates the space of all possible theories and which transcends details of the construction of individual theories. If this was the case then we would expect the most fundamental laws of physics to have many independent formulations with no one of them standing out as the simplest. This might be able to explain why such a large subset of mathematics is so important in physics.<br />
<br />
Can we use the Theory of all Theories to explain why symmetry is so important in physics? There is a partial answer to this question which derives from an understanding of critical behaviour in statistical physics. Consider a lattice approximation to a Yang-Mills quantum field theory in the Euclidean sector. The Wilson discretisation preserves a discrete form of the gauge symmetry but destroys the space-time rotational symmetry. If we had more carelessly picked a discretisation scheme we would expect to break all the symmetry. We can imagine a space of discrete theories around the Yang-Mills theory for which symmetry is lost at almost all points. The symmetric continuum theory exists at a critical point in this space. As the critical point is approached correlation lengths grow and details of the discretisation are lost. Symmetries are perfectly restored in the limit, and details of all the different discretisations are washed out.<br />
<br />
If this is the case then it seems that the critical point is surrounded by a very high density of points in the space of theories. This is exactly what we would expect if universal behaviour dominating in theory space was to exhibit high symmetry. It also suggests that a dominant theory could be reformulated in many equivalent ways without any one particular formulation being evidently more fundamentally correct than another. Perhaps ultimately there is an explanation for the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in physics contained in this philosophy. <br />
If physics springs in such a fashion from all of mathematics then it seems likely that discovery of these laws will answer many old mathematical puzzles. There is no a priori reason to believe that mathematical theories should have some universal behaviour, but if they did it might explain why there is so much cross-reference in mathematics. Perhaps mathematicians sense intuitively when they are near the hot spots in the space of theories. They notice the hightened beauty, the multitude of unexpected connections. Eventually, left to their own devices mathematicians might be capable of finding the central source of the heat, if physicists don't get there first.<br />
<br />
<br />
I think therefore I am...<br />
<br />
So, is it really possible to derive the laws of physics from pure mathematics without any reference to empirical observations? If the Theory of Theories is correct then the answer should be yes. At first it seems that it is rather hard to make progress with the theory of theories beyond the philosophical conception, since it is necessary to define an appropriate topology and measure in the space of all mathematical theories. Mathematics is just too large for this, or is it?<br />
<br />
Perhaps we could search for a universal behaviour in the set of all possible computer programs. The set is sufficiently diverse to cover all mathematics because, in principle, we can write a computer program to explore any mathematical problem. John Wheeler proposed this as a place to start and called it It From Bit. Simple computer programs can be very complex to understand, but we are not interested in understanding the details of any one. We are concerned about the universal behaviour of very big programs randomly written in some (any) computer language.<br />
The variables of a large program would evolve in some kind of statistical manner. Perhaps the details would fade into the background and the whole could be understood using the methods of statistical physics. So let's look at general systems of statistical physics. Suppose one system (one theory, one universe) had a number N of variables, its degrees of freedom.<br />
<br />
a1, a2, ... aN <br />
<br />
In addition there must be an energy function,<br />
<br />
E(a1, a2, ... aN) <br />
<br />
In the system, a possible set of values for these variables would appear with a weight given by<br />
<br />
Z = e-E(a1, a2, ... aN) <br />
<br />
I have not said much about the values of these variables. They could be discrete variables or real numbers, or points on a higher dimensional manifold. Somewhere in this complete set of systems you could find something close to any mathematical universe you thought of. For example, cellular automata would exist as limiting cases where the energy function forced discrete variables to follow rules.<br />
<br />
But what did I mean when I said close? Two different systems would be isomorphic if there was a one to one mapping between them which mapped the weight function of one onto the weight function of the other. We could define a distance between two systems by finding the function mapping one to the other which minimised the correlations between them. This defines a metric space with the minimum correlation as metric.<br />
<br />
A powerful property of metric spaces is that they can be completed by forming Cauchy sequences. Hence we can define a larger set of theories as the completed metric space of statistical systems. By means of this technique we include even renormalisable lattice gauge theories into the theory space. The renormalisation process can be defined as a Cauchy sequence of finite statistical systems. It remains to define a natural measure on this space and determine if it has a universal point where the total measure within any small radius of this point is larger than the measure on the rest of the space.<br />
<br />
Needless to say, this is quite a difficult mathematical problem and I am not going to solve it. Perhaps I didn't really get much further than Descartes!<br />
<br />
<br />
The Story Tellers Philosophy<br />
<br />
On the off chance that someone has read this far, or skipped to the end, I will conclude with a lighter description of the theory of theories.<br />
<br />
Suppose I were to tell you a story. It might be a story about wars between elves and goblins or a story about men exploring space or a story about creatures living in a two dimensional world or perhaps just the story of my life. A story defines a universe just as a mathematical theory does, but a story is incomplete. The same story might be played out in many different universes, or many times in one very large universe. When you listen to the story you add more details in your imagination. You picture the characters. Perhaps you see the hero wearing a blue coat which was not in the original tale.<br />
<br />
Our universe is very large and will exist for a long time. It may even be infinite. There are probably many stories being told. Perhaps some are so close that they can be seen as accidentally telling different parts of the same story. If there are indeed many possible universes then stories will overlap sufficiently that complete universes can be built up from them. Details can be made consistent. The story of every possible universe will be told in the others. We could just as well regard ourselves as living in a story. There is no way to distinguish a real universe from a fictional one if all the details are told somewhere.<br />
<br />
If a story teller ends his tale, there will always be another who continues from that point on. Indeed, there will be many who will all continue in different ways so we should not expect the future to be determined. But overall there would be some order to what was told. Some stories might get told more often than others. For each time a story is told where something too ridiculous and unexpected happens, there will be many others for which the story follows a more reasonable thread. Your story may never be told exactly but it can be pieced together many times over from those that do get told.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=WIRELESS_TRANSMISSION_OF_POWER&diff=1835WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF POWER2021-03-27T07:52:21Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF POWER Resonating Planet Earth by Toby Grotz Theoretical Electromagnetic Studies and Learning Association, Inc. 522 We..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
WIRELESS TRANSMISSION OF POWER<br />
Resonating Planet Earth<br />
<br />
by<br />
<br />
Toby Grotz<br />
<br />
Theoretical Electromagnetic Studies and Learning Association, Inc.<br />
522 West Third Street<br />
Leadville, CO 80461<br />
(719) 486-0133<br />
<br />
Abstract<br />
<br />
Many researchers have speculated on the meaning of the phrase "non<br />
Hertzian waves" as used by Dr. Nikola Tesla. Dr. Tesla first began to<br />
use this term in the mid 1890's in order to explain his proposed system<br />
for the wireless transmission of electrical power. In fact, it was not<br />
until the distinction between the method that Heinrich Hertz was using<br />
and the system Dr. Tesla had designed, that Dr. Tesla was able to<br />
receive the endorsement of the renowned physicist, Lord Kelvin.1<br />
To this day, however, there exists a confusion amongs researchers,<br />
experimentalists, popular authors and laymen as to the meaning of non<br />
Hertzian waves and the method Dr. Tesla was promoting for the wireless<br />
transmission of power. In this paper, the terms pertinent to wireless<br />
transmission of power will be explained and the methods being used by<br />
present researchers in a recreation of the Tesla's 1899 Colorado<br />
Springs experiments will be defined.<br />
<br />
Early Theories of Electromagnetic Propagation<br />
<br />
In pre-World War I physics, scientists postulated a number of<br />
theories to explain the propagation of electromagnetic energy through<br />
the ether. There were three popular theories present in the literature<br />
of the late 1800's and early 1900's. They were: 1. Transmission <br />
through or along the Earth, 2. Propagation as a result of terrestrial<br />
resonances, 3. Coupling to the ionosphere using propagation through<br />
electrified gases.<br />
We shall concern our examination at this time to the latter two<br />
theories as they were both used by Dr. Tesla at various times to<br />
explain his system of wireless transmission of power. It should be<br />
noted, however, that the first theory was supported by Fritz<br />
Lowenstein, the first vice-president of the Institute of Radio<br />
Engineers, a man who had the enviable experience of assisting Dr. Tesla<br />
during the Colorado Springs experiments of 1899. Lowenstein presented<br />
what came to be known as the "gliding wave" theory of electromagnetic<br />
radiation and propagation during a lecture before the IRE in 1915.<br />
(Fig. 1)<br />
Dr. Tesla delivered lectures to the Franklin Institute at<br />
Philadelphia, in February, 1983, and to the National Electric Light<br />
Association in St. Louis, in March, 1983, concerning electromagnetic<br />
wave propagation. The theory presented in those lectures proposed that<br />
the Earth could be considered as a conducting sphere and that it could<br />
support a large electrical charge. Dr. Tesla proposed to disturb the<br />
charge distribution on the surface of the Earth and record the period<br />
of the resulting oscillations as the charge returned to its state of<br />
equilibrium. The problem of a single charged sphere had been analyzed<br />
at that time by J.J. Thompson and A.G. Webster in a treatise entitled<br />
"The Spherical Oscillator." This was the beginning of an examination<br />
of what we may call the science of terrestrial resonances, culminating<br />
in the 1950's and 60's with the engineering of VLF radio systems and <br />
the research and discoveries of W.O. Schumann and J.R. Waite.<br />
The second method of energy propagation proposed by Dr. Tesla was<br />
that of the propagation of electrical energy through electrified gases.<br />
Dr. Tesla experimented with the use of high frequency RF currents to<br />
examine the properties of gases over a wide range of pressures. It was<br />
determined by Dr. Tesla that air under a partial vacuum could conduct<br />
high frequency electrical currents as well or better than copper wires.<br />
If a transmitter could be elevated to a level where the air pressure<br />
was on the order of 75 to 130 millimeters in pressure and an excitation<br />
of megavolts was applied, it was theorized that;<br />
"...the air will serve as a conductor for the current produced, and<br />
the latter will be transmitted through the air with, it may be, even<br />
less resistance than through an ordinary copper wire".2 (Fig. 2) <br />
Resonating Planet Earth<br />
Dr. James T. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum, in chapter two of their soon<br />
to be published book, A Tesla Primer, point out a number of statements<br />
made by Dr. Tesla which indicate that he was using resonator fields and<br />
transmission line modes.<br />
1. When he speaks of tuning his apparatus until Hertzian radiations<br />
have been eliminated, he is referring to using ELF vibrations: "...the<br />
Hertzian effect has gradually been reduced through the lowering of<br />
frequency."3<br />
2. "...the energy received does not diminish with the square of the<br />
distance, as it should, since the Hertzian radiation propagates in a<br />
hemisphere."3<br />
3. He apparently detected resonator or standing wave modes: "...my<br />
discovery of the wonderful law governing the movement of electricity<br />
through the globe...the projection of the wavelengths (measured along<br />
the surface) on the earth's diameter or axis of symmetry...are all<br />
equal."3<br />
4. "We are living on a conducting globe surrounded by a thin layer of<br />
insulating air, above which is a rarefied and conducting<br />
atmosphere...The Hertz waves represent energy which is radiated and<br />
unrecoverable. The current energy, on the other hand, is preserved and<br />
can be recovered, theoretically at least, in its entirety."4<br />
As Dr. Corum points out, "The last sentence seems to indicate that<br />
Tesla's Colorado Springs experiments could be properly interpreted as<br />
characteristic of a wave-guide probe in a cavity resonator."5 This was<br />
in fact what led Dr. Tesla to report a measurement which to this day is<br />
not understood and has led many to erroneously assume that he was<br />
dealing with faster than light velocities.<br />
<br />
The Controversial Measurement;<br />
<br />
It does not indicate faster than light velocity<br />
The mathematical models and experimental data used by Schumann and<br />
Waite to describe ELF transmission and propagation are complex and<br />
beyond the scope of this paper. Dr. James F. Corum, Kenneth L. Corum<br />
and Dr. A-Hamid Aidinejad have, however, in a series of papers<br />
presented at the 1984 Tesla Centennial Symposium and the 1986<br />
International Tesla Symposium, applied the experimental values obtained<br />
by Dr. Tesla during his Colorado Springs experiments to the models and<br />
equations used by Schumann and Waite. The results of this exercise<br />
have proved that the Earth and the surrounding atmosphere can be used<br />
as a cavity resonator for the wireless transmission of electrical<br />
power. (Fig. 3)<br />
Dr. Tesla reported that .08484 seconds was the time that a pulse<br />
emitted from his laboratory took to propagate to the opposite side of<br />
the planet and to return. From this statement many have assumed that <br />
his transmissions exceeded the speed of light and many esoteric and<br />
fallacious theories and publications have been generated. As Corum and<br />
Aidinejad point out, in their 1986 paper, "The Transient Propagation of<br />
ELF Pulses in the Earth Ionosphere Cavity", this measurement represents<br />
the coherence time of the Earth cavity resonator system. This is also<br />
known to students of radar systems as a determination of the range<br />
dependent parameter. The accompanying diagrams from Corum's and<br />
Aidinejad's paper graphically illustrate the point. (Fig. 3 & Fig. 4)<br />
We now turn to a description of the methods to be used to build, as<br />
Dr. Tesla did in 1899, a cavity resonator for the wireless transmission<br />
of electrical power.<br />
<br />
PROJECT TESLA:<br />
<br />
The Wireless Transmission of Electrical Energy Using Schumann Resonance<br />
It has been proven that electrical energy can be propagated around<br />
the world between the surface of the Earth and the ionosphere at<br />
extreme low frequencies in what is known as the Schumann Cavity. The<br />
Schumann cavity surrounds the Earth between ground level and extends<br />
upward to a maximum 80 kilometers. Experiments to date have shown that<br />
electromagnetic waves of extreme low frequencies in the range of 8 Hz,<br />
the fundamental Schumann Resonance frequency, propagate with little<br />
attenuation around the planet within the Schumann Cavity.<br />
Knowing that a resonant cavity can be excited and that power can be<br />
delivered to that cavity similar to the methods used in microwave ovens<br />
for home use, it should be possible to resonate and deliver power via<br />
the Schumann Cavity to any point on Earth. This will result in<br />
practical wireless transmission of electrical power.<br />
<br />
Background<br />
<br />
Although it was not until 1954-1959 when experimental measurements<br />
were made of the frequency that is propagated in the resonant cavity<br />
surrounding the Earth, recent analysis shows that it was Nikola Tesla<br />
who, in 1899, first noticed the existence of stationary waves in the<br />
Schumann cavity. Tesla's experimental measurements of the wave length<br />
and frequency involved closely match Schumann's theoretical<br />
calculations. Some of these observations were made in 1899 while Tesla<br />
was monitoring the electromagnetic radiations due to lightning<br />
discharges in a thunderstorm which passed over his Colorado Springs<br />
laboratory and then moved more than 200 miles eastward across the<br />
plains. In his Colorado Springs Notes, Tesla noted that these<br />
stationary waves "... can be produced with an oscillator," and added in<br />
parenthesis, "This is of immense importance."6 The importance of his<br />
observations is due to the support they lend to the prime objective of<br />
the Colorado Springs laboratory. The intent of the experiments and the<br />
laboratory Tesla had constructed was to prove that wireless<br />
transmission of electrical power was possible.<br />
Schumann Resonance is analogous to pushing a pendulum. The intent of<br />
Project Tesla is to create pulses or electrical disturbances that would<br />
travel in all directions around the Earth in the thin membrane of non<br />
conductive air between the ground and the ionosphere. The pulses or<br />
waves would follow the surface of the Earth in all directions expanding<br />
outward to the maximum circumference of the Earth and contracting<br />
inward until meeting at a point opposite to that of the transmitter.<br />
This point is called the anti-pode. The traveling waves would be<br />
reflected back from the anti-pode to the transmitter to be reinforced<br />
and sent out again. At the time of his measurements Tesla was <br />
experimenting with and<br />
researching methods for "...power transmission and transmission of<br />
intelligible messages to any point on the globe." Although Tesla was<br />
not able to commercially market a system to transmit power around the<br />
globe, modern scientific theory and mathematical calculations support<br />
his contention that the wireless propagation of electrical power is<br />
possible and a feasible alternative to the extensive and costly grid of<br />
electrical transmission lines used today for electrical power<br />
distribution.<br />
<br />
The Need for a Wireless System of Energy Transmission<br />
<br />
A great concern has been voiced in recent years over the extensive<br />
use of energy, the limited supply of resources, and the pollution of<br />
the environment from the use of present energy conversion systems.<br />
Electrical power accounts for much of the energy consumed. Much of this<br />
power is wasted during transmission from power plant generators to the<br />
consumer. The resistance of the wire used in the electrical grid<br />
distribution system causes a loss of 26-30% of the energy generated.<br />
This loss implies that our present system of electrical distribution is<br />
only 70-74% efficient.<br />
A system of power distribution with little or no loss would conserve<br />
energy. It would reduce pollution and expenses resulting from the need<br />
to generate power to overcome and compensate for losses in the present<br />
grid system.<br />
The proposed project would demonstrate a method of energy<br />
distribution calculated to be 90-94% efficient. An electrical<br />
distribution system, based on this method would eliminate the need for<br />
an inefficient, costly, and capital intensive grid of cables, towers,<br />
and substations. The system would reduce the cost of electrical energy<br />
used by the consumer and rid the landscape of wires, cables, and<br />
transmission towers.<br />
There are areas of the world where the need for electrical power<br />
exists, yet there is no method for delivering power. Africa is in need<br />
of power to run pumps to tap into the vast resources of water under the<br />
Sahara Desert. Rural areas, such as those in China, require the<br />
electrical power necessary to bring them into the 20th century and to<br />
equal standing with western nations.<br />
As first proposed by Buckminster Fuller, wireless transmission of<br />
power would enable world wide distribution of off peak demand capacity.<br />
This concept is based on the fact that some nations, especially the<br />
United States, have the capacity to generate much more power than is<br />
needed. This situation is accentuated at night. The greatest amount<br />
of power used, the peak demand, is during the day. The extra power<br />
available during the night could be sold to the side of the planet<br />
where it is day time. Considering the huge capacity of power plants in<br />
the United States, this system would provide a saleable product which<br />
could do much to aid our balance of payments.<br />
<br />
MARKET ANALYSIS<br />
<br />
Of the 56 billion dollars spent for research by the the U.S<br />
government in 1987, 64% was for military purposes, only 8% was spent on<br />
energy related research. More efficient energy distribution systems<br />
and sources are needed by both developed and under developed nations.<br />
In regards to Project Tesla, the market for wireless power transmission<br />
systems is enormous. It has the potential to become a multi-billion<br />
dollar per year market.<br />
<br />
Market Size<br />
<br />
The increasing demand for electrical energy in industrial nations is<br />
well documented. If we include the demand of third world nations,<br />
pushed by their increasing rate of growth, we could expect an even<br />
faster rise in the demand for electrical power in the near future.<br />
In 1971, nine industrialized nations, (with 25 percent of the world's<br />
population), used 690 million kilowatts, 76 percent of all power<br />
generated. The rest of the world used only 218 million kilowatts. By<br />
comparison, China generated only 17 million kilowatts and India<br />
generated only 15 million kilowatts (less than two percent each).7 If<br />
a conservative assumption was made that the three-quarters of the world<br />
which is only using one-quarter of the current power production were to<br />
eventually consume as much as the first quarter, then an additional 908<br />
million kilowatts will be needed. The demand for electrical power will<br />
continue to increase with the industrialization of the world.<br />
<br />
Market Projections<br />
<br />
The Energy Information Agency (EIA), based in Washington, D.C.,<br />
reported the 1985 net generation of electric power to be 2,489 billion<br />
kilowatt hours. At a conservative sale price of $.04 per kilowatt hour<br />
that results in a yearly income of 100 billion dollars. The EIA also<br />
reported that the 1985 capacity according to generator name plates to<br />
be 656,118 million watts. This would result in a yearly output of<br />
5,740 billion kilowatt hours at 100% utilization. What this means is<br />
that we use only about 40% of the power we can generate (an excess<br />
capability of 3,251 billion kilowatt hours).<br />
Allowing for down time and maintenance and the fact that the night time<br />
off peak load is available, it is possible that half of the excess<br />
power generation capability could be utilized. If 1,625 billion<br />
kilowatt hours were sold yearly at $.06/kilowatt, income would total<br />
9.7 billion dollars.<br />
<br />
Project Tesla: Objectives<br />
<br />
The objectives of Project Tesla are divided into three areas of<br />
investigation.<br />
1. Demonstration that the Schumann Cavity can be resonated with an <br />
open air, vertical dipole antenna; 2. Measurement of power insertion <br />
losses; 3. Measurement of power retrieval losses, locally and at a <br />
distance.<br />
<br />
Methods<br />
<br />
A full size, 51 foot diameter, air core, radio frequency resonating<br />
coil and a unique 130 foot tower, insulated 30 feet above ground, have<br />
been constructed and are operational at an elevation of approximately<br />
11,000 feet. This system was originally built by Robert Golka in 1973<br />
1974 and used until 1982 by the United States Air Force at Wendover AFB<br />
in Wendover, Utah. The USAF used the coil for simulating natural<br />
lightning for testing and hardening fighter aircraft. The system has a<br />
capacity of over 600 kilowatts. The coil, which is the largest part<br />
of the system, has already been built, tested, and is operational.<br />
A location at a high altitude is initially advantageous for reducing<br />
atmospheric losses which work against an efficient coupling to the<br />
Schumann Cavity. The high frequency, high voltage output of the coil<br />
will be half wave rectified using a uniquely designed single electrode<br />
X-ray tube. The X-ray tube will be used to charge a 130 ft. tall, <br />
vertical tower which will function to provide a vertical current<br />
moment. The mast is topped by a metal sphere 30 inches in diameter.<br />
X-rays emitted from the tube will ionize the atmosphere between the<br />
Tesla coil and the tower. This will result in a low resistance path<br />
causing all discharges to flow from the coil to the tower. A<br />
circulating current of 1,000 amperes in the system will create an<br />
ionization and corona causing a large virtual electrical capacitance in<br />
the medium surrounding the sphere. The total charge around the tower<br />
will be in the range of between 200-600 coulombs. Discharging the<br />
tower 7-8 times per second through a fixed or rotary spark gap will<br />
create electrical disturbances, which will resonantly excite the<br />
Schumann Cavity, and propagate around the entire Earth.<br />
The propagated wave front will be reflected from the antipode back to<br />
the transmitter site. The reflected wave will be reinforced and again<br />
radiated when it returns to the transmitter. As a result, an<br />
oscillation will be established and maintained in the Schumann Cavity.<br />
The loss of power in the cavity has been estimated to be about 6% per<br />
round trip. If the same amount of power is delivered to the cavity on<br />
each cycle of oscillation of the transmitter, there will be a net<br />
energy gain which will result in a net voltage, or amplitude increase.<br />
This will result in reactive energy storage in the cavity. As long as<br />
energy is delivered to the cavity, the process will continue until the<br />
energy is removed by heating, lightning discharges, or as is proposed<br />
by this project, loading by tuned circuits at distant locations for<br />
power distribution.<br />
The resonating cavity field will be detected by stations both in the<br />
United States and overseas. These will be staffed by engineers and<br />
scientists who have agreed to participate in the experiment.<br />
Measurement of power insertion and retrieval losses will be made at<br />
the transmitter site and at distant receiving locations. Equipment<br />
constructed especially for measurement of low frequency electromagnetic<br />
waves will be employed to measure the effectiveness of using the<br />
Schumann Cavity as a means of electrical power distribution. The<br />
detection equipment used by project personnel will consist of a pick up<br />
coil and industry standard low noise, high gain operational amplifiers<br />
and active band pass filters.<br />
In addition to project detection there will be a record of the<br />
experiment recorded by a network of monitoring stations that have been<br />
set up specifically to monitor electromagnetic activity in the Schumann<br />
Cavity. <br />
<br />
Evaluation Procedure<br />
<br />
<br />
The project will be evaluated by an analysis of the data provided by<br />
local and distant measurement stations. The output of the transmitter<br />
will produce a 7-8 Hz sine wave as a result of the discharges from the<br />
antenna. The recordings made by distant stations will be time<br />
synchronized to ensure that the data received is a result of the<br />
operation of the transmitter.<br />
Power insertion and retrieval losses will be analyzed after the<br />
measurements taken during the transmission are recorded. Attenuation,<br />
field strength, and cavity Q will be calculated using the equations<br />
presented in Dr. Corum's papers. These papers are noted in the<br />
references. If recorded results indicate power can be efficiently<br />
coupled into or transmitted in the Schumann Cavity, a second phase of<br />
research involving power reception will be initiated.<br />
<br />
Environmental Considerations<br />
<br />
The extreme low frequencies (ELF), present in the environment have<br />
several origins. The time varying magnetic fields produced as a result<br />
of solar and lunar influences on ionospheric currents are on the order<br />
of 30 nanoteslas. The largest time varying fields are those generated<br />
by solar activity and thunderstorms. These magnetic fields reach a<br />
maximum of 0.5 microteslas (uT) The magnetic fields produced as a<br />
result of lightning discharges in the Schumann Cavity peak at 7, 14, 20<br />
and 26 Hz. The magnetic flux densities associated with these resonant<br />
frequencies vary from 0.25 to 3.6 picoteslas. per root hertz<br />
(pT/Hz1/2).<br />
Exposure to man made sources of ELF can be up to 1 billion (1000<br />
million or 1 x 109) times stronger than that of naturally occurring<br />
fields. Household appliances operated at 60 Hz can produce fields as<br />
high as 2.5 mT. The field under a 765 kV, 60 Hz power line carrying 1<br />
amp per phase is 15 uT. ELF antennae systems that are used for<br />
submarine communication produce fields of 20 uT. Video display<br />
terminals produce fields of 2 uT, 1,000,000 times the strength of the<br />
Schumann Resonance frequencies.9<br />
Project Tesla will use a 150 kw generator to excite the Schumann<br />
cavity. Calculations predict that the field strength due to this<br />
excitation at 7.8 Hz will be on the order of 46 picoteslas.<br />
<br />
Future Objectives<br />
<br />
The successful resonating of the Schumann Cavity and wireless<br />
transmission of power on a small scale resulting in proof of principle<br />
will require a second phase of engineering, the design of receiving<br />
stations. On completion of the second phase, the third and fourth<br />
phases of the project involving further tests and improvements and a<br />
large scale demonstration project will be pursued to prove commercial<br />
feasibility. Total cost from proof of principle to commercial<br />
prototype is expected to total $3 million. Interest in participation<br />
in this project may be directed to the author.<br />
<br />
REFERENCES<br />
<br />
The following four papers were presented at the 1984 Tesla Centennial<br />
Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium.<br />
"The Transient Propagation of ELF Pulses in the Earth-Ionosphere<br />
Cavity", by A-Ahamid Aidinejad and James F. Corum.<br />
"Disclosures Concerning the Operation of an ELF Oscillator", by James<br />
F. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.<br />
"A Physical Interpretation of the Colorado Springs Data", by James F.<br />
Corum and Kenneth L. Corum.<br />
"Critical Speculations Concerning Tesla's Invention and Applications<br />
of Single Electrode X-Ray Directed Discharges for Power Processing,<br />
Terrestrial Resonances and Particle Beam Weapons" by James F. Corum and<br />
Kenneth L. Corum.<br />
<br />
FOOTNOTES<br />
<br />
1. Tesla Said, Compiled by John T. Ratzlaff, Tesla Book Company,<br />
Millbrae, CA, 1984.<br />
2. Dr. Nikola Tesla: Selected Patent Wrappers, compiled by John T.<br />
Ratzlaff, Tesla Book Company, 1980, Vol. I, Pg. 128.<br />
3. "The Disturbing Influence of Solar Radiation on the Wireless<br />
Transmission of Energy", by Nikola Tesla, Electrical Review, July 6,<br />
1912, PP. 34, 35.<br />
4. "The Effect of Static on Wireless Transmission", by Nikola Tesla,<br />
Electrical Experimenter, January 1919, PP. 627, 658.<br />
5. Tesla Primer and Handbook, Dr. James T. Corum and Kenneth L. Corum,<br />
unpublished. Corum and Associates, 8551 ST Rt 534, Windsor, Ohio 44099<br />
6. Colorado Springs Notes, 1899 - 1900, Nikola Tesla, Nikola Tesla<br />
Museum, Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978, Pg. 62.<br />
7. Van Nostrands Scientific Encylopedia, Fith Edition, Pg. 899.<br />
8. "PC Monitors Lightning Worldwide", Davis D. Sentman, Computers in<br />
Science, Premiere Issue, 1987.<br />
9. "Artificially Stimulated Resonance of the Earth's Schumann Cavity<br />
Waveguide", Toby Grotz, Proceedings of the Third International New<br />
Energy Technology Symposium/Exhibition, June 25th-28th, 1988, Hull,<br />
Quebec, Planetary Association for Clean Energy, 191 Promenade du<br />
Portage/600, Hull, Quebec J8X 2K6 Canada<br />
<br />
FURTHER INFORMATION ABOUT TESLA<br />
<br />
The Tesla Memorial Society The Tesla Coil Builders Association<br />
% Nicholas Kosanovich % Harry Goldman<br />
453 Martin Road RD #6 Box 181<br />
Lackawanna, NY 14218 Glenns Falls, NY 12801\<br />
(716) 822-0281 (518 792-1003<br />
<br />
The Tesla Book Company High Voltage Press<br />
PO Box 1649 PO Box 532<br />
Greenville, TX 75401 Claremont, CA 91711<br />
<br />
ABOUT THE AUTHOR<br />
<br />
Mr. Grotz, is an electrical engineer and has 15 years experience in<br />
the field of geophysics, aerospace and industrial research and design.<br />
While working for the Geophysical Services Division of Texas<br />
Instruments and at the University of Texas at Dallas, Mr. Grotz was<br />
introduced to and worked with the geophysical concepts which are of<br />
importance to the proposed project. As a Senior Engineer at Martin<br />
Marietta, Mr. Grotz designed and supervised the construction of<br />
industrial process control systems and designed and built devices and<br />
equipment for use in research and development and for testing space<br />
flight hardware. Mr. Grotz organized and chaired the 1984 Tesla<br />
Centennial Symposium and the 1986 International Tesla Symposium and was<br />
President of the International Tesla Society, a not for profit<br />
corporation formed as a result the first symposium. As Project Manager<br />
for Project Tesla, Mr. Grotz aided in the design and construction of a<br />
recreation of the equipment Nikola Tesla used for wireless transmission<br />
of power experiments in 1899 in Colorado Springs. Mr. Grotz received<br />
his B.S.E.E. from the University of Connecticut in 1973.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Does_light_have_mass&diff=1834Does light have mass2021-03-27T07:51:05Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "Original by Philip Gibbs 5-August-1997 Does light have mass? The short answer is "no", but it is a qualified "no" because there are odd ways of interpreting the question whi..."</p>
<hr />
<div>Original by Philip Gibbs 5-August-1997<br />
<br />
Does light have mass?<br />
<br />
The short answer is "no", but it is a qualified "no" because there are odd ways of interpreting the question which could justify the answer "yes".<br />
<br />
Light is composed of photons so we could ask if the photon has mass. The answer is then definitely "no": The photon is a massless particle. According to theory it has energy and momentum but no mass and this is confirmed by experiment to within strict limits. Even before it was known that light is composed of photons it was known that light carries momentum and will exert a pressure on a surface. This is not evidence that it has mass since momentum can exist without mass. [ For details see the Physics FAQ article What is the mass of the photon? ]. <br />
<br />
Sometimes people like to say that the photon does have mass because a photon has energy E = hf where h is Planck's constant and f is the frequency of the photon. Energy, they say, is equivalent to mass according to EinsteinÕs famous formula E = mc2. They also say that a photon has momentum and momentum is related to mass p = mv. What they are talking about is "relativistic mass", an outdated concept which is best avoided [ See Relativity FAQ article Does mass change with velocity? ] Relativistic mass is a measure of the energy E of a particle which changes with velocity. By convention relativistic mass is not usually called the mass of a particle in contemporary physics so it is wrong to say the photon has mass in this way. but you can say that the photon has relativistic mass if you really want to. In modern terminology the mass of an object is its invariant mass which is zero for a photon. <br />
<br />
If we now return to the question "Does light have mass?" this can be taken to mean different things if the light is moving freely or trapped in a container. The definition of the invariant mass of an object is m = sqrt{E2/c4 - p2/c2}. By this definition a beam of light, is massless like the photons it is composed of. However, if light is trapped in a box with perfect mirrors so the photons are continually reflected back and forth in the box, then the total momentum is zero in the boxes frame of reference but the energy is not. Therefore the light adds a small contribution to the mass of the box. This could be measured - in principle at least - either by an increase in inertia when the box is slowly accelerated or by an increase in its gravitational pull. You might say that the light in the box has mass but it would be more correct to say that the light contributes to the total mass of the box of light. You should not use this to justify the statement that light has mass in general.<br />
<br />
It might be thought that it would be better to regard the relativistic mass as the actual mass of photons and light, instead of invariant mass. We could then consistently talk about the light having mass independently of whether or not it is contained. If relativistic mass is used for all objects then mass is conserved and the mass of an object is the sum of the masses of its part. However, modern usage defines mass as the invariant mass of an object mainly because the invariant mass is more useful when doing any kind of calculation. In this case mass is not conserved and the mass of an object is not the sum of the masses of its parts. For example the mass of a box of light is more than the mass of the box and the sum of the masses of the photons (the latter being zero). Relativistic mass is equivalent to energy so it is a redundant concept. In the modern view mass is not equivalent to energy. It is just that part of the energy of a body which is not kinetic energy. Mass is independent of velocity whereas energy is not.<br />
<br />
Let's try to phrase this another way. What is the meaning of the equation E=mc2? You can interpret it to mean that energy is the same thing as mass except for a conversion factor equal to the square of the speed of light. Then wherever there is mass there is energy and wherever there is energy there is mass. In that case photons have mass but we call it relativistic mass. Another way to use Einstein's equation would be to keep mass and energy as separate and use it as an equation which applies when mass is converted in energy or energy is converted to mass as in nuclear reactions. The mass is then independent of velocity and is closer to the old Newtonian concept. In that case only total of energy and mass would be conserved but it seems better to try to keep conservation of energy. The interpretation most widely used is a compromise in which mass is invariant and always has energy so that total energy is conserved but kinetic energy and radiation does not have mass. The distinction is purely a matter of semantic convention.<br />
<br />
Sometimes people ask "If light has no mass how can it be deflected by the gravity of a star?" One answer is that any particles such as photons of light, move along geodesics in general relativity and the path they follow is independent of their mass. The deflection of star-light by the sun was first measured by Arthur Eddington in 1919. The result was consistent with the predictions of general relativity and inconsistent with the Newtonian theory. Another answer is that the light has energy and momentum which couples to gravity. The energy-momentum 4-vector of a particle, rather than its mass, is the gravitational analogue of electric charge. The corresponding analogue of electric current is the energy-momentum stress tensor which appears in the gravitational field equations of general relativity. A massless particle can have energy E and momentum p because mass is related to these by the equation m2 = E2/c4 - p2/c2 which is zero for a photon because E = pc for massless radiation. The energy and momentum of light also generates curvature of space-time so according to theory it can attract objects gravitationally. This effect is far too weak to have been measured.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_LQG_%E2%80%93_String:_Loop_Quantum_Gravity_Quantization_of_String_Theory&diff=1833The LQG – String: Loop Quantum Gravity Quantization of String Theory2021-03-27T07:49:35Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/The%20Lqg%20--%20String%20-%20Loop%20Quantum%20Gravity%20Quantization%20Of%20String%20Theory%20I%20Flat%20Target%..."</p>
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<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/The%20Lqg%20--%20String%20-%20Loop%20Quantum%20Gravity%20Quantization%20Of%20String%20Theory%20I%20Flat%20Target%20Space.pdf</pdf><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=THE_GENESIS_OF_POSSIBLE_WORLDS_SEMANTICS&diff=1832THE GENESIS OF POSSIBLE WORLDS SEMANTICS2021-03-27T07:48:35Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/the%20genesis%20of%20possible%20world%20semantics.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/the%20genesis%20of%20possible%20world%20semantics.pdf</pdf><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Future_of_the_Species&diff=1831The Future of the Species2021-03-27T07:47:19Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> THE FUTURE OF THE SPECIES - A transcript from The Hour of Judgment radio series - Copyright (c) 1995 Kevin Solway..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
THE FUTURE OF THE SPECIES<br />
<br />
- A transcript from The Hour of Judgment radio series -<br />
<br />
Copyright (c) 1995 Kevin Solway & David Quinn<br />
<br />
Guest: Russel Kelly - Eco-psychologist, and employee of the<br />
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Commission.<br />
<br />
Hosts: Kevin Solway & David Quinn<br />
<br />
--------------------<br />
<br />
I was glad to have Russell Kelly on the program as he was someone<br />
who could articulate better than most the ever-popular "everything<br />
is uncertain and there are many paths to wisdom" philosophy. He<br />
was fully into postmodernism with its beloved emphasis on<br />
"deconstruction", a school of thought which basically states that<br />
all knowledge is moulded by social and historical forces, and that<br />
no one individual can lay a legitimate claim upon Ultimate Truth.<br />
What makes Russell more interesting than most of these<br />
post-modernist exponents is that he finds it very difficult to<br />
dismiss the concept of the wise man. He had read Kierkegaard in<br />
his youth, for example, which seemed to have had a lasting effect<br />
on him - it may have caused him to reflect a little upon the<br />
spiritual path and what it implied. Thus, by the time I had met<br />
him several months ago, his mind was slightly open, just a touch,<br />
to the possibilities of perfection. He was, moreover, capable of a<br />
certain clarity of thought and possessed a good appreciation of<br />
logic. But he also had a lot of attachments, not least of which<br />
were love and women. Looking back on it all, I think he must have<br />
come to a point in his life when spirituality began to scare him.<br />
He obviously decided, consciously or unconsciously, that being an<br />
individual with all its attendant sufferings just wasn't for him,<br />
and more or less decided to block the whole thing completely. And<br />
yet . . . and yet, even to this day, in spite of his resistance,<br />
he still finds himself becoming inspired whenever he hears the<br />
words of a wise man. These days he concerns himself with the<br />
environmental cause and the plight of the Australian Aboriginies.<br />
At the time of this program, he had spent several years working<br />
with ATSIC (Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders Commission),<br />
and had just begun a PhD thesis on "the concept of self and its<br />
relationship to the environment". He believes that the key<br />
solution to the environmental problems of the world lies in<br />
altering our concept of self to embrace the whole biosphere. This<br />
is in stark contrast to our own position on the matter which is<br />
that we should eliminate the self altogether. The following<br />
conversation starts off exploring this particular issue, before<br />
moving off into deeper and more significant areas than merely<br />
saving the planet.<br />
<br />
D.Q<br />
<br />
------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
<br />
David: Hello and welcome to the humblest radio program in the<br />
world, The Hour of Judgement. My name is David Quinn, and I'm an<br />
up-and-coming sage who lives at West End. But sitting beside me is<br />
someone who literally embodies humility - he is probably the<br />
humblest person I know - and that is, of course, Kevin Solway, our<br />
regular, self-proclaimed expert on reality. Tonight, we're going<br />
to explore the nature of wisdom. In particular, we will look at<br />
wisdom in the context of all the environmental problems of the<br />
world. I'm sure it's not necessary for me to spell out in great<br />
detail what these problems are: exploding population, massive<br />
deforestation, species extinction, rapidly diminishing resources<br />
such as fertile land and water, possible greenhouse catastrophe .<br />
. . the list goes on and on. And so we will go into this issue a<br />
bit and talk about the survival of the human race and how to best<br />
save the planet. Now there are an increasing number of people who<br />
believe that the overriding cause for all this environmental<br />
destruction is our obsession with reason and logic, especially in<br />
the West, together with an overabundance of masculine<br />
aggressiveness. They say that we should embrace the more intuitive<br />
and more feminine values found in certain indigenous cultures, as<br />
well as in women, which tend to stress the interconnectedness<br />
between things, or between the human race and the rest of Nature.<br />
They say that we should stop limiting our concept of self to the<br />
physical individual and instead expand it to include the whole<br />
community, or even to include the whole of the biosphere. They say<br />
that by limiting our concept of self to the physical body we are<br />
creating alienation in the world - alienation between individuals,<br />
and between the human race and Nature. As I say, this is becoming<br />
more and more of a popular view, so we'll go into it and see<br />
whether it's actually valid. And to help us in this we are joined<br />
by Russell Kelly, who is actually doing a Phd thesis on<br />
eco-psychology. That's an interesting term, Russell. What does it<br />
mean?<br />
<br />
Russell: Well, eco-psychology is a relatively new phenomenon, and<br />
is a new way of talking about psychology and a possible<br />
relationship between people and the earth. Part of answering your<br />
question would be to say what psychology is. And I suspect that<br />
what we're talking about with eco-psychology is a certain sort of<br />
discourse that may be useful in talking about our relationship<br />
with not just the physical environment, not just the social<br />
environment - which mainstream psychology has tended to focus on<br />
of late, as well as what's going on within the individual - but<br />
also focus on possible relationships between people and the<br />
natural environment, on the greater reality that goes beyond<br />
individuals.<br />
<br />
David: So you would say that our actions come from our psychology,<br />
and by changing our psychology our actions will thereby change. So<br />
if we change the concept of self then this will have beneficial<br />
effects on the environment.<br />
<br />
Russell: Yes.<br />
<br />
David: So would you agree with what I said in the introduction -<br />
that we should embrace a wider concept of self to include the<br />
environment, for the sake of the environment.<br />
<br />
Russell: Yes. I think it has been fundamental to much of the<br />
environmental movement since its beginning in the early twentieth<br />
century, that in order to change the world we must first change<br />
the self. One way of understanding this is to think about identity<br />
- relating selfhood to identity. There is a natural tendency to<br />
nurture or defend those things which we might include in our sense<br />
of who we are. An example of that would be people whom we love,<br />
family, our possessions perhaps, pets - things which we hold dear<br />
to us, and which may form part of our identity. We don't have to<br />
think very much to defend people we love, people which are close<br />
to us. We don't make a cost-benefit analysis - we respond<br />
emotionally. And the thinking, certainly within the so-called deep<br />
ecology movement, and in a lot of eco-psychology, is that through<br />
certain practices and through developing certain discourses about<br />
the self and our relationship with our natural environment, we can<br />
actually expand the sense of who we are to include not just our<br />
car and our possessions and our loved ones, but so that we respond<br />
emotionally and directly to threats to the natural environment<br />
with actions of nurture or defence.<br />
<br />
Kevin: This is interesting. If we look at the cause of all the<br />
wars that we've seen throughout history, I think we could say that<br />
all of those have come about because of this feeling of loving<br />
your family or your country. Each country loves their fellow<br />
members and unite in hatred of their neighbours. So this kind of<br />
philosophy seems to lead towards violence, doesn't it? So if we<br />
globally came together as a family, that would help us to go to<br />
war against other races, perhaps?<br />
<br />
Russell: I think the thesis you make is a big one. But in some<br />
ways it seems that your analysis fits-in with my understanding, in<br />
that it's precisely a very limited sense of self to only include<br />
blood and race-<br />
<br />
Kevin: And species.<br />
<br />
Russell: Well, certainly, in terms of wars, if you wanted to make<br />
that thesis, then you're saying that with respect to one's own<br />
race or one's own family that these are sources of violence . . .<br />
and you may, may, be correct. But to expand that . . . if one was<br />
able to expand that sense of self to include the whole of reality,<br />
ultimately - Nature as Reality - which is, if you like, the<br />
logical extension of including the natural world, then, in theory<br />
at least, there are no enemies, because we're connected to all of<br />
reality, and certainly all of the natural world.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Do you still think the feeling would be an emotional one,<br />
though? True, we do have an emotional feeling of protection and so<br />
on towards those people whom we love. We group together against an<br />
external enemy - the outside world. Communities join together<br />
against the forces of nature, to protect each other against<br />
change. So if we loved the whole of reality as our self, do you<br />
think we'd still feel some kind of emotional feeling to protect<br />
it?<br />
<br />
Russell: I think we're dealing here with ideals, and we're moving<br />
into the realm of philosophy. I think in the real world where<br />
you're dealing with people, where a vast number of people lead<br />
what we might call normal lives, it is unrealistic to talk about<br />
ideals. I think the reality is there will always be emotional<br />
reactions. Perhaps there might be the odd sage who mightn't<br />
respond emotionally--<br />
<br />
David: What? You don't think it's realistic that we'll have five<br />
billion Buddhas sometime in the future?<br />
<br />
Russell: Somewhat not realistic, no.<br />
<br />
David: But I wonder whether this idea about expanding the self out<br />
to include the biosphere actually does help promote the arisal of<br />
Buddhas. A Buddha - a wise man or a wise woman - is someone who<br />
loves the whole infinity of Nature as oneself. And if you have<br />
that understanding of Reality, if you understand that Reality is<br />
your own self - then you'd have no emotional attachment as to<br />
whether the biosphere continued to exist or not. So if the<br />
biosphere were to be destroyed tomorrow - if a comet, say, hit the<br />
planet and caused all life to disappear - then, as far as the wise<br />
man is concerned, it's still all his own self, including the<br />
extinct planet and so forth. He makes no distinction between the<br />
biosphere and not-biosphere - in an emotional sense.<br />
<br />
Russell: I can see your point logically and speculatively, but<br />
certainly the aims of eco-psychology are far more humble in that<br />
they're certainly not aiming to create Buddhas, but rather to<br />
shift the culture, to whatever small degree, the "self<br />
understandings" of a majority of people in the West to be more<br />
sensitive and feel a deeper sense of connection to the natural<br />
environment. Clearly, the history of Western society, certainly<br />
since even the scientific revolution I suspect, has removed us<br />
from an emotional sense of attachment, sense of connection, a<br />
sense of with-ness and similarity with the natural environment. So<br />
I think it's still valid, even though it may not be pushing us<br />
towards sagehood.<br />
<br />
Kevin: The more we become aware and the more we become connected<br />
with Nature, the less and less we are going to be connected with<br />
the people whom we traditionally have loved.<br />
<br />
David: That's right. Is it possible to love both a woman and the<br />
biosphere? Can we serve two masters?<br />
<br />
Kevin: That's right, a woman's going to be mighty jealous! If you<br />
have an intense love of Nature, the girlfriend is not going to be<br />
too happy. She's going to feel jealous that perhaps you love<br />
Nature more than you love her.<br />
<br />
Russell: I think that's a very harsh judgment of a woman's love.<br />
It depends on how one defines it, but certainly the ideal of love<br />
that I would definitely hold, is that love is not jealous and<br />
discriminating and possessive. In a sense, the notions of love<br />
parallel this notion of expanding the sense of identity, and this<br />
has been made explicit by some thinkers in the field: that the<br />
attitude of love is to actually include other people in your<br />
identity, so that they are not separate, so there can be no<br />
jealousy.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Well, for example, Russell, you have a girlfriend - if you<br />
were to spend all of your time out in Nature, with other women . .<br />
.<br />
<br />
Russell: [laughs]<br />
<br />
Kevin: . . . and no time with your girlfriend, obviously jealousy<br />
would arise in this scenario.<br />
<br />
Russell: Hmm . . .<br />
<br />
Kevin: So really, if we're truly going to extend ourselves out to<br />
encompass Nature, we can't become attached to individual people.<br />
We have to give our love, or give our understanding, equally to<br />
everybody on the planet. We have to relate to every woman on the<br />
planet equally, because every woman is an equal part of Nature.<br />
<br />
David: This is in a non-emotional sense. To me, the emotional<br />
intimacy between a man and a woman involves blocking out the rest<br />
of reality. The very pleasure of the intimacy between a man and a<br />
woman involves ignoring everything else.<br />
<br />
Kevin: It's a form of violence against the Universe.<br />
<br />
David: And this is totally incompatible with saving the biosphere.<br />
<br />
Russell: Yes, this is a very dark view, a very dark view of human<br />
relations, and certainly relations between the sexes. I mean, I<br />
hardly know where to begin.<br />
<br />
Kevin: What did you think about David's starting comment there<br />
about how he believes we're entering a feminine fashion - we're<br />
going back to feminine or tribal values, where we value the<br />
community over the individual, where we value the community's<br />
values and ideas more than the individual's values and ideas? Do<br />
you think this is the way we should be going? Outwards towards the<br />
community?<br />
<br />
Russell: To some degree I think that is the case. I think that<br />
part of the contemporary malaise - the "quiet despair that the<br />
mass of men feel", to quote Thoreau - is a response to the<br />
patently obvious loss of community and loss of tradition that we<br />
experience all around us. I was reading statistics just recently<br />
where between 1920 and the 1970's the number of households that<br />
had six or more people in the house declined from forty percent to<br />
two or three percent in the whole Western world. And the number of<br />
households where there was only one person living increased from<br />
one or two percent to thirty-six percent or something--<br />
<br />
Kevin: And you think we're having a reaction against that now, and<br />
we want more of these warm, large groups?<br />
<br />
Russell: Yes. I think we want more a sense of connection with<br />
other people. And I think the breakdown, or the unsustainability,<br />
of relationships is another symptom of this. The nuclear family,<br />
the smallest sustainable biological unit that we've had in the<br />
history of the human race - and it's a new phenomenon - is itself<br />
becoming problematic, and we're breaking down into individual<br />
units. So yes, the regaining of community, the sense of connection<br />
with others, I see, and I think eco-psychologists see, as<br />
essential to the salvation of the whole biosphere.<br />
<br />
Kevin: I tell you what, I'll read out a short passage. This is<br />
from Otto Weininger and it's on the subject of woman and society<br />
and solitude, so this will give us some material to discuss.<br />
<br />
"For woman the problem of solitude and society does not<br />
exist. She is well adapted for social relations (as, for<br />
instance, those of a companion or sick-nurse), simply<br />
because for her there is no transition from solitude to<br />
society. In the case of a man, the choice between<br />
solitude and society is serious when it has to be made.<br />
The woman gives up no solitude when she nurses the sick,<br />
as she would have to do were she to deserve moral credit<br />
for her action; a woman is never in a condition of<br />
solitude, and knows neither the love of it nor the fear<br />
of it. The woman is always living in a condition of<br />
fusion with all the human beings she knows, even when<br />
she is alone; she is not an individual, for all<br />
individuals are sharply marked off from other<br />
existences. Women have no definite individual limits;<br />
they are not unlimited in the sense that geniuses have<br />
no limits, being one with the whole world; they are<br />
unlimited only in the sense that they are not marked off<br />
from the common stock of mankind.<br />
<br />
"This sense of continuity with the rest of mankind is a<br />
sexual character of the female, and displays itself in<br />
the desire to touch, to be in contact with, the object<br />
of her pity; the mode in which her tenderness expresses<br />
itself is a kind of animal sense of contact. It shows<br />
the absence of the sharp line that separates one real<br />
personality from another. The woman does not respect the<br />
sorrow of her neighbour by silence; she tries to raise<br />
him from his grief by speech, feeling that she must be<br />
in physical, rather than spiritual, contact with him.<br />
<br />
"This diffused life, one of the most fundamental<br />
qualities of the female nature, is the cause of the<br />
impressibility of all women, their unreserved and<br />
shameless readiness to shed tears on the most ordinary<br />
occasion. It is not without reason that we associate<br />
wailing with women, and think little of a man who sheds<br />
tears in public. A woman weeps with those that weep and<br />
laughs with those that laugh - unless she herself is the<br />
cause of the laughter - so that the greater part of<br />
female sympathy is ready-made."<br />
<br />
So Weininger is making the point that women have a special quality<br />
in that they are fused, permanently fused, twenty-four hours a<br />
day, with the whole biosphere, with the whole of society. In a<br />
sense, they're already fully enlightened - subconsciously.<br />
<br />
David: In effect, they're perfect examples of what Russell is<br />
advocating.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Yes, is that what we're going towards? I mean, when I look<br />
at the new age culture I see this exact same female psychology<br />
that Weininger describes, where we fuse. Just look at the new age<br />
people: when they first see each other they run up and give each<br />
other a hug! They ask each other "How are you?" - words, empty<br />
words. This is on the most crude physical level, an animal sort of<br />
a level. They believe, of course, that it's spiritual, but in fact<br />
it's the exact opposite because there's no rational or logical<br />
understanding there. What I'm worried about is that we're going in<br />
the direction back towards a primitive tribal type of culture,<br />
like the Australian aboriginal culture or the American Indians.<br />
We're going back to this tribal culture where there is no logical,<br />
rational connection with the world - it's more of a physical<br />
connection. For example, a clod of earth is definitely connected<br />
with the biosphere - it's connected physically - and in this sense<br />
tribal culture is connected, by force. It has no choice about the<br />
matter. It's just connected. But the genius, or the wise man,<br />
becomes connected consciously through his reason.<br />
<br />
Russell: Well, it's difficult to respond to. I think the<br />
stereotype you've described there does a terrible injustice to the<br />
nature of womens' relating, and the nature of wisdom as seen from<br />
a female perspective. I can't speak on behalf of women, but my own<br />
feeling is that I certainly align myself with the view that our<br />
culture has been dreadfully masculinized, and that we need to<br />
regain exactly the sort of things that you were criticizing. I<br />
think that, like in all great lies, there's a certain substance of<br />
truth to part of what you were saying, and I think the core of it<br />
is that I think women do have a stronger sense of relationship.<br />
The sense of being connected is more important for women. To<br />
stereotype them and say they're fused, and to push it to the pole<br />
and say that women are fused and completely uncritical is, I<br />
think, a terrible injustice and just patently false.<br />
<br />
David: Well, aren't you describing the feminine mind there, Kevin?<br />
<br />
Kevin: Yes, it's the feminine mind for sure, which too many men<br />
today have, I think. I wouldn't be so sexist as to say that anyone<br />
with a female body was actually feminine. That would be a terrible<br />
crime. Certainly, most men today have very feminine minds and cry<br />
and weep at the first occasion, and don't feel themselves to be<br />
individuals capable of thinking for themselves.<br />
<br />
David: So do you admit, Russell, the distinction between a sort of<br />
unconscious connection and a conscious one? I would say that a lot<br />
of indigenous cultures haven't got to the very bottom and reasoned<br />
out the true nature of things. Their connectedness has just<br />
evolved on an unconscious level, as a way of dealing with the<br />
environment, as opposed to developing a proper consciousness of<br />
Reality.<br />
<br />
Russell: There's a few things here. I disagree with that analysis<br />
as well. I mean, it's very hard for me, again, to be talking on<br />
behalf of indigenous people - they're well able to talk on behalf<br />
of themselves - but my own view is that there were always wise men<br />
of the tribe. And I presume there are always less wise men and<br />
women of the tribe, and also wise women of the tribe. And there<br />
were reasoning and rational people within the tribe as well. But I<br />
also would want to take issue with whether in fact this ethic of<br />
rationality is the only path to wisdom, and whether this<br />
preoccupation with and heightening of rationality is the only way<br />
to wisdom and truth. I don't think that that is the only path.<br />
There are other ways, and certainly indigenous people's ways -<br />
"feeling" connections - rather than having an abstract, rational<br />
account of connections.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Well, that's a good subject to talk about, but first of all<br />
we'll just have a piece of music. This piece sounds as though it's<br />
by a community, and it's proof that, if nothing else, communities<br />
can produce harmony - it might not be wisdom, but it's harmony.<br />
<br />
[ MUSIC BREAK ]<br />
<br />
David: Are there different paths to wisdom? Russell was saying<br />
before that rationality, which is what Kevin and I value, is not<br />
the only path to wisdom, that there are other paths. I presume he<br />
means feelings and intuitions and that side of things. But to me<br />
"wisdom" is just a word that we ourselves give meaning to, and I<br />
define the word "wisdom" to mean the understanding of Ultimate<br />
Reality. It's a specific definition. And to understand Ultimate<br />
Reality one has to cast aside delusions about Reality, and one<br />
does that by reasoning, by trying to expose contradictions between<br />
ideas and so forth - by actually reasoning and seeing what is<br />
false, and then rejecting it. And when one does this perfectly one<br />
sees Ultimate Reality; one sees what is the real state of affairs<br />
of Nature. Now I ask, how can this be done by feelings? Feelings<br />
and intuitions have no meaning in relation to this goal.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Yes, couldn't we say that animals - I mean, animals other<br />
than ourselves: cows, for example - experience feelings of a sort?<br />
They certainly have feelings and they also have intuitions. So<br />
this kind of perception would seem to be of an earlier stage of<br />
evolution that comes before the kind of full consciousness that<br />
some human beings have. How can these feelings and intuitions lead<br />
to anything of real, concrete value?<br />
<br />
Russell: Well, I think we have to back-pedal a little to your own<br />
definition of what wisdom is. And I think you've defined it in a<br />
way that privileges rational knowledge right from the beginning.<br />
And I just wonder whether being "wise" might not simply be to have<br />
a particular philosophy about the nature of being, which is<br />
historically situated, which has a particular history and which<br />
will change. I mean, how one defines the nature of reality changes<br />
over time. So we know that those kind of discourses, those<br />
rational discourses about philosophy have a history. But I just<br />
wonder if being "wise" might also actually involve a mode of<br />
being, rather than just a rational and particular state of<br />
consciousness. Whether being wise might involve a certain way of<br />
relating to people, a certain way of relating and responding to<br />
the natural environment, without even resorting to a rational<br />
method - without necessarily being able to speak using particular<br />
concepts to embody that way of relating. I am just reminded of<br />
Kierkegaard when he says that "Truth is Subjectivity" - that the<br />
Truth is a mode of being, and that only God, or some sort of<br />
Absolute that stands outside of history, is able to determine what<br />
Absolute Truth is. All that's left to human beings is to have a<br />
certain subjective stance.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Well, this is interesting. "Truth is Subjectivity." This<br />
relates to that piece I read out earlier by Weininger, where he<br />
was praising individuality as opposed to this kind of fuzzy<br />
community. The fuzzy community has ideas - it's like a self, if<br />
you like, but the individual, or the genius, the god- man, the<br />
true individual, is the highest being of all, and they are one<br />
hundred percent subjective in that it's just them and the world.<br />
All of their ideas are their own ideas; they're not other people's<br />
ideas. And their values are absolute for them. So what they<br />
believe is true is absolutely true - other peoples' ideas are<br />
irrelevant.<br />
<br />
David: But their ideas aren't arbitrary. You're not saying that<br />
they have the same sort of significance or value as an ordinary<br />
person's ideas?<br />
<br />
Kevin: That's right. Subjective in that sense doesn't mean that<br />
the ideas are arbitrary; it means that they come from a true<br />
individual. And the individual is fully conscious that those ideas<br />
are his own, and that they have Ultimate Reality.<br />
<br />
David: I think we should remember that Kierkegaard was speaking<br />
against Hegel here, who was talking about this imaginary or<br />
speculative absolute - an intellectual absolute - with which Hegel<br />
did not involve himself on a personal level, whereas Kierkegaard<br />
valued the personal relationship with one's idea of Reality.<br />
<br />
Kevin: That's right. Hegel was going on about the balance between<br />
opposites and so on, and that somehow the Truth was in the middle<br />
of the opposites - and all of this gets rid of the individual and<br />
individual reasoning, which is what Kierkegaard valued above all.<br />
<br />
Russell: Well, I think that's true, but within that too,<br />
Kierkegaard, as the original existentialist, valued authentic<br />
being, a term which was coined by later existentialists, but it<br />
was Kierkegaard who actually said: "Better to worship a false God<br />
rightly than the one true God wrongly." And clearly what he's on<br />
about there is that what counts for the individual is the--<br />
<br />
Kevin: Consistency.<br />
<br />
Russell: Or the integrity. One's particular subjective<br />
relationship with the views one has of the world.<br />
<br />
David: But even better is to have a relationship with true ideas!<br />
<br />
Russell: Well, the whole notion of true ideas is fundamentally<br />
criticized by Kierkegaard. In his Concluding Unscientific<br />
Postscript, he's really tackling a view of the world which says<br />
there are objective, enduring, unquestionable, rational truths out<br />
there. There is only existential truth. There is only a truth<br />
that's truth for me.<br />
<br />
David: Yes, but that particular book was written by a pseudonym,<br />
so it may not even be Kierkegaard's view there.<br />
<br />
Kevin: And Kierkegaard certainly believed that his philosophy was<br />
ultimately true for all time.<br />
<br />
David: Yes, to which he gave the name "God".<br />
<br />
Kevin: He gives the name "God" to the Absolute, Ultimate Truth,<br />
which only the individual can arrive at.<br />
<br />
David: And which is neither subjective nor objective. You can't<br />
categorize God in either of those two categories. So when<br />
Kierkegaard was speaking against objectivity he was just speaking<br />
against people's attachments to objectivity. But he wasn't saying<br />
that "therefore nobody can understand the Truth". He was just<br />
trying to get rid of people's attachments to certain concepts, for<br />
the sake of this higher Truth which he knew about. And so I<br />
wonder, how do feelings and the feminine values lead one to this<br />
Ultimate Truth?<br />
<br />
Kevin: Continuing on from what we were saying before, it's better<br />
to worship a false God consistently than nothing at all. But the<br />
society we have today is totally nihilistic, in the sense that<br />
people's ideas are changing from day to day. They don't claim to<br />
know anything. I mean, we've spoken to a number of experts on this<br />
program - professors and so on - who don't claim to know anything.<br />
This makes doing the program rather difficult. It would be better<br />
if they claimed to know something so we could argue with them. But<br />
when people don't claim to know anything, and they claim that<br />
there is no Truth, for individuals, or for communities . . .<br />
<br />
David: Well, I must say they are consistent to the idea that they<br />
don't know anything . . . and I agree with them!<br />
<br />
Kevin: Yes, they're consistent in the sense that the earth is<br />
consistent. The ground is consistently ground. But that's not the<br />
kind of consistency that we should praise. We should praise<br />
consistency of consciousness, consistency of coherency of<br />
philosophy.<br />
<br />
Russell: Some of what you're saying appeals to me in that it's a<br />
critique of the postmodern consciousness which is preoccupied with<br />
deconstructing everything around it.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Except itself.<br />
<br />
Russell: Often except itself, although occasionally there are<br />
postmodern deconstructionists who deconstruct their own thinking.<br />
And I think that's right and proper. To be relativising all of<br />
knowing and being out of existence is a terrible thing, and it's<br />
part of the alienation that we experience - that there is nothing<br />
to hang our hats on, nothing that we can know with any assurance.<br />
Surely, this is part of the epistomology that underlies recent<br />
thinking in psychology.<br />
<br />
Kevin: If we're going to value Nature, though, we want to be<br />
consistent. So if we're going to love Nature then we should go the<br />
whole way. We should love Nature, full stop. Nature is the only<br />
lover that every man should have.<br />
<br />
Russell: When you say "love Nature" . . . I'm just interested<br />
whether you have an emotional response to Nature?<br />
<br />
Kevin: No, it's more understanding and experiential. So when we<br />
understand Nature and feel our place in it, and see ourselves out<br />
there in Nature, then at that moment, if we have faith in our own<br />
reasoning, we experience that oneness with Nature. When this<br />
happens, no other kind of love or interest is possible. It's<br />
impossible to emotionally love a human being when you're in love<br />
with Nature. You can't do both at the same time.<br />
<br />
Russell: I'm interested in your comment there - your "feeling" for<br />
Nature and your "experience" of Nature. For me, they're the core<br />
issues - not whether one can have a particular abstract and<br />
rational view of one's relationship to Nature. But whether one<br />
does in fact feel and experience some connection with Nature.<br />
<br />
David: Both those things can only be done rationally. I don't<br />
think Kevin was talking about some sort of abstract, conceptual<br />
connection with Nature, but actually the complete opposite. It's a<br />
casting away of all the conceptual barriers between oneself and<br />
Reality. So the only way one can be fully connected with Reality<br />
is to get rid of all barriers.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Reason itself destroys all the barriers between us and the<br />
rest of Nature, if we're properly rational.<br />
<br />
Russell: But to understand you correctly, though, the end point is<br />
still a feeling and an experience of connectedness.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Yes, if you go the whole way. But what's happened in the<br />
past is that we've gone through a period of masculine rationality<br />
- so called - where there's great advances in science and<br />
technology, but people haven't taken their reasoning the whole<br />
way. They've gone the first step, they've gone one centimetre out<br />
of a thousand kilometers and said, "Hmm, well this doesn't look<br />
like it's taking us very far. We've got to a dead-end; we've<br />
reached a brick wall; we can't go any further, so let's go back to<br />
where we've just come from". It's like we've just been born: we've<br />
become little babies in the cradle; we've started to use science<br />
and reasoning and we've developed philosophy, and then we've said<br />
"Hang on, this is too difficult. I want to jump back into my<br />
mother's womb and become one with the earth again." We're afraid<br />
of our own consciousness! We're afraid of being real individuals<br />
in this cold hard world where we're faced with the prospect of<br />
having to work things out for ourselves.<br />
<br />
Russell: On that point I see eco-psychology, the perspective that<br />
I'm interested in, as being profoundly post-industrial, and<br />
profoundly post-technological, post-scientific, and that the way<br />
forward is not a yearning after the old ways. But we certainly<br />
have to incorporate and use the thinking and the scientific<br />
achievements and those natural abilities that I think are<br />
connected with being human, and developing them, but under a<br />
wholly different ethic - within an ethic that values the<br />
connection and the sense of identification with the natural<br />
environment. Yes, so I'm critical of this uncritical<br />
identification with indigenous cultures. I think there's a lot of<br />
misconceptions about indigenous cultures, and a sense of throwing<br />
the baby out with the bathwater in terms of the Western tradition<br />
- I think it would be wrong, and it simply won't work. It would be<br />
wrong-minded to attempt to jettison the good things in the<br />
peculiarly Western tradition.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Well, I question whether there is any wisdom in the old<br />
tribal cultures at all. I mean, you mentioned before that a lot of<br />
tribes had their wise men, but, my word, they can't have been very<br />
wise, because all of these cultures, as of this day, have just<br />
about been completely wiped out. I recently visited Ladakh in<br />
Northern India, where they have a very old, traditional Tibetan<br />
culture which new age people praise to the skies. But the culture<br />
can't protect itself. The West has got in there, invited in by the<br />
culture, and has run rampant, by the will of the very inhabitants<br />
themselves. And their culture is basically now completely wiped<br />
out. I mean, if there was wisdom in their culture to begin with,<br />
this wouldn't have happened. And in fact I see that our own<br />
culture, our own Western culture, has come out of those ancient<br />
tribal cultures. It's like the tribal culture is the juvenile<br />
stage of a life-cycle, and we are at the puberty stage, with all<br />
of our sex and feminism and so on. We haven't reached the adult<br />
stage, but we want to go back to infancy again.<br />
<br />
Russell: I should just challenge that view of the world. I mean,<br />
that to me sounds just like manifest destiny - you know, the sort<br />
of philosophy that justified white America over-running the Indian<br />
populations, and certainly the colonization of Australia. And I<br />
think it's way off-track. I think that this view of the world,<br />
where there is no such thing as injustice, where there's no such<br />
thing as tragedy pure and simple, where there's no such thing as<br />
power relations and tyranny; this view of the world where<br />
something is inferior because it's been beaten--<br />
<br />
Kevin: I'm not saying that. It was beaten because there was no<br />
true wisdom there. If there was true wisdom in a culture, it would<br />
continue to survive in some way.<br />
<br />
David: Yes, because the very essence of wisdom is adaptability -<br />
being able to adapt to situations as they arise.<br />
<br />
Russell: There's two points there. I would reiterate again that<br />
I'd like to disagree with that view of the world that wisdom can't<br />
be destroyed--<br />
<br />
David: That's true. If a tribe is going to get wiped out by a<br />
machine-gun or a bomb then it doesn't matter how wise the tribe<br />
is, it'll still get wiped out.<br />
<br />
Russell: The other side of it is that I think indigenous cultures<br />
do remain, and indigenous wisdom is still there alive and well,<br />
certainly in Australia.<br />
<br />
David: Do you think it's possible that the culture can be wise?<br />
<br />
Kevin: It's always possible that a few individuals can have some<br />
wisdom.<br />
<br />
David: Well, I don't know. Is it possible that an indigenous<br />
person, an aboriginal, can be wise, given their culture? We<br />
ourselves used to be in tribes thousands of years ago. Now if<br />
you're living in a tribe and you start thinking about what is<br />
real, and you start to value reason, then pretty soon you'll be at<br />
odds with everybody within that tribe. And if you're going to be<br />
consistent to this truth that you're uncovering, you'll have to be<br />
attacking other people's false concepts - their attachments to one<br />
another, their attachments to life - and I can't see how such a<br />
person can do this and yet stay within the tribe. I mean, the<br />
tribe is just going to say, "Sorry buddy, if you don't want to be<br />
here, get lost!"<br />
<br />
Russell: Again, I would have to take issue with your notion of<br />
what wisdom is. And to me it's a peculiarly Western and rational<br />
notion of what wisdom is. If I could just contrast that . . . if I<br />
think in my own stereotypes of aboriginal wisdom, which may or may<br />
not be true, but to me the notion of a wise aboriginal man or<br />
woman, perhaps a healer, is someone who senses and feels and<br />
believes their sense of connection with everything around them.<br />
Everything. All the landscape. All the human beings. The sky.<br />
Everything has spiritual significance. There are no objects out<br />
there that have no spiritual significance. They are not just<br />
landscape or just trees as they are to us now, but they're<br />
actually part of a whole sense of the spirituality of everything.<br />
This to me is wise.<br />
<br />
Kevin: I would describe a wise person as someone who speaks the<br />
Truth. So if a person claims that they have an intimate connection<br />
with the whole of Nature, and that they feel one with the whole of<br />
Nature, and yet they don't speak the truth . . . ! I mean<br />
dangerous truths, truths that people don't want to hear, but which<br />
they should hear, of which there are many. There are very few<br />
people today speaking those truths. And these so called people who<br />
claim to be wise, and yet they don't speak the truth . . . it's a<br />
proof that they're not wise. I live in a kind of tribal culture up<br />
at Maleny, actually, and they definitely don't appreciate people<br />
speaking the truth up there. And this would be the case in any<br />
tribe.<br />
<br />
David: Well, that's easily countered, though. We could define<br />
wisdom as a type of harmony. You know, fostering harmony within<br />
the group - that would be a type of wisdom.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Yes, it all depends how we define the word.<br />
<br />
David: Yes, so what you're saying there, Russell, about seeing the<br />
spiritual element in everything, I would say that it's something<br />
imagined. It's part of the imagination of the person. He's<br />
projecting a conceptual idea of spirituality onto the environment<br />
around him. This is completely removed from the understanding of<br />
Reality which we speak of - this direct understanding which is<br />
beyond concepts, if you like. Would you agree that there's a great<br />
distinction there?<br />
<br />
Russell: I'd see the ideal of the aboriginal man or woman, in that<br />
state of consciousness, as the logical fulfillment of your own<br />
philosophies. The path to it may not have been following the<br />
particular ideas of perennial philosophy that you may espouse, but<br />
the outcome is a man or woman who has a profound knowledge and<br />
sense of the interconnectedness of things, and they would speak<br />
the wisdom that would flow from that sort of consciousness. And I<br />
suspect, like in any other culture in the world, there were<br />
prophets in the history of indigenous tribes who spoke hard truths<br />
to their own people. For example, in the indigenous tribes of the<br />
Jewish faith in the Old Testament, you had prophets speaking hard<br />
truths to their own people. So I would see those wise men and<br />
women of indigenous tribes as really the fulfillment of your own<br />
philosophy - but taking a different path there, perhaps.<br />
<br />
David: Well, since both Kevin and I value rational analysis, and<br />
getting to the bottom of how things exist, even questioning<br />
whether things have real existence, I don't see how this has any<br />
connection with projecting, or "seeing", a spiritual element in<br />
everything around us. It's completely different because this<br />
person who believes in the spiritual element is still bound by<br />
delusions concerning existence. He hasn't gone to the very core of<br />
existence. It's completely different.<br />
<br />
Kevin: And also you wonder what their purpose is. I mean, if their<br />
purpose is to simply heal individual people, this is a very narrow<br />
purpose. Any wise man has as his purpose the grandest of all<br />
purposes, which is the survival of wisdom. And this is why I say<br />
that a wise man is someone who speaks the Truth. It's the greatest<br />
gift. Better than giving someone's sight back, better than helping<br />
them to walk again, is to actually help them to become wise. And<br />
how many of these tribal elders and "wise men" actually speak the<br />
Truth and make people wise? There's no-one.<br />
<br />
Russell: Without wanting to sound too harsh, I think it's a<br />
terrible conceit to think that only this particularly verbal and<br />
intellectual culture that has developed in the West has access to<br />
wisdom.<br />
<br />
David: Ah, no. Who in the West are you referring to? Does the<br />
wisdom that Kevin and I speak about have any connection at all<br />
with Western society?<br />
<br />
Russell: Absolutely!<br />
<br />
David: Maybe two individuals in all of Western history!<br />
Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, perhaps, maybe Weininger, are on a par<br />
with us. But in regards to all the stuff taught in the<br />
Universities, and the basic world view of Western Society<br />
generally, we have absolutely no relationship whatsoever to it. We<br />
repudiate all of it.<br />
<br />
Kevin: But, in fact, we do go along totally with the teachings of<br />
Lao Tzu, for example, in the Tao Te Ching, and also the teachings<br />
of the Buddha and the Zen Master Hakuin. In fact, all of the wise<br />
men, whether they be from the East or West, have exactly the same<br />
teaching, and it's based on reason. They have all come to the end<br />
of reasoning, where reason has in fact undermined itself. So Truth<br />
is at the end of reasoning, but not before you've come to the end<br />
of it. It is only then one can enter the Infinite. And here's an<br />
interesting quote from Taoism - the word "Tao" you can replace<br />
with the word "wisdom", if you like:<br />
<br />
When the Tao was lost its characteristics appeared.<br />
When its characteristics were lost benevolence appeared.<br />
When benevolence was lost righteousness appeared.<br />
When righteousness was lost ceremonies appeared.<br />
Ceremonies are but the unsubstantial flowers of the Tao.<br />
And the commencement of disorder.<br />
<br />
So it's like saying that the more community minded we become - you<br />
know, lets have a ritual where we all get together in the village<br />
square and dance around to Irish jigs and do a couple of Buddhist<br />
pujas for good measure - this is the commencement of disorder.<br />
It's the farthest remove you can possibly go away from the Tao.<br />
<br />
David: Whereas "righteousness" is attachment to being an<br />
individual, attachment to being arrogant, and even that is a far<br />
remove from wisdom.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Even though righteousness a higher step than where our<br />
society is today, which is on this crude tribal level of just<br />
dancing around fires.<br />
<br />
David: Yes, I would characterize Western society as a type of<br />
tribal culture. It has its own dreamtime and its own myths. The<br />
worship of women is the big myth of our times. It is equivalent to<br />
dreamtime. So what Kevin and I are on about is infinitely removed<br />
from this reality. We value going to the very roots of existence,<br />
and there's not many people like that.<br />
<br />
Russell: To me, coming from a psychological perspective, what I<br />
hear there - and I know this sounds very postmodern - but I hear a<br />
discourse from both of you - that is, a particular way of talking<br />
about the world and your place in it that may or may not be more<br />
or less profound than other people. And I think that no-one can<br />
ultimately make a judgment on that view. We can choose to make<br />
judgments, but no one will know . . .<br />
<br />
David: Why not?<br />
<br />
Russell: No one will know because of the nature of knowledge<br />
claims. You know, we're only speaking language. I suppose I'm<br />
making the point that - you're right, there are all sorts of<br />
cultures - but I would make the point that what you're saying is<br />
also one of them. It's a particular discourse, a particular<br />
culture--<br />
<br />
David: A particular wise culture.<br />
<br />
Russell: Yes, you might call it wisdom and use words which<br />
conclude that. And you have a particular rhetoric and a particular<br />
way of defending that. But certainly there are a myriad of others.<br />
Certainly, the feminist voice is one--<br />
<br />
Kevin: Do you concede that it's possible for a human being to come<br />
to a perfect understanding of Ultimate Reality, the One,<br />
Permanent, Infinite, Reality? Do you believe it's possible for<br />
people to do that? I'm thinking of people like the Buddha who<br />
claimed to know this one and only Truth . . . or Jesus.<br />
<br />
Russell: They may believe they have this understanding, but<br />
whether they so-called objectively do or not is something that<br />
will remain forever unknown.<br />
<br />
Kevin: But do you think it's possible to know the one Truth?<br />
<br />
David: Or was the Buddha fooling himself?<br />
<br />
Russell: I think the Buddha only had language. I think he had some<br />
wonderful insights that were very helpful and creative, probably<br />
for many humans. But I suspect also that there are other ways to<br />
Buddhahood.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Are you saying that you don't think it's possible for a<br />
person to come to this one Truth?<br />
<br />
Russell: I think it's possible to come to a subjective sense of<br />
the Truth--<br />
<br />
David: You're saying that it's possible to come to some idea of<br />
Truth, but one can't ascertain for sure whether this idea is true.<br />
<br />
Russell: Yes, I'd hold that.<br />
<br />
David: And why do you think this?<br />
<br />
Russell: Because of the nature of knowledge claims. This is the<br />
postmodern epistomology: that we only have language, and that all<br />
knowledge, all ways of thinking, are products of our time and<br />
history.<br />
<br />
David: But are you certain of this? Are you certain that we only<br />
have knowledge claims? And are you certain that we can only ever<br />
be uncertain all the time?<br />
<br />
Kevin: And are you certain that we are limited by language<br />
constructs? Or are these just theories of postmodernism?<br />
<br />
Russell: I think I'd hold them at the same critical distance as<br />
anything else. They're merely theories. We only ever have<br />
theories.<br />
<br />
David: "We can only ever have theories" - are you certain of that<br />
one?<br />
<br />
Russell: No, I'm not certain.<br />
<br />
Kevin: It's a theory.<br />
<br />
Russell: In compliance with my own view of the world, my own<br />
epistomology, then we can never know with certainty. We can have a<br />
subjective sense of certainty, but outside of that we can't.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Are you certain of this?<br />
<br />
Russell: No. I can never be certain.<br />
<br />
David: You can never be certain?<br />
<br />
Russell: That's correct.<br />
<br />
David: Are you certain of that?<br />
<br />
Russell: No, I can't be certain of this.<br />
<br />
David: Why? Why are you not certain of this? This is what<br />
interests me, actually. Is it just some kind of arbitrary idea<br />
that comes into your head?<br />
<br />
Russell: No, because I have a sense of the radically historical<br />
nature of all knowing and being - this is the historicist argument<br />
that there can be no words and no language that's not socially<br />
constituted. And that means that the very essence of a truth claim<br />
is constituted by social relationships.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Well, you see, all words and all concepts refer to things,<br />
don't they. They refer to things in the world. So we project these<br />
boundaries out onto Nature, and we cut Nature up into lots of<br />
little pieces, and then we have words for all these little pieces,<br />
and then we join them all together with our philosophies and so<br />
on. But the totality, which includes all of these little pieces,<br />
goes beyond concepts in a sense, in that it's not a thing. The<br />
totality includes the observer; it includes the mind that's<br />
observing; it's infinite. So we're talking about this Infinite<br />
Truth. It's not the same as all these other things that we've cut<br />
into pieces and spliced up, and yet we can still give it a name.<br />
We can call it "God" or we can call it the "Infinite". And yet if<br />
the person who is using the word knows what he's talking about, if<br />
he feels and understands this "Infinite", well then, he's not<br />
limited by language, you see. He can cut the world up however he<br />
likes, because he knows that Reality is Infinite. He can use words<br />
however he likes. He can draw boundaries wherever he wants to.<br />
He's totally free, and he is totally free in language. That's why<br />
people all over the world have different languages, and yet<br />
they've all arrived at the same wisdom of Ultimate Reality. The<br />
Taoists call it the Tao, the Buddhists call it Emptiness or<br />
Sunyata, a Christian might call it God, David and I call it the<br />
Infinite. So even though we all have different languages we all<br />
arrive at the same Truth. Or at least wise men do.<br />
<br />
David: And a wise man is not subject to concerns about certainty<br />
and uncertainty. Because he is actually not attached to anything<br />
at all, the whole idea of certainty and uncertainty is meaningless<br />
to him. He has transcended.<br />
<br />
Russell: Much of what you say appeals to me. I would just question<br />
the value you place on that sort of discourse. Perhaps there are<br />
other ways of being.<br />
<br />
David: That's right. We just value it. We value it because Nature<br />
has made us value it. We consider it important.<br />
<br />
Kevin: Actually, I'm just going to read one final little piece<br />
before we finish off here. Another piece from Weininger; and it<br />
goes like this:<br />
<br />
Genius is the highest morality, and, therefore, it is<br />
every one's duty. Genius is to be attained by a supreme<br />
act of the will, in which the whole universe is affirmed<br />
in the individual. Genius is something which "men of<br />
genius" take upon themselves; it is the greatest<br />
exertion and the greatest pride, the greatest misery and<br />
the greatest ecstasy to a man. A man may become a genius<br />
if he wishes to.<br />
<br />
David: Well, that was . . . profound. Thanks Russell, and Kevin<br />
and I will be back next week. See you.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Fabric_of_the_Cosmos_-_Space,_Time,_and_the_Texture_of_Reality&diff=1830The Fabric of the Cosmos - Space, Time, and the Texture of Reality2021-03-27T07:46:31Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/The%20Fabric%20of%20the%20Cosmos%20-%20Space,%20Time,%20and%20the%20Texture%20of%20Reality%20(Brian%20Greene).pdf..."</p>
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<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/The%20Fabric%20of%20the%20Cosmos%20-%20Space,%20Time,%20and%20the%20Texture%20of%20Reality%20(Brian%20Greene).pdf</pdf><br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Electromagnetic_Field&diff=1829The Electromagnetic Field2021-03-27T07:42:08Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "by Keith J. Laidler, Department of Chemistry, University of Ottawa Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic radiation alone places him among the great scientists of all time...."</p>
<hr />
<div>by Keith J. Laidler, <br />
<br />
Department of Chemistry,<br />
<br />
University of Ottawa<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic radiation alone places him among the great scientists of all time. It is contained in three substantial papers, and his Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. The first of the papers appeared in 1856 when he was aged 25 and had the previous year been elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. In this paper he gave a mathematical treatment of Faraday's unconventional ideas about electricity and magnetism. The second paper appeared in 1861-62, and suggested a rather complex and artificial model for the ether. In the third paper, published in 1864, Maxwell dispensed with the model and relied entirely on mathematical equations for the electromagnetic field. His book, published in 1873, was to some extent a survey of the whole field, but it raised a number of questions for further treatment. Perhaps if he had lived longer he would have answered many of them. In all his publications Maxwell emphasized his great debt to Michael Faraday. In the preface to his book he said that his main task had been to convert Faraday's physical and qualitative ideas into mathematical form. To understand Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic radiation it is therefore important to have a clear idea of Faraday's experimental results and of his conclusions. It is useful to start with Oersted's discovery of electromagnetism, and its interpretation by Ampre, as it was this interpretation that led Faraday to think along different lines. <br />
<br />
<br />
Oersted: Electromagnetism (1820) <br />
<br />
In l820 Hans Christian Oersted (1777- l851), professor of physics at the University of Copenhagen, brought a compass needle near to a wire through which an electric current was passing. He found that the needle tended to turn towards a direction at right angles to the wire. When the direction of the current was reversed, the needle turned in the opposite direction. A remarkable feature of this famous discovery is that it was made in front of a class of students. Oersted and his assistant had set up the experiment but had not had time to try it out before the students arrived. Oersted first decided to defer the experiment until later, but during the lecture began to feel confident that it would work, and performed it successfully. Another remarkable feature is that, since the deflection of the needle had been small, Oersted was so little impressed by the result that he performed no further experiments on the subject for three months. Then having confirmed the effect, he sent a four-page announcement of it, in Latin, to many leading scientific journals, and to a number of scientists. The announcement appeared, in various languages, in a considerable number of journals, such as the Annals of Philosophy, Gilbert's Annalen der Physik und physikalische Chemie, and the Annales de chimie et de physique. Further publicity was given to the discovery by the fact that the distinguished scientific statesman Franois Arago (1786-1853) called attention to the discovery at a meeting of the AcadŽmie des Sciences in Paris in September, 1820. Oersted's experiment was the first to show a connection between electricity and magnetism, and can be called the birth of electromagnetism. At the time, in the scientific tradition established in particular by Newton, theories were formulated in terms of forces acting in straight lines between points; these were known as central forces. In 1767 the English chemist Joseph Priestly (1733-1804) showed that the forces followed the inverse square law. Later the French military engineer Charles Augustin de Coulomb (1736-1806) carried out careful experiments on bodies charged with static electricity, and on magnets, and in 1794 confirmed that the attractions and repulsions followed the inverse square law. The fact that the magnetized needle moved towards a position at right angles to the wire, rather than parallel to it, was therefore particularly surprising. It suggested a force not acting in a straight line but circularly, which most scientists thought to be unreasonable. However, within a short time many scientific investigators had confirmed the result. During the next six years much progress, along both experimental and theoretical lines, was made by the French physicist AndrŽ Marie Ampre (1775-1836), who had been in the audience when Arago announced Oersted's discovery in Paris. Besides confirming Oersted's results, Ampre made careful studies of the effects of electric currents on one another. He found that if currents travelled in the same direction along two parallel wires, there was attraction between them; if the currents travelled in the opposite directions there was repulsion. He also worked out a detailed mathematical treatment of the interactions, on the basis of the assumption that current-carrying elements of the wire interacted with one another according to the inverse square law. By integrating the effects of all the elements he arrived at expressions that were consistent with the experimental results. This was a very impressive treatment, and because of it Maxwell in his Treatise (1873) referred to Ampre as the "Newton of electricity". To explain the effect on an electric current on a magnet, Ampre supposed that magnetism arises from electricity moving in circular orbits around the axis of the magnet. He carried out experiments with wires wound around glass tubes, and confirmed that when a current passed, a magnetic effect was obtained. He then developed an elegant mathematical treatment of the interactions between electric currents and the circular currents around the magnets, and was able to explain Oersted's results in terms of central forces. Ampre's work was at once recognized by most investigators as an achievement of great significance, but some objections were raised. It was pointed out that there was no experimental evidence for a flow of electricity around magnets, and no suggestion as to how it might arise. Volta had found that a current results when two dissimilar metals are present, but not if only one metal is present. Ampre's later modified his theory to relate to the molecules in the magnets, suggesting that perpetual electric currents moved in orbits around them. It must be remembered that at the time there was no understanding of the nature of electricity; the electron was not to be discovered until over half a century later. Michael Faraday (1791-1867) was particularly unhappy with Ampre's treatment. Since he knew little mathematics, and was ill-versed in physical theories, he simply could not understand it. He was quite content to think of a circular force arising from a current flowing in a wire. Hardly anyone brought up on the physics of the time could accept such an idea, and yet it was the origin of the important concept of the electromagnetic field, which was to be the core of the later ideas of Faraday and Maxwell. <br />
<br />
<br />
Faraday: Fields of Force (1821-1860) <br />
<br />
Michael Faraday's background was very different from Maxwell's, but they grew up to be very alike in many ways; both were men of the utmost kindness and simplicity of character. Faraday was the son of a blacksmith who could do little more than provide the bare necessities of life to his wife aid many children. At the age of 14 Michael left school and was apprenticed to a good natured bookbinder who encouraged him to read the books he was binding. One particular book, Jane Marcet's Conversations on Chemistry, made a particular impression on Faraday, and perhaps did more than anything else to arouse his interest in science. He attended some of Sir Humphry Davy's lectures at the Royal Institution, and by a fortunate chance managed in 1813 to obtain a position as Davy's assistant. He was so successful in the research that he did there that only twelve years later he succeeded Davy as Director of the Royal Institution laboratories. In 1821, soon after Ampre had presented his interpretation of Oersted's result, Faraday's friend Richard Phillips, an editor of the Philosophical Magazine, persuaded Faraday to look into the subject of electromagnetism. Like other editors of scientific journals, Phillips had been inundated with papers on the subject The situation is a little like that in 1989, when the submission of the original paper on "cold fusion" (Chem 13 News, October 1984, pp 6-7) produced an avalanche of submitted papers, in some of which the authors made claims that they hoped would bring them fame and fortune. Happily, Oersted's announcement was more fruitful. Faraday accepted Phillips's suggestion rather reluctantly, as previously his work had been on chemistry and rather far from electromagnetism. Posterity must be grateful to Phillips for his gentle prodding. Faraday at once repeated Oersted's experiments, and he noted that when a small magnetic needle was moved around a wire carrying a current, one of the poles turned in a circle. He then speculated that a single magnetic pole, if it could exist, would move continuously around a wire as long as the current flowed. This led him to perform an experiment of great simplicity and also of great importance. In 1821 he attached a magnet upright to the bottom of a deep basin, and then filled the basin with mercury so that only the pole of the magnet was above the surface. A wire free to move was attached above the bowl and dipped into the mercury. When Faraday passed a current through the wire and the magnet, the wire continuously rotated around the magnet. In an adaptation of the experiment, he made the magnet rotate around the wire. The great significance of these simple demonstrations is that electrical energy was being converted into mechanical energy for the first time. To Faraday the results implied that there were circular "lines of force" around the current-carrying wire, and he accepted this as a simple experimental fact. Almost everyone else concluded that the force could not be simple, but must be explained in some way in terms of central forces. For the next ten years Faraday worked only sporadically on electricity. In 1831 he learned of the experiments of Joseph Henry (1797-1878) in Albany, New York. The first electromagnet had been created in 1823 by the English physicist William Sturgeon (1753-1850), and Henry improved the technique greatly, observing that the polarity could be reversed by a reversal of the direction of the - current. This led Faraday to his famous experiment of 1831 in which he demonstrated electromagnetic induction. He wound one side of an iron ring with insulated wire, and arranged a secondary winding, connected to a galvanometer, around the other side. When an electric current began to flow through the primary coil, the galvanometer revealed a transient flow in the secondary circuit. A continuous current in the primary circuit had no effect; it was only when the current started or stopped that there was an effect on the galvanometer. Faraday's 1821 discovery of electromagnetic rotation had shown that electrical force could be converted into motion. In 1831 he succeeded in converting mechanical motion into electricity - in other words, in constructing the first dynamo. He rotated a copper disk between the poles of a magnet, and found a steady current flowed from the centre of the disk to its edge. This achievement encouraged Faraday to carry out the further researches which were to lead to his general theory of electricity in 1838. In 1832 Faraday turned his researches in a somewhat different direction by investigating the electrolysis of aqueous solutions. In 1833 he showed that electrolysis can be brought about by electricities produced in a variety of ways, such as from electrostatic generators, voltaic cells, and electric fish. In particular, he showed that electrolysis can occur if an electric discharge is passed through a solution, without any wired being introduced into it. Experiments reported in 1834 convinced him that electrolysis was another electrical phenomenon that cannot be explained in terms of central forces and action at a distance. He performed one experiment in which two solutions were separated from one another by a seventy-foot string soaked in brine. Gases were evolved at the two wires, and Faraday thought it impossible that the effect would extend over such a length if the inverse square law applied. He carried out another experiment in which a solution was placed near a source of static electricity which produced an intense electric field. No electrolysis occurred, and Faraday concluded that it is necessary for a discharge to take place or for a current to flow. He also demonstrated that the effects of electrolysis do not follow straight lines, which they would do if there were action at a distance. Also, Faraday argued, if a substance were attracted to a wire by the inverse square law, would it not remain bound to the wire rather than being released from it? The theory of electricity and magnetism accepted by Faraday from 1838 onwards are neatly summed up in Maxwell's Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism (1873): "...Faraday, in his mind's eye, saw lines of force traversing all space where the mathematicians saw centres of force acting at a distance: Faraday saw a medium where they saw nothing but distance: Faraday sought the seat of the phenomena in real actions going on in the medium, they were satisfied that they had found it in a power of action at a distance impressed on the electric fluids." At first Faraday thought that his lines of force were carried by molecules under strain but later, realizing that they are set up in vacuum, thought in terms of strains in the ether, which was supposed to pervade all space. in the last paper he submitted for publication, in 1860, Faraday included gravity as involving a field of force - an idea that was somewhat ridiculed at the time, but later realized to be correct. For many years Faraday attempted to find support for his ideas by observing some physical effect in matter through which his lines of force were passing. His first discovery of such an effect was in 1845, when he found that plane-polarized light was rotated when it was passed through a piece of glass in a strong magnetic field. This was the first observation of the effect of magnetism on light. The result suggested to Faraday that substances like glass, hitherto regarded as non-magnetic, were not entirely indifferent to a magnetic field. He carried out many experiments in which substances, including gases, were placed between the poles of an electromagnet. He found that some substances, such as iron, tended to align themselves along the lines of force, and were attracted into the more intense parts of the electromagnetic field; he called such substances paramagnetic. Other substances like bismuth, which he called diamagnetic, aligned themselves across the magnetic field, and tended to move into regions of less intense field. He explained the difference between paramagnetics and diamagnetics in terms of the way they distorted a magnetic field. <br />
<br />
<br />
Maxwell: Approach to an Electromagnetic Theory (1856-1862) <br />
<br />
Much of Faraday's great work had been completed by the time Maxwell became a student at Cambridge in 1850. Maxwell, who was one of the few to realize its importance, always insisted that he did nothing more than express Faraday's ideas in mathematical form, but here he was being unduly modest. Producing the mathematical equations was far from a routine task that any highly skilled mathematician could have carried out; it also involved clarifying and modifying the basic concepts. Maxwell's first paper, "On Faraday's lines of force", which appeared in 1856 when he was 25, was significant for showing mathematically that Faraday's ideas gave a valid quantitative alternative to Ampre's treatment based on central forces. The paper is also important for its treatment of electrical action as analogous to the motion of an incomprehensible fluid. Maxwell's final electromagnetic theory in fact differs from all preceding physical theories in being based on an analogy rather than a physical model capable of being visualized. Maxwell's second paper on the subject, "On physical lines of force", appeared in four parts in I ~6 I -62, and was mainly concerned with devising a model for the ether which would account for the stresses associated with Faraday's lines of force. This ether had a rather complicated structure, consisting of spinning vortices, some of them electrical and some magnetic. The model was such that a changing magnetic field gave rise to an electric field, and that a changing electric field produced a magnetic field. This model is today only of historical interest, in showing how Maxwell's ideas developed, since he discarded the model in his final version of his electromagnetic theory, basing it entirely on the mathematical analogy. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Speed of an Electromagnetic Wave <br />
<br />
In 1861 the British Association for the Advancement of Science set up a committee under William Thomson's chairmanship to establish a set of electrical and magnetic standards. During the course of their work it became clear to Maxwell and others that important insight can be obtained by comparing results expressed in the two sets of units, electrostatic and electromagnetic, that were being used at the time. The electrostatic units were particularly appropriate to static electricity, and related the force of attraction and repulsion between two charged bodies to the quantities of electricity that they held. The electromagnetic system of units, on the other hand, related force to electric currents. The quantity of electricity residing on a wire at a given time depends on the speed with which the current travels along the wire. It can be shown that the ratio of an electromagnetic unit of charge to an electrostatic unit of charge is the speed with which the current passes along a wire. During the 1860s Maxwell and various colleagues carried out careful experiments in which they compared the two units. Maxwell's own experiments were carried out using equipment made available to him by John Peter Gassiot (1797-1877), a wealthy wine merchant and amateur scientist who had already done some remarkable experiments using vast numbers of electric cells. The conclusion from the experiments comparing the two sets of units was that the speed of an electric current was close to 3 x 10 m/s, which is the speed of light. An alternative approach, used by Maxwell and others, was to compare the electrical quantity now called the permittivity of a vacuum, o, with the magnetic quantity now called the permeability, µo. Maxwell's mathematical treatment of Faraday's lines of force led to the conclusion that the speed v of an advancing electromagnetic field was given by v =1/(o µo) Measurements made by various physicists of µo and o also led to the result that v obtained in this way was the speed of light. These results convinced Maxwell and others that light is an electromagnetic wave; in his own words, emphasized in italics in his 1861-62 papers: "Light consists in the transverse undulations of the same medium which is the cause of electric and magnetic oscillations." In other words, a single electromagnetic theory is needed for light, an electric field and a magnetic field. The field produced by an electric current has also a magnetic component, and the field produced by a magnet has also an electric component; light also has electric and magnetic components. A significant aspect of this work was that it led to a decision between two alternative theories of electricity that were held at the time. One theory was that there were two electrical fluids, positive and negative, which moved in opposite directions when a current flowed. Use of the method of comparison of units led to the conclusion that if there were two fluids they would each flow with half the speed of light. The evidence thus supports the theory (which Benjamin Franklin among others advocated) that only one type of electricity flows along a wire when a current passes. Today, of course, we know that a flow of electrons is involved. <br />
<br />
<br />
Maxwell: Electromagnetic Theory (1864-1873) <br />
<br />
In Maxwell's third and final major paper on the subject, "A dynamical theory of the electromagnetic field" (1864), he ignored his rather elaborate and artificial model he had proposed for the ether, and concentrated on the propagation of electromagnetic waves through space. The position he took, and this is accepted today, is that the mathematical treatment remains valid without any assumptions about the nature of the medium through which the waves travel. In other words, he threw out the bathwater but carefully preserved the baby! In doing so Maxwell made an important break with scientific tradition. Previously it had been felt necessary to base a scientific theory on a model that could be clearly visualized. Maxwell's theory, on the other hand, represented the situation not in terms of a model, but as a mathematical analogue. Maxwell's fiend and colleague William Thomson (Kelvin) always insisted on a mechanical model; in his own words "I never satisfy myself unless I can make a mechanical model of a thing. If I can make a mechanical model I can understand it." As a result, Kelvin never really understood Maxwell's theory, even though he had himself made important contributions to interpreting Faraday's lines of force mathematically. Similarly, he never understood Clausius's concept of entropy - another concept that cannot be understood in terms of a model - even though he had been one of the first to appreciate the second law of thermodynamics. Maxwell's theory can be expressed in terms of a few equations which have been referred to as "simple". They are indeed simple in form, but understanding them involves a considerable background knowledge of electrical and magnetic theory, and vectors. Maxwell himself invented the names "curl", "grad" and "div" for operators that appear in his equations. Maxwell's famous book Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism, which was published by the Clarendon Press, Oxford, in 1873, is in many ways something of a surprise. It is certainly not to be recommended to a student wanting to learn about the theory; the 1864 paper is much easier to follow. The book raises a number of aspects which Maxwell himself had not been able to clarify. The book consists of four parts: Electrostatics, Electrokinetics, Magnetism, and Electromagnetism. The author makes the recommendation that these four parts should be read concurrently, but does not explain how this remarkable feat should be performed; presumably he meant that one should read a little of the first part, then a litlle of the second, and so on. However, in spite of its obscurities, the book was a great inspiration to many physicists, including Einstein. A significant feature of the book is that the word ether is mentioned only once, and that the model for the ether elaborated in his 1861-62 paper is referred to only incidentally. This does not mean that Maxwell had abandoned his belief in the existence of an ether; in his article on "Ether" in the famous 9th edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica (1875) he expressed very clearly his belief in the existence of an ether. He considered, however, that his theory of electromagnetic radiation was valid whether or not the ether exists, or what its nature is. <br />
<br />
<br />
Maxwell's Scientific Legacy <br />
<br />
Maxwell's electromagnetic theory had an enormous impact on later scientific work, and on the development of technology. The theory soon led to the discovery of radiation having wavelengths different from those of near ultraviolet, visible and near infrared radiation, which were the only regions of the spectrum known in Maxwell's time. The discovery in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz (1857 - 1894) of radio transmission was much inspired by Maxwell's theory, and it led to television, radar and microwave techniques. These in turn made possible the exploration of distant space. X-rays were discovered in 1895,and gamma rays in 1900. Einstein recognized that his theory of relativity depended greatly on Maxwell's theory, and it had many other consequences, including the understanding of the structure on atomic nuclei. <br />
<br />
<br />
Suggested Reading <br />
<br />
The biographies of Maxwell mentioned in Part 1, by Everitt, Tolstoy and Goldman, give good non-mathematical accounts of electromagnetic theory. Those wishing a mathematical treatment should consult modern textbooks of physics and not Maxwell's Treatise, which is difficult reading. Some of Maxwell's original papers, on the other hand, are very lucid; The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell (Ed. W.D. Niven, 1890) were reprinted by Dover Publications in 1965. See, for example, Paper XXXVI for a comparison of electrostatic and electromagnetic units. A very clear account, with full mathematical details, of Ampre's theory of electromagnetism is to be found in R.A.R. Tricker, Early Electromagnetism, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1965. The Publisher, Editor and Editorial Board of Phys 13 News would like to thank Prof. Keith J. Laidler for this excellent series of three articles on the life and work of James Clerk Maxwell that have appeared in the past three issues of Phys l3 News. It is a series that should be read by every student of physics. <br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Description_Logic_Handbook_-_Theory,_Implementation,_and_Applications_(2003)&diff=1828The Description Logic Handbook - Theory, Implementation, and Applications (2003)2021-03-27T07:40:49Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/The%20Description%20Logic%20Handbook%20-%20Theory,%20Implementation%20and%20Applications%20(2003).pdf</pdf> Ca..."</p>
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=HOW_TO_BUILD_A_TESLA_COIL&diff=1827HOW TO BUILD A TESLA COIL2021-03-27T07:39:31Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> HOW TO BUILD A TESLA COIL by Steve Gantt (713) 684-6269 (VOICE) (713 688-2058 (FAX) I like alot of other folks seem to be driven to explore the uses of high voltage..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
HOW TO BUILD A TESLA COIL<br />
<br />
by Steve Gantt<br />
(713) 684-6269 (VOICE)<br />
(713 688-2058 (FAX)<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
I like alot of other folks seem to be driven to explore the<br />
uses of high voltage devices. I do not know why exactly. Hey,<br />
maybe I was abducted by aliens, and realize that by the<br />
understanding of how high voltage and frequency react on<br />
matter we might be able to beat the impending alien<br />
invasion... Or, then again I might just find this fascinating<br />
. At any rate, I thought that I might share my experience in<br />
building a tesla coil, and give you some pointers.<br />
<br />
Question :<br />
Building your own tesla coil is about as difficult;<br />
<br />
A. as baking your first cake<br />
B. rebuilding your first automobile engine<br />
C. A final exam on "Nuclear Fusion as it relates to Electro-<br />
dynamic Variations in Adjacent Ferrous Materials as<br />
Opposed to Standard Electromagnetic Pulses"<br />
<br />
( The answer is A )<br />
<br />
You should be able to complete this project in your spare<br />
time in about a week. Five days you will be required to watch<br />
the DISCOVERY Channel or any other channel that will help you<br />
through the boredom of winding the tesla coil (often called<br />
the secondary).<br />
<br />
First you will need about $ 70 to get all the materials (see<br />
the attached parts list). After you have purchased everything<br />
you need to build the coil, start on that first.<br />
The Tesla coil itself is constructed from a 3 foot piece of<br />
4" PVC pipe (if you go the hardware store & want to impress<br />
them, tell them you need 3 feet of 4 inch Schedule 40).<br />
<br />
Next you will need about 1 & 1/3 pounds of # 26 AWG magnet<br />
wire. By wire by the pound ? Yes ! that is how this wire is<br />
usually sold. Get two pounds it's not that expensive, and<br />
besides you might want to experiment with it later. Now CAN<br />
use #30 AWG or # 28 AWG or # 24 AWG but if you use other wire<br />
the coil won't work as well ( the coils is based on some<br />
complicated algebraic formulas, and is dependant on # of<br />
turns, length of wire, etc.).<br />
<br />
Now drill a small hole each end of the PVC about 1/2 inch<br />
from the top and bottom. Shove one end of the wire thru one<br />
of the holes and leave about a foot of wire on the inside.<br />
Take some tape and put it over the wire so you don't pull it<br />
out like some dummy I know did (me). Now comes the winding...<br />
<br />
Place the PVC on the floor in front of the TV, turn the<br />
channel to some movie, the Discovery Channel or something<br />
else, get you something to drink, and have a roll of tape a<br />
pencil and paper within reach. Now start turning the pcv<br />
allowing the wire to wind around it. Count ten full turns.<br />
Move all the wire down so that it looks real pretty and that<br />
no wire has jumped on top of another. Kinda pull it tight,<br />
place some tape over it, and mark down ten on your piece of<br />
paper. You are now 1/160 th's the way there. You will need a<br />
total of 1600 turn on this PVC. Make sure that no wire is on<br />
top of another, be sure to pull it tight ( but DON'T BREAK<br />
THE WIRE !). If you DO break the wire or you run out in the<br />
middle of the 1600 turns then...<br />
<br />
Use some sandpaper to get the enamel off the end of the wire<br />
and solder the two loose ends together. Make it a real pretty<br />
solder job, no sharp edges, no blobs of solder, etc. then<br />
coat the solder joint with your favorite high voltage dope,<br />
or non-metallic fingernail polish, whichever you have<br />
handiest. Keep winding, keep counting. Keep putting that tape<br />
on so it doesn't unravel on you. When you finish counting to<br />
1600 then ...<br />
<br />
Cut the wire so that you have about 24 inches of wire left,<br />
place it through the other hole in the pvc. DON'T take the<br />
tape off yet. Secure the wire on the inside with another<br />
piece of tape. Now take your almost finished tesla coil<br />
outside and start spaying it with "Non-conductive Fast-Drying<br />
Clear-plastic acrylic paint" ( Go down to the hardware store<br />
& get a couple of cans of clear acrylic spay paint). and put<br />
about three coats of paint on the coil. Now take the tape<br />
off, check for loose wire and wire that has gotten on top of<br />
other wire (Take time to do this right. It's not difficult,<br />
just time consuming). Now spay about another 6 coats on. If<br />
you have finished with the six coats, just use up the rest of<br />
the paint with extra coats. Be sure to let this stuff dry<br />
well between coats.<br />
<br />
Okay now we can start on the Driver...<br />
<br />
If you can solder & read schematics then go to it & skip<br />
ahead to the OPERATION Section...<br />
<br />
If you have never soldered before, or have never built any<br />
circuits before, then I suggest you practice first.<br />
<br />
Take the perfboard and place the LM567 in the top third of<br />
the board about four rows from the top. The LM567 will have<br />
either a notch in the top or a dot over pin 1. Now bend over<br />
pin # 8 ( it is not used and will help hold it in place for<br />
you. Next take your .1 MFD caps and put then in place one<br />
hole over next to pins 1,2 & 4.<br />
Solder one leg to those pins. Now hook up everything else<br />
as shown in the schematic.<br />
<br />
To make T1 you will need to take the AMIDON ferrite core.<br />
Remove the bobbin and wrap 15 turns of the # 26 AWG , spaced<br />
evenly, leaving about a foot of wire at both ends. Then wrap<br />
it with tape. Now mark the ends of the wire so that you know<br />
what they are. Now take the other piece of the ferrite coil<br />
and wrap about 120-150 turns on it leaving about a foot of<br />
wire on each end ( yes, use the same #26 AWG wire). Cover<br />
that with tape. Now put the bobbin back in. Now wrap the<br />
entire thing with a few layers of tape, making sure you know<br />
which wires cane off of the bobbin (primary 15 turns) and the<br />
other (secondary 120-150 turns).<br />
<br />
After you have completed everything, co back and check all of<br />
your connections. Check them again. Then get a friend to<br />
check them.<br />
<br />
If you don't have a 18-24 vdc power source you will have to<br />
build one. Use the package called 24VPOWER. This file is with<br />
this package.<br />
<br />
OPERATION SECTION<br />
<br />
Set up the TESLA coil so that it stands vertically on a<br />
table. Remove everything from around it, especially<br />
diskettes, VCR tapes, credit cards, etc. hook the bottom wire<br />
from the coil to the tesla coil driver. The upper wire should<br />
remain inside the PVC, taped to the side. Put the switch on<br />
TUNE (if you don't do this you will blow the LM567) and apply<br />
power ( turn it on ). Adjust the trimpot so that both LED's<br />
are about the same brightness. Now you can switch off the<br />
tune switch.<br />
<br />
You should be operating now. Hold a florescent tube up to the<br />
top portion of the coil and it will glow. You will see some<br />
little sparks if you touch the coil on the top portion. You<br />
now have an operating Tesla coil.<br />
<br />
What to do if you run into trouble.<br />
<br />
1. Check all your connections<br />
2. Have a friend check all the connections.<br />
3. Call you mother and have her check all the connections.<br />
4. Use a multimeter & check the voltage between ground & pin<br />
# 4 of the LM567. It should read about 8 VDC. If not and<br />
step 5 checks okay then replace the 7808<br />
5. Check the voltage between ground and the input of the<br />
7808. It should be between 18-24 VDC. if there is no<br />
voltage then you have a bad power source.<br />
6. Check voltage ( frequency if you have it) on pin #5 of<br />
LM567. If there is any voltage or frequency, then the<br />
IRF511 is bad, replace it.<br />
7. Other things to check after the above.<br />
a. Make sure the primary and secondary of T1 are not<br />
reversed.<br />
b. If the LED's glow, then everything is operating ok up<br />
to that point. Use a multimeter & check OHMS between<br />
the upper and lower wires of the tesla coil. It<br />
should read about 0 ohms.<br />
<br />
c. Pray<br />
d. Spit on it<br />
e. Use abusive language<br />
f. call me<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Teller-Ulam_Construction&diff=1826Teller-Ulam Construction2021-03-26T18:39:00Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "This note is currently being revised in the light of new information supplied by Lindl's ICF paper. 24/11/1995 TELLER-ULAM CONSTRUCTION "... it is my judgement in these thi..."</p>
<hr />
<div>This note is currently being revised in the light of new information<br />
supplied by Lindl's ICF paper. 24/11/1995<br />
<br />
<br />
TELLER-ULAM CONSTRUCTION<br />
<br />
"... it is my judgement in these things that when you see something that<br />
is technically sweet you go ahead and do it and you argue about what to<br />
do about it only after you have had your technical success. That is the<br />
way it was with the atomic bomb. I do not think anyone opposed making it;<br />
there were some debates about what to do with it after it was made." -Robert J. Oppenheimer on the H-bomb<br />
<br />
<br />
"Don't bother me with your conscientious scruples. After all, the thing's<br />
superb physics." - Enrico Fermi on the H-bomb<br />
<br />
<br />
The basic problem of the H-bomb is to use the energy and particles <br />
released in a fission device to firstly compress and secondly heat <br />
a mass of fusion fuel. Fusion can only occur under temperatures,<br />
pressures, and densities at, or exceeding, those found at the centre<br />
of the sun. The latter is the case for a H-bomb since the reactions<br />
in the bomb occur on a much shorter scale than those in the sun.<br />
<br />
You have to have extremely fast moving nuclei to overcome<br />
electrostatic repulsion of the positive proton charges. You need<br />
about 1 trillion atmospheres (8,000,000,000 tonnes/square inch) or<br />
about 1 million megabars. This leads to extremely densely packed<br />
atoms and molecules, which increases the likelihood and frequency<br />
(rate) of collisions. High compactification of fissile material<br />
also reduces the mean free path of fast neutrons. To achieve these<br />
goals, you have to configure the secondary just right. The Teller-<br />
Ulam multistage configuration does precisely this. It is thought<br />
that three main concepts are involved in this design. <br />
<br />
You should think of a H-bomb as a multistage engine, with 3 explosive<br />
stages. Since the explosions occur so quickly, it seems like only<br />
one flash occurs, whereas 3 actually do. These correspond to the<br />
initial fission of the primary, the fusion of the secondary, and the<br />
fission of the casing or fusion tamper. In the case of a neutron<br />
bomb, the casing may be made out of a non-fissionable material like<br />
lead, so you would only get two explosions.<br />
<br />
<br />
Separation of Stages<br />
<br />
Much detail as to what goes in inside a H-bomb was gained in 1954<br />
during the Ivy Mike fallout. By a careful analysis of the fallout<br />
products, you could work out roughly where the energy came from.<br />
In particular, you looked at the ratio of higher Z radioisotopes in<br />
the fallout. You tried to find evidence as to whether these products<br />
had been exposed to unusually high neutron fluxes. Compression of<br />
the U-235 sparkplug in the secondary would increase the probability of<br />
multiple neutron exposure. Hence the formation of elements like<br />
transuranic Einsteinium and Fermium, which were first detected in the<br />
Ivy Mike fallout. See the references for evidence of massive Li6D compression<br />
and multiple neutron exposure.<br />
<br />
The British designed their first H-bomb after examining American supplied<br />
Russian fallout from the Joe-4 test.<br />
<br />
Around 50% of the H-bomb energy comes from fusion. The other 50% is<br />
from fission of the U-238 fusion capsule tamper or weapons casing.<br />
The fusion-boosted implosion core just serves as a trigger, and gives<br />
at most a few hundred kT of energy. Ted Taylor has done calculations<br />
showing it is possible to get into the megaton range for extremely<br />
efficient fusion-boosted imploders. Tritium gas is injected into the<br />
core during implosion to achieve boosting.<br />
<br />
For a given volume of Pu or U, you would find an equivalent volume of<br />
Li6D to be 25 times less massive, due to differing densities. If you<br />
fused this amount of Li6D, you would get 3 times as much energy as<br />
you would fissioning the equivalent amount of Pu or U, taking into<br />
account the energy released per reaction. Note that although a single<br />
fission releases more energy than a single fusion event, the fission<br />
releases the binding energy of 235 nucleons, whereas the fusion does<br />
the same for five or six nucleons. If you had 235/6 = 40 fusions, you<br />
would release more energy overall than fission of 235 nucleons. In a H-bomb<br />
it follows you need about 10x the volume of Li6D than Pu or U, to<br />
achieve a 50% energy release ratio. In other words, H-bombs have<br />
a small mass of U or Pu, and a much larger mass of Li6D. In a reaction,<br />
100% of the material never fuses. With experience, 10% is an outstanding<br />
result. For a beginner, 1% is a good start.<br />
<br />
<br />
The Failed Classical Super Design<br />
<br />
Historically, the first theoretical designs for a H-bomb began with the<br />
classical Super. This was a boosted trigger surrounded by a mass of fusion<br />
fuel. When the trigger went off, the heat and shockwave were supposed to<br />
set off an outwardly propagating thermonuclear reaction in the fusion <br />
material. This didn't work. Calculations by Ulam and von Neumann showed<br />
that temperatures and pressures weren't high enough to sustain such a<br />
reaction. It would 'fizzle'. The design was based on what happens in a<br />
supernova. Here, when material collapses into a neutron star, there is<br />
an amount of 'bouncing' off the core. When the material is reflected, a<br />
chain thermonuclear fusion reaction is set off, releasing a good percentage<br />
of that ever fused by the star over its lifetime.<br />
<br />
A new idea was called for. This is where Teller, Ulam, and de Hoffmann came<br />
in. Rough calculations showed that sustained fusion could occur if the Li6D<br />
mass was separated from the trigger, possibly in the form of a concentric<br />
cylinder, surrounding a U-235 sparkplug, and surrounded itself by a U-238<br />
pusher. An ablation layer made up of a low-Z hydride surrounds this pusher.<br />
It is possible that primary and secondary are at two foci of an ellipsoid.<br />
<br />
The main unknowns to the public are currently the design of the casing,<br />
and the shape and size of the secondary, relative to the primary.<br />
<br />
<br />
Compression<br />
<br />
The problem then is to transfer the energy from the implosion to<br />
this Li6D cylinder, firstly compressing it, and then heating it.<br />
Compression must precede heating since hot materials tend to expand<br />
more than cold ones. This energy transfer is the crucial idea in<br />
a H-bomb. You must compress the Li6D in under a shake, or else the<br />
expanding bomb debris will take everything apart before fusion has<br />
substantially gone underway.<br />
<br />
The Greenhouse George test showed that a small quantity of D-T could<br />
be ignited by a fission device.<br />
<br />
<br />
Radiation Coupled Implosion<br />
<br />
Ed Teller has stated that the transfer of energy from the primary to<br />
the secondary is primarily via radiation in the form of soft X-rays,<br />
which travel at light speed. X-rays released by the trigger travel across<br />
the air gap separating the casing from the trigger, and strike the<br />
heavy (high-Z) bomb casing. Radiation pressure generated by the X-rays<br />
is decoupled from the fluid pressure of the fission fragments, which travel<br />
much more slowly.<br />
<br />
We can learn a lot from Teller's statement. Mechanical (fluid) pressure isn't<br />
the transfer mechanism. Nor are hard (MeV) X-rays straight from nuclear<br />
reactions. Indeed, soft X-rays come from the ionization of a reasonably high-Z<br />
material. The only place this high-Z material could be is the bomb casing,<br />
which is responsible for most of the bomb's weight.<br />
<br />
It is possible that a blackbody radiation mechanism is responsible<br />
for the tamper implosion.<br />
<br />
For a few millionths of a second, the insides of the bomb become like<br />
a blackbody. Since the casing is so massive compared to the rest of<br />
the components (including the secondary), it expands relatively<br />
slowly. During the time the vaporised casing expands, a phenomenon known as<br />
X-ray fluorescence causes the casing ions to generates secondary X-rays.<br />
Since the casing atoms have been ionised, when the sea of electrons fall back<br />
into their shells, a uniform emission of secondary soft X-rays is released. <br />
If the casing is machined just right, it is possible to direct these<br />
onto the secondary fuel mass from all directions, leading to a very even<br />
compression. The X-rays act as a photon gas, which equilibriates at light<br />
speed, much more quickly than a material gas made up of fission particles<br />
would (this would equilibriates at the speed of sound). The problem of<br />
the H-bomb is the calculation of the hydrodynamics, not the nuclear physics.<br />
<br />
It doesn't have to be soft X-rays which cause the fluorescence. Anything with<br />
enough kinetic energy will do the job - fission fragments or neutrons can do<br />
it. All that needs to be done is to ionise the casing atoms.<br />
<br />
What happens is that the secondary X-rays deposit their energy onto the<br />
ablation layer almost instantaneously and uniformly from all sides. The<br />
result is instantaneous heating. The surface layer of the fusion target<br />
is vaporised, forming a surrounding plasma envelope. The layer undergoes<br />
a blowoff with great force. This causes the inner part of the wrapper<br />
to compress (Newton's 3rd law) due to rocket recoil. This tamper pushes against<br />
the secondary Li6D fuel mass, and the mass is compressed to a fraction<br />
of its original width. If there is an air gap (levitation) between tamper<br />
and fuel, the tamper can develop more momentum to do the job. This is what<br />
happens in the levitated cores of fission triggers.<br />
<br />
Since the ablator is composed of low-Z, light material, the blowoff will<br />
put a lot of energy into the expanding plasma. This prevents preheating of<br />
the Li6D fusion fuel before adequate compression is achieved, while still<br />
allowing for inward momentum coupling. In other words, the impulse is high.<br />
<br />
By this time, the neutrons from the fission will have reached the sparkplug.<br />
The fissioning sparkplug ignites the Li6D annular cylinder from the inside,<br />
while compression occurs on the outside. Burning starts from the inner<br />
edge of the Li6D and, in under 1 ns, a large fraction of the Li6D is ignited.<br />
The core reaches 1000-10,000x the original density, igniting at 100 million<br />
degrees C. <br />
<br />
The high energy neutrons (> 1 MeV) released by fusion radiate out and<br />
strike the U-238 atoms of the pusher and expanding casing, causing more<br />
fission.<br />
<br />
The casing acts as a heavy gas, whose inertia slows the expansion of the<br />
explosion. However, it plays no part in confinement of the fusion fuel. The<br />
compression caused by the imploding tamper does that job. The interatomic<br />
forces between the casing atoms are negligible.<br />
<br />
The bomb tamper is crucial in confining the reactions until they develop<br />
appreciably.<br />
<br />
To direct energy onto the secondary, you need firstly to<br />
interact with the casing. All this happens in under 10 shakes.<br />
<br />
In ICF, a typical fusion sphere consists of layers of: (1) Be or LiH ablator,<br />
(2) a high Z polymer shield, (3) the main Li6D fuel, (4) the U-238 pusher,<br />
(5) a void, and (6) a Li6D ignitor.<br />
<br />
Note that it's not the fission trigger X-rays which cause the blowoff,<br />
but the secondary X-rays due to the X-ray fluorescence of the high-Z<br />
heavy bomb casing. The casing acts like a hohlraum target. Nothing is<br />
reflected as such. Unlike visible light, which is coupled to optical<br />
bandstates on the surface of metals, X-rays are absorbed due to their<br />
much higher energy. <br />
<br />
The X-rays come mainly from the L->K and M->K shell transitions as the<br />
electrons drop down into the K shell vacancy, and hence lose energy.<br />
<br />
Another possibility for an X-ray source is bremmstrahlung from deccelerating<br />
electrons in the ionised plasma.<br />
<br />
Eventually, the X-rays manage to diffuse through the expanding bomb casing,<br />
and are released in a huge flux. This causes the initial light burst of a<br />
nuclear explosion, and is responsible for immediate deaths. Considering this<br />
light is 1000x brighter than the sun, this is no surprise! The temperature<br />
soars to over 1000 deg C in microseconds.<br />
<br />
The mechanism of a H-bomb bears an uncanny relation to indirect drive<br />
ICF. Implosions driven by this method are relatively insensitive to the<br />
nature of the primary beams (they could be lasers or ions just as well).<br />
They are also hydrodynamically more stable. This is important, since the<br />
fusion fuel mass must be compressed symmetrically and evenly. <br />
<br />
<br />
X-ray - Plasma Interactions<br />
<br />
This method tends to produce a large volume of target plasma through which<br />
the X-rays must propagate, however. Although it would be more efficient if<br />
the plasma were transparent to this radiation, it is not absolutely <br />
necessary. A diffuse photon gas due to absorption, scattering, and re-<br />
emission by the target plasma will do.<br />
<br />
A number of physical effects must be considered. These include:<br />
<br />
Absorption:<br />
* X-ray absorption by target<br />
** inverse bremsstrahlung (generates collisional low temp electrons)<br />
** parametric instabilities (bremsstrahlung induced collisionless hot electrons)<br />
** resonance absorption (collisionless hot electrons)<br />
<br />
Hot electrons lead to target expansion, which is not good for compression,<br />
for it takes more energy to compress a hot gas than a cold one.<br />
<br />
Other undesirable effects include:<br />
<br />
* stimulated Brillouin scattering<br />
* stimulated Raman scattering<br />
<br />
These also generate preheat and hot electrons in the target.<br />
<br />
We also need to look at:<br />
<br />
* thermal conduction (energy absorbed in a critical layer can be inihibited from flowing into the ablation region)<br />
<br />
<br />
Conversion Efficiences<br />
<br />
For planar hohlraums, about 70-80% of the incident energy can be<br />
converted into X-rays. You get better target coupling at short wavelengths.<br />
<br />
<br />
Other Forms of Compression<br />
<br />
Instead of radiation, could it be a material shockwave which does<br />
the compression? Or a combination of both? It is known that at the<br />
centre of the earth, iron is compressed to 30% its volume, subject to<br />
about 5 Mbars. So we are way beyond the non-compressible regime, into<br />
nonlinear effects. In fact, Ulam proposed using shock waves, but this<br />
would have resulted in less even compression. Compression of the fusion<br />
fuel can get as high as 1000x solid density, at 100 million degrees C.<br />
<br />
Ulam is said to have come up with the solution to the energy transfer <br />
problem when he was looking at ways to improve the efficiency of the<br />
trigger. The joint Teller-Ulam paper talked about "hydrodynamic lenses<br />
and radiation mirrors". Could there be some sort of lensing or baffle<br />
system inside the hohlraum, which focusses radiation onto the Li6D via the<br />
casing? I find this highly unlikely. Note that the shorter the wavelength,<br />
the less refracted light gets. It is very hard to bend X-rays, let alone<br />
gamma rays. Also, wouldn't the lens system vaporise before enough radiation<br />
was focussed? "Hydrodynamic lenses" is reminiscent of the shaped charges<br />
used in achieving a spherical shockwave in the trigger implosion.<br />
<br />
Possible focussing systems include hohlraums shaped like ellipsoids, or<br />
parabaloids with the primary at the focus. It is very difficult to shape<br />
the secondary like a cylinder, and get a compression wave travelling just<br />
before fast neutrons from the sparkplug cause fission - although not<br />
impossible. Another problem with the cylindrical shape is that compressing<br />
from the sides is like squeezing a tube of toothpaste. If the compression<br />
is not fast enough, the material will squirt out the ends.<br />
<br />
Laser fusion using X-rays to compress pellets of D-T fuel is used in<br />
Livermore's NOVA. Ten pulsed lasers give a temperature of about 10^8 K, and<br />
increase particle density by a factor of 10^3. Each pellet is smaller than<br />
a grain of sand, and absorbs about 200kJ of energy in < 1 ns. Delivered<br />
power is about 2 x 10^14 W, about 100 times the entire world's electric<br />
power generating capacity. This is a peaceful example of inertial confinement<br />
fusion.<br />
<br />
<br />
Neutrons Causing Compression?<br />
<br />
Neutrons expand out at a slightly greater rate as the fission fragments.<br />
Can they compress the Li6D in time, before the fragments tear everything<br />
apart? A shockwave is just a longitudinal compression of the propagation<br />
medium. Energy is transferred in collisions between the atoms or molecules.<br />
<br />
If this worked (a classical super design), then the most efficient<br />
way to capture these fission neutrons would be to surround a fission<br />
bomb with fusion fuel, and hope to cause an outward propagating shock wave.<br />
If you didn't surround it, then you'd be wasting lots of neutrons.<br />
The fact that H-bombs don't look like this (big, fat, and round) is evidence<br />
against he idea.<br />
<br />
<br />
Other Theories<br />
<br />
From: merlin <merlin@neuro.usc.edu><br />
<br />
The basic idea is the primary is detonated -- neutrons escape in all<br />
directions -- the secondary could be a hollowed out sphere of U-238<br />
with a Li6D core -- though usually the secondary is elongated to hold<br />
more Li6D. The neutrons convert Li6D to TD. They also cause fast<br />
fissions in the U-238 wrapper around the Li6D -- these fast fissions<br />
release an enormous amount of energy -- the energy causes the U-238<br />
to expand (about 2/3 of energy causes expansion outward from center<br />
of the sphere -- but about 1/3 of energy goes into inward compression<br />
-- thereby compressing the TD core) -- the shock compression and<br />
heating of the TD core reaches thermonuclear temperature and pressure<br />
-- then a recursive reaction begins -- fast neutrons from the TD core<br />
cause fast fissions in the U-238 wrapper -- fast fissions in the U-238<br />
wrapper cause additional shock compression and heating of the core --<br />
if optimum fusion temperature or pressure are exceeded the fusion<br />
reaction slows down, fewer neutrons are produced, fewer fast fissions<br />
occur, the U-238 wrapper releases some pressure -- until optimum<br />
fusion temp and pressure is reached again and the recursive reaction<br />
stabilizes (at least until you run out of TD to burn). This is why<br />
in the traditional hydrogen bomb about half of the yield is fusion<br />
and half of the yield is fission -- the energy has to be balanced in<br />
order to hold the device together long enough to burn as much of the<br />
TD fuel as possible. In the neutron bomb you get more waste tritium<br />
because most of the U-238 mantle has been stripped away -- and the<br />
device disassembles faster -- with much lower explosive yield.<br />
<br />
The following diagram is adapted from Matt Kennel's <mbk@lyapunov.UCSD.EDU>:<br />
<pre><br />
-------------------------------------------------------<br />
/ | |<br />
/ oooooo |===========fusion fuel========================<br />
| oa-bombo --fission spark plug---------------------------<br />
\ oooooo |==============================================<br />
\ | |<br />
-------------------------------------------------------<br />
<----------><---------------------------...><br />
implosion repetition of fusion cells clad in U-238 tampers<br />
primary<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=TAXONOMIC_CLASSIFICATIONS_OF_ASTEROIDS&diff=1825TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF ASTEROIDS2021-03-26T18:35:18Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF ASTEROIDS David J. Tholen Institute for Astronomy..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
TAXONOMIC CLASSIFICATIONS OF ASTEROIDS<br />
<br />
David J. Tholen<br />
Institute for Astronomy<br />
2680 Woodlawn Drive<br />
Honolulu, HI 96822<br />
<br />
<br />
Since the last Asteroids book was published, there have been two taxonomic<br />
classification schemes developed and applied to the body of available color<br />
and albedo data (Tholen, 1984; Barucci et al., 1987). Asteroid taxonomic<br />
classifications according to these schemes are reproduced in the table. The<br />
Barucci et al. classifications have been copied directly from the paper they<br />
published in Icarus. Their classifications are based on a combination of<br />
eight-color photometry and IRAS albedos. The Tholen classifications are<br />
essentially the same as those supplied to the IRAS Asteroid Advisory Group<br />
in November, 1983, and as such, are not based on the IRAS albedos. This list<br />
consists of the classifications tabulated in Tholen (1984), but extended by a<br />
rigorous application of the classification scheme to those objects with UBV<br />
colors (Bowell et al., 1979), and a non-rigorous application to those objects<br />
with 24-color spectra (Chapman and Gaffey, 1979). A few of the classifications<br />
given here disagree with the ones given by Tholen (1984). These discrepancies<br />
are flagged in the Notes column. In some cases, the classifications of objects<br />
in the X and C spectral classes are based on unpublished albedos provided by<br />
Tedesco and Gradie. Although IRAS albedos are available that would permit the<br />
elimination of some classification ambiguities, caution is advised when<br />
applying IRAS albedos, because in many cases the IRAS fluxes have been<br />
overestimated, resulting in underestimated albedos.<br />
<br />
Two differences between Tholen's 1984 list and this list are apparent. The<br />
letter X has been used to stand for E or M or P. Tholen (1984) used EMP,<br />
which could be misinterpreted as meaning E is most likely, M is next most<br />
likely, and P is least likely. Note that the E, M, and P classes are<br />
spectrally degenerate, so in the absence of albedo information, their similar<br />
spectra can be represented by a single letter. Also, the letter I has been<br />
introduced to stand for Inconsistent data. In Tholen (1984), 515 Athalia was<br />
given a stand-alone U classification, due to its S-type spectrum but uniquely<br />
low albedo. However, because of the desire to use U as only a suffix, the<br />
letter I was introduced.<br />
<br />
The following notation appears in the classifications:<br />
U suffix indicating an unusual spectrum; falls far from cluster center<br />
: suffix indicating noisy data<br />
:: suffix indicating very noisy data<br />
--- indicates data that are too noisy to permit classification<br />
(essentially all types would be allowed)<br />
<br />
Due to popular demand, orbital group designations have been included in this<br />
table. The 2- or 3-letter abbreviations stand for the following groups:<br />
ATE Aten<br />
APO Apollo<br />
AMO Amor<br />
MC Mars crosser<br />
HUN Hungaria<br />
PHO Phocaea<br />
GRI Griqua<br />
CYB Cybele<br />
HIL Hilda<br />
TRO Trojan<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Asteroid Classifications<br />
----------------------------------------------------------------<br />
Tholen Barucci<br />
Minor Planet Class Class Group Notes<br />
----------------------------------------------------------------<br />
1 Ceres G G0<br />
2 Pallas B B3<br />
3 Juno S S0<br />
4 Vesta V V0<br />
5 Astraea S S0<br />
6 Hebe S S0<br />
7 Iris S S0<br />
8 Flora S S0<br />
9 Metis S<br />
10 Hygiea C C0<br />
11 Parthenope S S0<br />
12 Victoria S S0<br />
13 Egeria G 1<br />
14 Irene S<br />
15 Eunomia S S0<br />
16 Psyche M M0<br />
17 Thetis S S0<br />
18 Melpomene S S0<br />
19 Fortuna G<br />
20 Massalia S S0<br />
21 Lutetia M M0<br />
22 Kalliope M M0<br />
23 Thalia S S0<br />
24 Themis C<br />
25 Phocaea S S2 PHO<br />
26 Proserpina S S0<br />
27 Euterpe S<br />
28 Bellona S S0<br />
29 Amphitrite S S0<br />
30 Urania S S0<br />
31 Euphrosyne C<br />
32 Pomona S S0<br />
33 Polyhymnia S<br />
34 Circe C C0<br />
35 Leukothea C C0<br />
36 Atalante C<br />
37 Fides S S0<br />
38 Leda C C0<br />
39 Laetitia S S0<br />
40 Harmonia S S0<br />
41 Daphne C C0<br />
42 Isis S S0<br />
43 Ariadne S S0<br />
44 Nysa E E0<br />
45 Eugenia FC C0<br />
46 Hestia P C0<br />
47 Aglaja C C0<br />
48 Doris CG<br />
49 Pales CG C0<br />
50 Virginia X<br />
51 Nemausa CU S1<br />
52 Europa CF C0<br />
53 Kalypso XC<br />
54 Alexandra C C0<br />
55 Pandora M E0<br />
56 Melete P C0<br />
57 Mnemosyne S S0<br />
58 Concordia C C0<br />
59 Elpis CP C0<br />
60 Echo S S0<br />
61 Danae S S0<br />
62 Erato BU B3<br />
63 Ausonia S S0<br />
64 Angelina E<br />
65 Cybele P C0 CYB<br />
66 Maja C C0<br />
67 Asia S S0<br />
68 Leto S S0<br />
69 Hesperia M M0<br />
70 Panopaea C C0<br />
71 Niobe S S0<br />
72 Feronia TDG<br />
73 Klytia S<br />
74 Galatea C<br />
75 Eurydike M M0<br />
76 Freia P C0 CYB<br />
77 Frigga MU D2<br />
78 Diana C C0<br />
79 Eurynome S S0<br />
80 Sappho S S0<br />
81 Terpsichore C C0<br />
82 Alkmene S S0<br />
83 Beatrix X M0<br />
84 Klio G<br />
85 Io FC C0<br />
86 Semele C C0<br />
87 Sylvia P C0 CYB<br />
88 Thisbe CF<br />
89 Julia S S0<br />
90 Antiope C C0<br />
91 Aegina CP<br />
92 Undina X M0<br />
93 Minerva CU B3<br />
94 Aurora CP C0<br />
95 Arethusa C C0<br />
96 Aegle T<br />
97 Klotho M M0<br />
98 Ianthe CG C0<br />
99 Dike C<br />
100 Hekate S<br />
101 Helena S S0<br />
102 Miriam P D2<br />
103 Hera S S0<br />
104 Klymene C C0<br />
105 Artemis C C0 PHO<br />
106 Dione G G0<br />
107 Camilla C C0 CYB<br />
108 Hecuba S S0<br />
109 Felicitas GC C0<br />
110 Lydia M M0<br />
111 Ate C C0<br />
112 Iphigenia DCX<br />
113 Amalthea S S2<br />
114 Kassandra T D3<br />
115 Thyra S S1<br />
116 Sirona S S0<br />
117 Lomia XC C0<br />
118 Peitho S S0<br />
119 Althaea S S2<br />
120 Lachesis C C0<br />
121 Hermione C C0 CYB<br />
122 Gerda ST<br />
123 Brunhild S<br />
124 Alkeste S S0<br />
125 Liberatrix M M0<br />
126 Velleda S<br />
127 Johanna CX<br />
128 Nemesis C C0<br />
129 Antigone M<br />
130 Elektra G G0<br />
131 Vala SU S1<br />
132 Aethra M M0 MC<br />
133 Cyrene SR<br />
134 Sophrosyne C C0<br />
135 Hertha M M0<br />
136 Austria M<br />
137 Meliboea C C0<br />
138 Tolosa S<br />
139 Juewa CP<br />
140 Siwa P<br />
141 Lumen CPF<br />
142 Polana F B1<br />
143 Adria C<br />
144 Vibilia C C0<br />
145 Adeona C C0<br />
146 Lucina C C0<br />
147 Protogeneia C C0<br />
148 Gallia GU S1<br />
149 Medusa S<br />
150 Nuwa CX<br />
151 Abundantia S<br />
152 Atala D<br />
153 Hilda P C0 HIL<br />
155 Scylla XFC<br />
156 Xanthippe C C0<br />
158 Koronis S S0<br />
159 Aemilia C C0<br />
160 Una CX<br />
161 Athor M M0<br />
162 Laurentia STU<br />
163 Erigone C<br />
164 Eva CX<br />
165 Loreley CD<br />
166 Rhodope GC:<br />
167 Urda S<br />
168 Sibylla C C0 CYB<br />
169 Zelia S S0<br />
170 Maria S S0<br />
171 Ophelia C C0<br />
172 Baucis S<br />
173 Ino C C0<br />
174 Phaedra S<br />
175 Andromache C<br />
176 Iduna G<br />
177 Irma C:<br />
178 Belisana S<br />
179 Klytaemnestra S S0<br />
180 Garumna S<br />
181 Eucharis S<br />
182 Elsa S<br />
183 Istria S<br />
184 Dejopeja X<br />
185 Eunike C C0<br />
186 Celuta S S0<br />
187 Lamberta C C0<br />
188 Menippe S S0<br />
189 Phthia S<br />
190 Ismene P HIL<br />
191 Kolga XC:<br />
192 Nausikaa S V0 2<br />
194 Prokne C C0<br />
195 Eurykleia C C0<br />
196 Philomela S S0<br />
197 Arete S<br />
198 Ampella S S0<br />
200 Dynamene C C0<br />
201 Penelope M M0<br />
202 Chryseis S<br />
203 Pompeja DCX:<br />
204 Kallisto S S0<br />
205 Martha C<br />
206 Hersilia C<br />
207 Hedda C<br />
208 Lacrimosa S<br />
209 Dido C C0<br />
210 Isabella CF<br />
211 Isolda C C0<br />
212 Medea DCX:<br />
213 Lilaea F B1<br />
214 Aschera E E0<br />
215 Oenone S<br />
216 Kleopatra M M0<br />
217 Eudora X<br />
218 Bianca S<br />
219 Thusnelda S S0<br />
220 Stephania XC<br />
221 Eos S S0<br />
222 Lucia BU B0<br />
223 Rosa X<br />
224 Oceana M<br />
225 Henrietta F C0 CYB<br />
228 Agathe S S2<br />
229 Adelinda BCU C0 CYB<br />
230 Athamantis S S0<br />
232 Russia C C0<br />
233 Asterope T D3<br />
234 Barbara S S0<br />
235 Carolina S<br />
236 Honoria S S0<br />
237 Coelestina S<br />
238 Hypatia C C0<br />
240 Vanadis C C0<br />
241 Germania CP C0<br />
243 Ida S S0<br />
245 Vera S S0<br />
246 Asporina A A0<br />
247 Eukrate CP<br />
250 Bettina M M0<br />
254 Augusta S<br />
255 Oppavia X<br />
257 Silesia SCTU<br />
258 Tyche S S0<br />
259 Aletheia CP<br />
260 Huberta CX: CYB<br />
261 Prymno B B3<br />
262 Valda S<br />
264 Libussa S S0<br />
266 Aline C C0<br />
267 Tirza DU<br />
268 Adorea FC C0<br />
270 Anahita S<br />
271 Penthesilea PC<br />
273 Atropos SCTU PHO<br />
275 Sapientia X<br />
276 Adelheid X C0<br />
277 Elvira S S0<br />
279 Thule D D0<br />
281 Lucretia SU<br />
282 Clorinde BFU:: B0<br />
283 Emma X<br />
284 Amalia CX<br />
286 Iclea CX<br />
287 Nephthys S S0<br />
288 Glauke S S0<br />
289 Nenetta A A0<br />
293 Brasilia CX<br />
295 Theresia S<br />
296 Phaetusa S<br />
302 Clarissa F C0<br />
304 Olga C C0<br />
305 Gordonia S<br />
306 Unitas S S0<br />
307 Nike CX<br />
308 Polyxo T D3<br />
311 Claudia S<br />
312 Pierretta S<br />
313 Chaldaea C C0<br />
317 Roxane E E0<br />
318 Magdalena CXF<br />
321 Florentina S<br />
322 Phaeo X M0<br />
323 Brucia S S0<br />
324 Bamberga CP<br />
325 Heidelberga M<br />
326 Tamara C C0 PHO<br />
328 Gudrun S<br />
329 Svea C C0<br />
331 Etheridgea CX<br />
333 Badenia C:<br />
334 Chicago C C0 HIL<br />
335 Roberta FP C0<br />
336 Lacadiera D D0<br />
337 Devosa X M0<br />
338 Budrosa M M0<br />
339 Dorothea S S1<br />
340 Eduarda S<br />
341 California S<br />
342 Endymion C<br />
343 Ostara CSGU<br />
344 Desiderata C C0 3<br />
345 Tercidina C C0<br />
346 Hermentaria S S0<br />
347 Pariana M M0<br />
349 Dembowska R V0<br />
350 Ornamenta C C0<br />
351 Yrsa S<br />
352 Gisela S S0<br />
354 Eleonora S S2<br />
356 Liguria C<br />
357 Ninina CX<br />
359 Georgia CX M0<br />
360 Carlova C C0<br />
361 Bononia DP HIL<br />
362 Havnia XC<br />
363 Padua XC<br />
364 Isara S S0<br />
365 Corduba X C0<br />
368 Haidea D D2<br />
369 Aeria M M0<br />
370 Modestia X<br />
371 Bohemia QSV<br />
372 Palma BFC<br />
373 Melusina C C0<br />
374 Burgundia S S0<br />
375 Ursula C<br />
376 Geometria S S0<br />
377 Campania PD<br />
378 Holmia S<br />
379 Huenna B C0<br />
380 Fiducia C C0<br />
381 Myrrha C C0<br />
382 Dodona M M0<br />
383 Janina B B3<br />
384 Burdigala S<br />
385 Ilmatar S<br />
386 Siegena C C0<br />
387 Aquitania S S0<br />
388 Charybdis C C0<br />
389 Industria S S0<br />
390 Alma DT<br />
391 Ingeborg S PHO<br />
393 Lampetia C<br />
394 Arduina S S0<br />
395 Delia C<br />
397 Vienna S<br />
402 Chloe S S0<br />
403 Cyane S<br />
404 Arsinoe C C0<br />
405 Thia C C0<br />
406 Erna P M0<br />
407 Arachne C C0<br />
409 Aspasia CX<br />
410 Chloris C C0<br />
413 Edburga M<br />
414 Liriope C C0 CYB<br />
415 Palatia DP<br />
416 Vaticana S S0<br />
417 Suevia X<br />
418 Alemannia M M0<br />
419 Aurelia F C0<br />
420 Bertholda P M0 CYB<br />
421 Zahringia S<br />
422 Berolina DX<br />
423 Diotima C C0<br />
426 Hippo F <br />
429 Lotis C C0<br />
431 Nephele B C0<br />
432 Pythia S<br />
433 Eros S AMO<br />
434 Hungaria E HUN<br />
435 Ella DCX<br />
438 Zeuxo F:<br />
439 Ohio X:<br />
441 Bathilde M<br />
442 Eichsfeldia C C0<br />
443 Photographica S S3<br />
444 Gyptis C C0<br />
445 Edna C<br />
446 Aeternitas A A0<br />
447 Valentine TD<br />
448 Natalie C<br />
449 Hamburga C C0<br />
450 Brigitta CSU<br />
451 Patientia CU B3<br />
453 Tea S<br />
454 Mathesis CB<br />
455 Bruchsalia CP<br />
458 Hercynia S<br />
459 Signe S S0<br />
461 Saskia FCX<br />
462 Eriphyla S<br />
463 Lola X<br />
464 Megaira FXU:<br />
466 Tisiphone C C0 CYB<br />
468 Lina CPF<br />
469 Argentina X<br />
470 Kilia S S0<br />
471 Papagena S S0<br />
472 Roma S S0<br />
475 Ocllo X M0 MC<br />
476 Hedwig P C0<br />
477 Italia S S0<br />
478 Tergeste S S0<br />
480 Hansa S S0<br />
481 Emita C<br />
482 Petrina S<br />
483 Seppina S S0 CYB<br />
487 Venetia S<br />
488 Kreusa C<br />
489 Comacina C<br />
490 Veritas C<br />
494 Virtus C<br />
496 Gryphia S S0<br />
497 Iva M<br />
498 Tokio M D3<br />
499 Venusia P C0 HIL<br />
502 Sigune S PHO<br />
503 Evelyn XC<br />
505 Cava FC<br />
506 Marion XC C0<br />
508 Princetonia C C0<br />
509 Iolanda S S0<br />
510 Mabella PD<br />
511 Davida C C0<br />
512 Taurinensis S S2 MC<br />
513 Centesima S<br />
514 Armida XC C0<br />
515 Athalia I S0 4<br />
516 Amherstia M<br />
517 Edith X<br />
519 Sylvania S S0<br />
520 Franziska CGU<br />
521 Brixia C C0<br />
522 Helga X C0 CYB<br />
524 Fidelio XC<br />
525 Adelaide SU<br />
526 Jena B C0<br />
529 Preziosa S S0<br />
530 Turandot F C0<br />
532 Herculina S S0<br />
533 Sara S<br />
534 Nassovia S<br />
535 Montague C<br />
536 Merapi X C0 CYB<br />
537 Pauly DU:<br />
540 Rosamunde S S0<br />
542 Susanna S<br />
545 Messalina CD<br />
546 Herodias TDG<br />
547 Praxedis XD:<br />
548 Kressida S<br />
549 Jessonda S S0<br />
550 Senta S<br />
551 Ortrud XC C0<br />
554 Peraga FC C0<br />
556 Phyllis S S0<br />
558 Carmen M M0<br />
559 Nanon C C0<br />
560 Delila ---<br />
561 Ingwelde XCU<br />
562 Salome S S0<br />
563 Suleika S S0<br />
564 Dudu CDX:<br />
565 Marbachia S<br />
566 Stereoskopia C C0 CYB<br />
567 Eleutheria CFB:<br />
569 Misa C<br />
570 Kythera ST S0 CYB<br />
571 Dulcinea S S0<br />
572 Rebekka XDC<br />
574 Reginhild S<br />
579 Sidonia S S0<br />
582 Olympia S S0<br />
583 Klotilde C C0<br />
584 Semiramis S S0<br />
585 Bilkis C<br />
586 Thekla C:<br />
588 Achilles DU D1 TRO<br />
589 Croatia CX<br />
591 Irmgard X<br />
593 Titania C C0<br />
596 Scheila PCD<br />
598 Octavia C:<br />
599 Luisa S S0<br />
601 Nerthus X<br />
602 Marianna C C0<br />
606 Brangane TSD D3<br />
611 Valeria S<br />
613 Ginevra P C0<br />
615 Roswitha CX<br />
616 Elly S S0<br />
617 Patroclus P C0 TRO<br />
618 Elfriede C C0<br />
619 Triberga S<br />
620 Drakonia E<br />
621 Werdandi FCX:<br />
622 Esther S<br />
623 Chimaera XC<br />
624 Hektor D TRO<br />
626 Notburga CX C0<br />
627 Charis XB:<br />
628 Christine SD<br />
631 Philippina S S0<br />
633 Zelima S<br />
635 Vundtia C C0<br />
639 Latona S S0<br />
640 Brambilla G G0<br />
642 Clara S<br />
643 Scheherezade P C0 CYB<br />
644 Cosima S<br />
645 Agrippina S<br />
647 Adelgunde X<br />
648 Pippa XC C0<br />
650 Amalasuntha ---<br />
651 Antikleia S S3<br />
653 Berenike S S0<br />
654 Zelinda C C0 PHO<br />
658 Asteria S<br />
659 Nestor XC C0 TRO<br />
660 Crescentia S S0<br />
661 Cloelia S S0<br />
663 Gerlinde X C0<br />
664 Judith XC<br />
669 Kypria S<br />
673 Edda S<br />
674 Rachele S<br />
675 Ludmilla S<br />
676 Melitta XC<br />
679 Pax I<br />
680 Genoveva XC<br />
686 Gersuind S S0<br />
687 Tinette X<br />
689 Zita CX:<br />
690 Wratislavia CPF<br />
691 Lehigh CD:<br />
692 Hippodamia S S0 CYB<br />
693 Zerbinetta ST<br />
694 Ekard CP:<br />
695 Bella S<br />
696 Leonora XC<br />
697 Galilea C:<br />
699 Hela S MC<br />
701 Oriola C<br />
702 Alauda C C0<br />
704 Interamnia F C0<br />
705 Erminia X C0<br />
708 Raphaela S<br />
709 Fringilla X<br />
712 Boliviana C C0<br />
713 Luscinia C C0 CYB<br />
714 Ulula S S0<br />
716 Berkeley S<br />
717 Wisibada DX:<br />
720 Bohlinia S<br />
721 Tabora D D0 CYB<br />
725 Amanda CSU C0<br />
727 Nipponia DT<br />
729 Watsonia STGD<br />
731 Sorga CD<br />
733 Mocia CF C0 CYB<br />
735 Marghanna C<br />
736 Harvard S<br />
737 Arequipa S<br />
738 Alagasta CGSU<br />
739 Mandeville X C0<br />
740 Cantabia CX C0<br />
741 Botolphia X<br />
742 Edisona S<br />
744 Aguntina FX:<br />
746 Marlu P C0<br />
747 Winchester PC<br />
748 Simeisa P C0 HIL<br />
749 Malzovia S<br />
750 Oskar F B1<br />
751 Faina C C0<br />
753 Tiflis S<br />
754 Malabar XC<br />
755 Quintilla M M0<br />
757 Portlandia XF M0<br />
758 Mancunia X<br />
760 Massinga SU<br />
761 Brendelia SC<br />
762 Pulcova F C0<br />
764 Gedania C<br />
766 Moguntia MU<br />
768 Struveana X<br />
770 Bali S<br />
771 Libera X M0<br />
772 Tanete C C0<br />
773 Irmintraud D D0<br />
775 Lumiere S S0<br />
776 Berbericia C<br />
778 Theobalda F C0<br />
781 Kartvelia CPU:<br />
782 Montefiore S<br />
783 Nora ---<br />
785 Zwetana M B2<br />
786 Bredichina C C0<br />
790 Pretoria P C0 CYB<br />
791 Ani C C0<br />
793 Arizona DU:<br />
796 Sarita XD<br />
797 Montana S<br />
798 Ruth M<br />
800 Kressmannia S<br />
801 Helwerthia XC C0<br />
804 Hispania PC C0<br />
805 Hormuthia CX C0<br />
807 Ceraskia S<br />
811 Nauheima S S0<br />
814 Tauris C<br />
821 Fanny C<br />
822 Lalage DXCU<br />
824 Anastasia S<br />
825 Tanina SR<br />
828 Lindemannia XFU<br />
830 Petropolitana S<br />
834 Burnhamia GS:<br />
838 Seraphina P C0<br />
839 Valborg S<br />
846 Lipperta CBU:<br />
847 Agnia S<br />
849 Ara M<br />
851 Zeissia S S0<br />
853 Nansenia XD<br />
857 Glasenappia MU<br />
858 El Djezair S<br />
860 Ursina M M0<br />
863 Benkoela A A0<br />
864 Aase S<br />
868 Lova C:<br />
872 Holda M<br />
873 Mechthild PC C0<br />
876 Scott S<br />
877 Walkure F C0<br />
880 Herba F C0<br />
883 Matterania S<br />
884 Priamus D TRO<br />
887 Alinda S AMO<br />
888 Parysatis S<br />
890 Waltraut CTGU:<br />
893 Leopoldina XF<br />
895 Helio FCB<br />
897 Lysistrata S S0<br />
899 Jokaste XB<br />
901 Brunsia S<br />
907 Rhoda C C0<br />
909 Ulla X C0 CYB<br />
911 Agamemnon D TRO<br />
914 Palisana CU D3 PHO<br />
920 Rogeria DTU<br />
924 Toni CX<br />
925 Alphonsina S S0<br />
927 Ratisbona CB:<br />
931 Whittemora M M0<br />
932 Hooveria CB<br />
937 Bethgea S S2<br />
939 Isberga S<br />
940 Kordula FC: CYB<br />
941 Murray CX<br />
943 Begonia ST<br />
944 Hidalgo D<br />
945 Barcelona S S0<br />
946 Poesia FU C0<br />
951 Gaspra S S0<br />
954 Li FCX<br />
958 Asplinda --- HIL<br />
962 Aslog S S0<br />
963 Iduberga S<br />
966 Muschi S<br />
968 Petunia S<br />
969 Leocadia FXU: B2<br />
974 Lioba S S0<br />
975 Perseverantia S<br />
976 Benjamina XD:<br />
977 Philippa C<br />
978 Aidamina PF<br />
980 Anacostia SU S3<br />
981 Martina CFU:<br />
983 Gunila XD<br />
991 McDonalda C:<br />
996 Hilaritas B C0<br />
1001 Gaussia PC C0<br />
1004 Belopolskya PC CYB<br />
1011 Laodamia S MC<br />
1012 Sarema F<br />
1013 Tombecka XSC<br />
1015 Christa C<br />
1019 Strackea S S2 HUN<br />
1021 Flammario F C0<br />
1023 Thomana G<br />
1025 Riema E HUN<br />
1028 Lydina C C0 CYB<br />
1029 La Plata S<br />
1031 Arctica CX:<br />
1036 Ganymed S S0 AMO<br />
1038 Tuckia DTU: HIL<br />
1043 Beate S<br />
1047 Geisha S<br />
1048 Feodosia XC<br />
1052 Belgica S<br />
1055 Tynka S<br />
1058 Grubba S<br />
1061 Paeonia C<br />
1075 Helina SU<br />
1076 Viola F B1<br />
1078 Mentha S<br />
1079 Mimosa S<br />
1080 Orchis F B1<br />
1082 Pirola C<br />
1087 Arabis S S0<br />
1088 Mitaka S<br />
1093 Freda C<br />
1102 Pepita C<br />
1103 Sequoia E HUN<br />
1105 Fragaria ST S0<br />
1108 Demeter CX PHO<br />
1109 Tata FC<br />
1111 Reinmuthia FXU:<br />
1112 Polonia S<br />
1124 Stroobantia X M0<br />
1127 Mimi CX<br />
1129 Neujmina S<br />
1133 Lugduna S<br />
1139 Atami S MC<br />
1140 Crimea S<br />
1143 Odysseus D TRO<br />
1144 Oda D HIL<br />
1146 Biarmia X M0<br />
1148 Rarahu S<br />
1154 Astronomia FXU: C0 CYB<br />
1162 Larissa P M0 HIL<br />
1167 Dubiago D D0 CYB<br />
1170 Siva S S0 PHO<br />
1171 Rusthawelia P C0<br />
1172 Aneas D D0 TRO<br />
1173 Anchises P C0 TRO<br />
1177 Gonnessia XFU C0 CYB<br />
1180 Rita P HIL<br />
1185 Nikko S<br />
1186 Turnera S<br />
1199 Geldonia CGTP:<br />
1208 Troilus FCU C0 TRO<br />
1210 Morosovia MU:<br />
1212 Francette P M0 HIL<br />
1215 Boyer S<br />
1216 Askania S<br />
1223 Neckar S<br />
1224 Fantasia S<br />
1235 Schorria CX: HUN<br />
1236 Thais T D3<br />
1241 Dysona PDC<br />
1245 Calvinia S S0<br />
1247 Memoria CXF<br />
1249 Rutherfordia S<br />
1251 Hedera E<br />
1252 Celestia S<br />
1256 Normannia D D0 HIL<br />
1263 Varsavia X<br />
1266 Tone P C0 CYB<br />
1268 Libya P C0 HIL<br />
1269 Rollandia D D0 HIL<br />
1274 Delportia S<br />
1275 Cimbria X M0<br />
1277 Dolores C C0<br />
1280 Baillauda X CYB<br />
1284 Latvia T D3<br />
1286 Banachiewicza S<br />
1289 Kutaissi S<br />
1306 Scythia S<br />
1307 Cimmeria S<br />
1310 Villigera S PHO<br />
1314 Paula S<br />
1317 Silvretta CX:<br />
1326 Losaka CSU<br />
1328 Devota X CYB<br />
1329 Eliane S<br />
1330 Spiridonia P<br />
1331 Solvejg BC:<br />
1336 Zeelandia S S0<br />
1339 Desagneauxa S<br />
1341 Edmee XB<br />
1342 Brabantia X PHO<br />
1345 Potomac X HIL<br />
1350 Rosselia S<br />
1355 Magoeba X HUN<br />
1357 Khama XCU<br />
1359 Prieska CX:<br />
1362 Griqua CP GRI<br />
1364 Safara ---<br />
1390 Abastumani P C0 CYB<br />
1391 Carelia S<br />
1392 Pierre DX<br />
1401 Lavonne S<br />
1415 Malautra S<br />
1416 Renauxa S<br />
1418 Fayeta S S0<br />
1422 Stromgrenia S<br />
1434 Margot S<br />
1437 Diomedes DP TRO<br />
1439 Vogtia XFU B2 HIL<br />
1442 Corvina S<br />
1445 Konkolya C<br />
1449 Virtanen S<br />
1453 Fennia S HUN<br />
1456 Saldanha C:<br />
1461 Jean-Jacques M M0<br />
1467 Mashona GC C0 CYB<br />
1474 Beira FX MC<br />
1477 Bonsdorffia XU<br />
1479 Inkeri XFU<br />
1493 Sigrid F C0<br />
1500 Jyvaskyla S<br />
1504 Lappeenranta S<br />
1508 Kemi BCF<br />
1509 Esclangona S S0 HUN<br />
1512 Oulu P M0 HIL<br />
1529 Oterma P: HIL<br />
1532 Inari S<br />
1533 Saimaa S<br />
1547 Nele TD<br />
1556 Wingolfia XC M0 CYB<br />
1564 Srbija X<br />
1566 Icarus --- APO<br />
1567 Alikoski PU<br />
1576 Fabiola BU B0<br />
1578 Kirkwood D D1 HIL<br />
1579 Herrick F C0 CYB<br />
1580 Betulia C AMO<br />
1581 Abanderada BCU B0<br />
1583 Antilochus D D0 TRO<br />
1584 Fuji S S0 PHO<br />
1595 Tanga C:<br />
1601 Patry S<br />
1602 Indiana S<br />
1604 Tombaugh XSCU D3<br />
1606 Jekhovsky C C0<br />
1615 Bardwell B C0<br />
1619 Ueta S<br />
1620 Geographos S APO<br />
1621 Druzhba S<br />
1625 The NORC C<br />
1627 Ivar S AMO<br />
1636 Porter S<br />
1639 Bower C<br />
1644 Rafita S<br />
1645 Waterfield XDC<br />
1648 Shajna S<br />
1650 Heckmann F B1<br />
1655 Comas Sola XFU<br />
1656 Suomi S HUN<br />
1657 Roemera S PHO<br />
1658 Innes AS<br />
1665 Gaby S<br />
1669 Dagmar G:<br />
1681 Steinmetz S<br />
1685 Toro S APO<br />
1691 Oort CU C0<br />
1693 Hertzsprung CBU C0<br />
1694 Kaiser GC<br />
1700 Zvezdara X C0<br />
1702 Kalahari D<br />
1707 Chantal S<br />
1711 Sandrine S<br />
1717 Arlon S<br />
1723 Klemola S<br />
1724 Vladimir FBCU:: B0<br />
1727 Mette S HUN<br />
1740 Paavo Nurmi F<br />
1746 Brouwer D HIL<br />
1747 Wright AU: MC<br />
1748 Mauderli D HIL<br />
1750 Eckert S HUN<br />
1754 Cunningham P C0 HIL<br />
1755 Lorbach S<br />
1765 Wrubel DX<br />
1767 Lampland XC<br />
1768 Appenzella F<br />
1792 Reni C:<br />
1794 Finsen C C0<br />
1796 Riga XFCU C0 CYB<br />
1815 Beethoven F C0<br />
1827 Atkinson DU<br />
1830 Pogson S<br />
1842 Hynek S<br />
1862 Apollo Q APO<br />
1863 Antinous SU APO<br />
1864 Daedalus SQ APO<br />
1865 Cerberus S APO<br />
1867 Deiphobus D D0 TRO<br />
1902 Shaposhnikov X HIL<br />
1911 Schubart P C0 HIL<br />
1915 Quetzalcoatl SMU AMO<br />
1916 Boreas S AMO<br />
1919 Clemence X HUN<br />
1920 Sarmiento X HUN<br />
1931 1969 QB C<br />
1943 Anteros S AMO<br />
1952 Hesburgh CD:<br />
1963 Bezovec C C0 PHO<br />
1980 Tezcatlipoca SU AMO<br />
1990 Pilcher S<br />
2000 Herschel S PHO<br />
2001 Einstein X HUN<br />
2010 Chebyshev BU:<br />
2035 Stearns E MC<br />
2048 Dwornik E HUN<br />
2050 Francis S PHO<br />
2052 Tamriko S S0<br />
2060 Chiron B<br />
2061 Anza TCG: AMO<br />
2062 Aten S ATE<br />
2067 Aksnes P M0 HIL<br />
2081 Sazava F B1<br />
2083 Smither X HUN<br />
2089 Cetacea S<br />
2090 Mizuho S S0<br />
2099 Opik S MC<br />
2100 Ra-Shalom C ATE<br />
2111 Tselina S S0<br />
2131 Mayall S S0 MC<br />
2134 Dennispalm DSU:<br />
2139 Makharadze F<br />
2156 Kate S S2<br />
2196 Ellicott CFXU C0 CYB<br />
2207 Antenor D D0 TRO<br />
2208 Pushkin D D0 CYB<br />
2212 Hephaistos SG APO<br />
2223 Sarpedon DU TRO<br />
2241 1979 WM D D0 TRO<br />
2246 Bowell D D0 HIL<br />
2260 Neoptolemus DTU: D1 TRO<br />
2266 Tchaikovsky D D0 CYB<br />
2272 1972 FA S HUN<br />
2274 Ehrsson SG<br />
2278 1953 GE FC<br />
2279 Barto F<br />
2311 El Leoncito D D0 CYB<br />
2312 Duboshin D D0 HIL<br />
2340 Hathor CSU ATE<br />
2345 Fucik S S0<br />
2357 Phereclos D D0 TRO<br />
2363 Cebriones D TRO<br />
2368 Beltrovata SQ AMO<br />
2375 1975 AA D<br />
2379 Heiskanen C C0<br />
2405 Welch BCU: B3<br />
2407 1973 DH C<br />
2411 Zellner S<br />
2430 Bruce Helin S PHO<br />
2449 1978 GC E HUN<br />
2491 1977 CB X HUN<br />
2501 Lohja A<br />
2510 Shandong S<br />
2577 Litva EU HUN<br />
2608 Seneca S AMO<br />
2674 Pandarus D TRO<br />
2735 Ellen SDU:: HUN<br />
2744 Birgitta S MC<br />
2760 Kacha X HIL<br />
2791 Paradise SU PHO<br />
2809 Vernadskij BFX<br />
2830 Greenwich S PHO<br />
2893 1975 QD D TRO<br />
3102 1981 QA QRS AMO<br />
3123 Dunham F<br />
3124 Kansas CG<br />
3169 Ostro TS HUN<br />
3199 Nefertiti S AMO<br />
3200 Phaethon F APO 5<br />
3288 Seleucus S AMO<br />
3551 1983 RD V AMO 6<br />
3552 1983 SA D AMO 6<br />
1975 EA CSU<br />
1975 GB S<br />
1975 U2 S 7<br />
1977 VA XC<br />
1978 CA S AMO<br />
1979 VA CF APO<br />
1980 WF QU APO<br />
1982 XB S AMO<br />
1984 BC D MC 6<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Space]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Tachyon_Field&diff=1824The Tachyon Field2021-03-26T18:33:42Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> Energy Technology The Tachyon Field by Dr Hans Nieper The Symposium on Energy Technology in Hannover November 27 and 28, 1980 Topic of the Symposium (Tachyon Field) by..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
Energy Technology<br />
The Tachyon Field<br />
by Dr Hans Nieper<br />
The Symposium on Energy <br />
Technology in Hannover<br />
November 27 and 28, 1980<br />
Topic of the Symposium (Tachyon Field)<br />
by Dr. Hans A. Nieper<br />
Space is filled with an energy field, the energy concentration of<br />
which is extremely large (for the layman, the energy field in this<br />
lecture room could correspond to the energy of several bombs.)<br />
This energy field has little to do with light energy or solar<br />
energy, and instead is called the GRAVITON FIELD, TACHYON FIELD or<br />
NEUTRINO FIELD.<br />
There are two essential models of imagination for this field and the<br />
tachyon. We are either dealing with EXTREMELY SHORT WAVES which<br />
possess VERY HIGH ENERGY electromagnetic radiation, or we are<br />
dealing with very small energy units which display a PULSATING<br />
BEHAVIOR which, in turn, determines their energy.<br />
Most scientists have a tendency to use the model of PULSATING UNITS<br />
(quantum jiggle or Zero Point Energy in modern terms). These units<br />
can move MUCH FASTER THAN THE SPEED OF LIGHT, however, they need not<br />
often do so.<br />
According to some scientists, the Tachyon Field DETERMINES THE SPEED<br />
OF LIGHT. It would then correspond exactly to the geometric average<br />
(V50) of the tachyon speed (Koppitz).<br />
If the speed of light corresponds to the geometric average of the<br />
sum of the tachyon speeds, this would mean that the speed of light<br />
would also change with changes in the characteristics of the Tachyon<br />
Field.<br />
The late Canadian physicist W. Smith wrote that the speed of light,<br />
in general, is assumed to be quite static (constant) in our<br />
universe. It is defined as "the rate at which space moves within<br />
time." However, if this is considered in terms of the new field<br />
concept (Tachyon Field), then the speed of light DEPENDS on the<br />
TIME CHARACTERISTICS of the field.<br />
The speed of light, therefore, is ONLY constant when the time<br />
characteristics of the Tachyon Field REMAIN constant. However, when<br />
these characteristics change (which they always do), then the speed<br />
of light CHANGES.<br />
In fact, the speed of light measured on the earth is ANYTHING BUT<br />
UNIFORM. In the March, 1934 edition of "Popular Science", on page<br />
25, the following summary was given.<br />
"In 1926, Prof. A.A. Michelson, one of the most famous<br />
experimental physicists of his time, measured light flashes<br />
between two mirrors set up on mountain peaks 22 miles apart. He<br />
determined that the speed of light was 186,284 miles per second.<br />
In order to obtain a more accurate value, he allowed light to<br />
pass through a three inch (evacuated) tube a mile long which was<br />
located in Pasadena, so that the speed of light could also be<br />
measured in a vacuum.<br />
After the death of Michelson, Dr. Francis Pease (of the Carnegie<br />
Institute) and Fred Pierson (of the University of Chicago)<br />
continued these measurements.<br />
As reported in the December, 1932 edition of "Popular Science",<br />
on page 36, these measurements displayed SUBSTANTIAL DEVIATION,<br />
especially since controllers of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic<br />
Survey DID NOT FIND ANY ERRORS when they measured the length of<br />
the tube several times.<br />
Accordingly, the measured deviations, could only be attributed<br />
to a CONTINUOUSLY CHANGING BEHAVIOR of the speed of light.<br />
On certain days, the light seemed to move up to 12 miles per<br />
second FASTER than on other days. The speed seemed to change<br />
with the season, and there were even more mysterious cycles<br />
lasting about two weeks.<br />
Finally the scientists AGREED ON AN AVERAGE value for all<br />
measurements, and FIXED the average speed at 186,271 miles per<br />
second."<br />
This was in 1934. Today, based on the torsion pendulum experiments<br />
of the American physicist, Dr. Saxl, we know that during the New<br />
Moon the gravitational acceleration of the Earth INCREASES SLIGHTLY.<br />
This means that at the time of the New Moon, the Tachyon Field LOSES<br />
its intensity slightly thereby INFLUENCING THE SPEED OF LIGHT. It<br />
is obvious that rejection of the axiom of a constant speed of light<br />
creates a problem for ORTHODOX PHYSICS.<br />
In addition, Prof. Seike suggested that the speed of light be<br />
measured on another body in space, for example, on a moon of Jupiter<br />
or on a probe remote from the Earth. He expects a HIGHER speed of<br />
light there than on the Earth. He is probably right.<br />
The Tachyon Field is also responsible for the phenomenon of<br />
gravitational acceleration. The SHIELDING EFFECT of a mass causes a<br />
second mass to be ACCELERATED TOWARDS IT. The gravity acceleration<br />
(Earth attraction) is a THRUST phenomenon and NOT AN ATTRACTION<br />
phenomenon.<br />
The field strength of the Tachyon Field is extremely large. It is<br />
given as 8.8 X 10 to the 8th volts per centimeter by Seike.<br />
Probably only a small fraction of tachyons travel faster than the<br />
speed of light.<br />
The majority of them (tachyons) may remain relatively stationary<br />
(these are called BRADYONS) and because of their OSCILLATORY<br />
BEHAVIOR (Prof. Seike calls it "trembling motion"<br />
[Zitterbewegung]), they HAVE A GREAT AMOUNT OF ENERGY.<br />
This means that ALL MATTER is immersed in an EXTREMELY DENSE ENERGY<br />
FIELD which we cannot percieve.<br />
In connection with this, we must consider an explanation for an<br />
exact physical experiment which has been repeated many times and<br />
which has not yet been adequately explained. This is the PHANTOM<br />
PHENOMENON in Kirlian photography.<br />
Kirlian photography shows that biologically living matter, without<br />
defining this more precisely, can be imaged on a photographic plate.<br />
For example, a freshly picked leaf will expose a photographic plate<br />
exactly according to its structure.<br />
Usually, an exposure time of eight hours is needed. However, if the<br />
tip of the leaf is cut off before the leaf is placed on the<br />
photographics plate, the result is that the WHOLE leaf is still<br />
completely imaged on the photographic plate, exactly in its previous<br />
form and including its missing part.<br />
This phantom phenomenon in Kirlian photography is among the many<br />
documented results of experimental physics. Therefore, space must<br />
have characteristics which allow it to retain the "impression" of<br />
matter which it previously contained, at least for a period of<br />
several hours. The concept of a bradyon field at rest, and with<br />
very high energy, would explain this.<br />
--------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
Vangard note...<br />
Think of the Bradyon field in its continuous jiggle as having a<br />
composition similar to syrup. Rapidly moving Tachyons can be<br />
thought of as water or gas.<br />
Comparison of the flow speed of the two fields shows how the<br />
Bradyon field could "sustain" the holographic (3d) image of the<br />
universe in a matrix of living energy.<br />
This opens up very interesting concepts relating to Sheldrake's<br />
Morphogenetic Fields and Burrs' Electrodynamic Fields of Life.<br />
--------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
However, only tachyons which criss-cross space could be used to<br />
explain the acceleration of gravity. It is possible that this is<br />
only a small fraction of the entire Tachyon Field.<br />
According to our present knowledge, the energy of the Tachyon Field<br />
can be transformed into other energy types in many ways.<br />
1) The Tachyon Field penetrates masses and gives off part of its<br />
energy by means of a BRAKING EFFECT. This leads to the<br />
central heating of masses (geothermal energy). Today the<br />
principle has been verified mostly by analogous<br />
investigations of the Moon and Venus. It can be assumed<br />
that, when penetrating the Earth mass, the travelling Tachyon<br />
Field will give up about 4% of its energy. This calculation<br />
is very vague, and cannot be given more precisely at this<br />
time (Nieper). The GEOTHERMAL ENERGY can be considered as<br />
captured GRAVITY FIELD ENERGY. It is generated continuously<br />
from the outside and can theoretically be removed from the<br />
Earth arbitrarily and without causing any damage.<br />
2) Magnetic and electrostatic fields are capable of intercepting<br />
tachyon energy (refer the work of T. Townsend Brown i.e, the<br />
Biefield/Brown Effect - BIEBRN1 & BIEBRN2 on KeelyNet). The<br />
intercepted energy (or braking effect) may increase<br />
exponentially with the field strength. Masses which are<br />
subject to large magnetic induction apparently absorb<br />
especially large amounts of tachyon energy because of<br />
principle 1 (and 2). The Jupiter Moon IO seems to be an<br />
example of this.<br />
3) Very abrupt voltage changes apparently withdraw energy from<br />
the Tachyon Field. This principle seems to play a role in<br />
the formation of lightning energy. Experiments based on this<br />
principle include the Gray convertor, where discharges are<br />
fed in from a condensor system to a conventionally designed<br />
electric motor, instead of the conventional electric field.<br />
The Gray motor has an efficiency of over 100%; that is, it<br />
can produce more energy than is required for its operation.<br />
During an electrical short circuit, the energy flow<br />
apparently is greater in a special experimental configuration<br />
than would be expected from the supplied power (Kromrey).<br />
4) The so-called "standing electromagnetic wave" and certain<br />
other manipulations of electromagnetic waves seem to disturb<br />
mutual "tolerance" between the electromagnetic waves and the<br />
Tachyon Field. This leads to ENERGY REMOVAL FROM THE<br />
TACHYONS into the electromagnetic wave which become<br />
"UNSYMPATHETIC." This principle was discovered by physicist<br />
Nikola Tesla about 100 years ago and was used by him to<br />
experimentally extract Tachyon Field energy and convert it<br />
into electrical current. By adopting the term<br />
"interference", specialists today speak of a "Tesla<br />
interferometer." Tesla at that time prediced the technical<br />
exploitation of space energy "within a few generations."<br />
He was about 100 years ahead of his time. The exceptional<br />
importance of this man is only now becoming known. The Tesla<br />
Principle is considered by specialists today to be a classic<br />
example of tachyon energy conversion. The recently developed<br />
"Tesla Cannon" is based on this principle. The<br />
electromagnetic waves are modified in the form of laser<br />
bundling, so that they absorb additional tachyon energy.<br />
Such a beam can have a destructive effect in space over<br />
hundreds of kilometers and has a very high energy. The<br />
American physicist Dr. Moray did not fire Tesla modified<br />
waves into space. Instead he directed them into an insulated<br />
cable 15 meters long. Inside the cable, energy is removed<br />
from the Tachyon Field. Dr. Moray was able to produce a<br />
continous power of 70 KW direct current! This occurred in<br />
1929. Forty years earlier Tesla directed a "Tesla-beam" over<br />
a long distance onto a piece of metal and made numerous<br />
electrical bulbs light up. The effective energy was much<br />
greater than that emitted by the generator.<br />
--------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
Vangard notes...<br />
Keely students will recognize the true discoverer of<br />
interference and how intelligent application of it can result in<br />
constructive (harmonic) or destructive (enharmonic) interference<br />
to alter energy/mass flows.<br />
We know that Tesla wrote a most vicious letter to Bloomfield-<br />
Moore (Keely's patroness) in the late 1880's or early 1890's<br />
claiming Keely to be a total and complete fraud.<br />
It is interesting to note that Tesla carried out NO research on<br />
MECHANICAL VIBRATORS until he came to this country. Note also<br />
that he lived in New York, was highly literate and without doubt<br />
aware of the research of John W. Keely in nearby Philadelphia<br />
through the at times massive press coverage of Keely during the<br />
period of 1872 through 1898.<br />
Through the work of Tesla, the MECHANICAL VIBRATORS evolved into<br />
electrical devices using the principles of SYMPATHY and<br />
RESONANCE which Keely originally pioneered for practical results<br />
using only sound waves.<br />
It is our belief that Tesla made himself aware of Keely's work<br />
in a most detailed fashion and incorporated it in the MECHANICAL<br />
VIBRATORS of his early days.<br />
These later evolved into electrically driven devices which could<br />
do the same job yet did not require the laborious mechanical<br />
tuning which occupied so much of Keely's researches.<br />
Tesla's main ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION is the Rotating Magnetic<br />
field. The rest is a result of high plagiarization and<br />
hybridization without due credit to his inspiration.<br />
--------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
5) When the plane of a system performing circular motion<br />
(spinning system) is tilted very rapidly, there is also an<br />
energy absorption from the Tachyon Field. Either the<br />
gravitational acceleration of the system changes, or<br />
electrical current is produced, or both. In principle, this<br />
is known as the Faraday Disk (rotating magnet) and the<br />
Laithwaite spindle (mechanical gyroscope which rotates at<br />
the periphery of a central gyroscope). The DePalma<br />
convertor, also called an N-machine, is based on this<br />
principle. At high revolutions it provides a direct current<br />
output which is greater than that required to operate the<br />
generator.<br />
6) If an electric field is directed into a coil which is wound<br />
around an iron core, it develops magnetic forces. This is<br />
the principle of the electromagnet. The coil can also be<br />
wound in a specific way called a MOBIUS COIL, which is also<br />
known as a KLEINEAN BOTTLE. An electrical field directed<br />
into such a coil is "encaged" and RESULTS IN MUCH GREATER<br />
ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION IN THE IRON CORE, with respect to<br />
the energy introduced, than is the case for a conventional<br />
electromagnet. The iron core can then send out a VERY HIGH<br />
ENERGY TACHYON BEAM in the AXIAL DIRECTION, which can MELT<br />
METALS AND ROCKS, for example. Prof. Seike in particular<br />
dealt with this technology. The energy derived is much<br />
greater than that required for induction.<br />
7) According to Nieper's theory, all so-called natural<br />
accelerations can be referred to one common basic<br />
principle, which is that these accelerations are caused by<br />
a DIRECTED TACHYON BRAKING EFFECT. This is true for the<br />
acceleration of gravity, as well as electrostatic,<br />
magnetic, electromagnetic and radiesthetic accelerations.<br />
In principle, ALL accelerations MUST BE EXCHANGEABLE when<br />
experimentally manipulated. For example, electromagnetic<br />
acceleration can be exchanged for the acceleration of<br />
gravity. This axiom also explains the operating principle<br />
of the Howard Johnson convertor, which is based on the<br />
usage of the magnetic paradox. According to this paradox,<br />
the work performed during the acceleration of a magnet<br />
using an iron core is greater than the force required for<br />
sideways removal of the iron core. The linear model of the<br />
Johnson convertor was patented under U.S. patent 4,151,431<br />
after extensive testing at the beginning of January, 1980.<br />
8) There is a special kind of tachyon energy conversion into<br />
heat, which particularly affects biological organisms. A<br />
space which is enclosed on all sides by a conducting<br />
membrane which can be charged, leads to such a conversion<br />
of tachyon energy into heat. This also applies to the<br />
cells of the human organism. The principle was discovered<br />
by Dr. Wilhelm Reich. In Germany the biophysicist, F.A.<br />
Popp, has examined these questions. This "Orgone Box<br />
Principle" will be pondered for long time.<br />
Based on the existing convertors, no one can doubt the<br />
technical feasibility of obtaining energy from the Tachyon<br />
Field. Such convertors in principle could be built<br />
relatively simply and at low cost. However, certain<br />
scientific, financial and political efforts have to be made<br />
for large-scale utilization of tachyon energy. The<br />
installation of large power plants and cross-country lines<br />
and other high-cost infrastucture is not required, nor is<br />
the purchasing of fuel.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Superstring_Topology&diff=1823Superstring Topology2021-03-26T08:38:40Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "A THEORY OF EVERYTHING? By Dr. Michio Kaku Prof. of Theoretical Physics City College of New York When I was a child of 8, I heard a story that will stay with me for the res..."</p>
<hr />
<div>A THEORY OF EVERYTHING?<br />
<br />
By Dr. Michio Kaku Prof. of Theoretical Physics City College of New York<br />
<br />
<br />
When I was a child of 8, I heard a story that will stay with me for the rest of my life. I remember my school teachers telling us about a great scientist who had just died. They talked about him with great reverence, calling him one of the greatest scientists in all history. They said that very few people could understand his ideas, but that his discoveries changed the entire world and everything around us.<br />
<br />
But what most intrigued me about this man was that he died before he could complete his greatest discovery. They said he spent years on this theory, but he died with his unfinished papers still sitting on his desk. I was fascinated by the story. To a child, this was a great mystery. What was his unfinished work? What problem could possibly be that difficult and that important that such a great scientist would dedicate years of his life in its pursuit? Curious, I decided to learn all I could about Albert Einstein and his unfinished theory. Some of the happiest moments of my childhood were spent quietly reading every book I could find about this great man and his theories. When I exhausted the books in our local library, I began to scour libraries and bookstores across the city and state eagerly searching for more clues. I soon learned that this story was far more exciting than any murder mystery and more important than anything I could ever imagine. I decided that I would try to get t o the root of this mystery, even if I had to become a theoretical physicist to do it.<br />
<br />
Gradually, I began to appreciate the magnitude of his unfinished quest. I learned that Einstein had three great theories. His first two theories, the special and the general theory of relativity, led to the development of the atomic bomb and the present-day theory of black holes and the Big Bang. These two theories by themselves earned him the reputation as the greatest scientist since Isaac Newton. However, Einstein was not satisfied. The third theory, which he called the Unified Field Theory, was to have been his crowning achievement. It was to be the Theory of the Universe, the Holy Grail of physics, the theory which finally unified all physical laws into one simple framework. It was to be the ultimate goal of all physics, the theory to end all theories.<br />
<br />
Sadly, it consumed Einstein for the last 30 years of his life; he spent many lonely years in a frustrating pursuit of the greatest theory of all time. But he wasn't alone; I also learned that some of the greatest minds of the twentieth century, such Werner Heisenberg and Wolfgang Pauli, also struggled with this problem and ultimately gave up.<br />
<br />
Given the fruitless search that has stumped the world's Nobel Prize winners for half a century, most physicists agree that the Theory of Everything must be a radical departure from everything that has been tried before. For example, Niels Bohr, founder of the modern atomic theory, once listened to Pauli's explanation of his version of the unified field theory. Bohr finally stood up and said, "We are all agreed that your theory is absolutely crazy. But what divides us is whether your theory is crazy enough."<br />
<br />
Today, however, after decades of false starts and frustrating dead ends, many of the world's leading physicists think that they have finally found the theory "crazy enough" to be the Unified Field Theory. Scores of physicists in the world's major research laboratories now believe we have at last found the Theory of Everything.<br />
<br />
The theory which has generated so much excitement is called the superstring theory. Nearly every science publication in the world has featured major stories on the superstring theory, interviewing some of its pioneers, such as John Schwarz, Michael Green, and Yoichiro Nambu. (Discover magazine even featured it twice on its cover.) My book, Beyond Einstein: the Cosmic Search for the Theory of the Universe, was the first attempt to explain this fabulous theory to the lay audience.<br />
<br />
Naturally, any theory which claims to have solved the most intimate secrets of the universe will be the center of intense controversy. Even Nobel Prize winners have engaged in heated discussions about the validity of the superstring theory. In fact, we are witnessing the liveliest debate in theoretical physics in decades over this theory.<br />
<br />
To understand the power of the superstring theory and why it is heralded as the theory of the universe (and to understand the delicious controversy that it has stirred up), it is necessary to understand that there are four forces which control everything in the known universe, and that the superstring theory gives us the first (and only) description which can unite all four forces into a single framework.<br />
<br />
<br />
The Four Fundamental Forces<br />
<br />
Over 2,000 years ago, the ancient Greeks thought that all matter in the universe could be reduced down to four elements: air, water, earth, and fire. Today, after centuries of research, we know that these substances are actually composites; they, in turn, are made of smaller atoms and sub-atomic particles, held together by just four and only four fundamental forces.<br />
<br />
These four forces are: Gravity is the force which keeps our feet anchored to the spinning earth and binds the solar system and the galaxies together. If the force of gravity could somehow be turned off, we would be immediately flung into outer space at l,000 miles per hour. Furthermore, without gravity holding the sun together, it would explode in a catastrophic burst of energy. Without gravity, the earth and the planets would spin out into freezing deep space, and the galaxies would fly apart into hundreds of billions of stars.<br />
<br />
Electro-magnetism is the force which lights up our cities and energizes our household appliances. The electronic revolution, which has given us the light bulb, TV, the telephone, computers, radio, radar, microwaves, light bulbs, and dishwashers, is a byproduct of the electro-magnetic force. Without this force, our civilization would be wrenched several hundred years into the past, into a primitive world lit by candlelight and campfires.<br />
<br />
The strong nuclear force is the force which powers the sun. Without the nuclear force, the stars would flicker out and the heavens would go dark. Without the sun, all life on earth would perish as the oceans turned to solid ice. The nuclear force not only makes life on earth possible, it is also the devastating force unleashed by a hydrogen bomb, which can be compared to a piece of the sun brought down to earth.<br />
<br />
The weak force is the force responsible for radioactive decay. The weak force is harnessed in modern hospitals in the form of radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine. For example, the dramatic color pictures of the living brain as it thinks and experiences emotions are made possible by the decay of radioactive sugar in the brain.<br />
<br />
It is no exaggeration to say that the mastery of each of these four fundamental forces has changed every aspect of human civilization. For example, when Newton tried to solve his theory of gravitation, he was forced to develop a new mathematics and formulate his celebrated laws of motion. These laws of mechanics, in turn, helped to usher in the Industrial Revolution, which has lifted humanity from uncounted millennia of backbreaking labor and misery.<br />
<br />
Furthermore, the mastery of the electromagnetic force by James Maxwell in the 1860s has revolutionized our way of life. Whenever there is a power blackout, we are forced to live our lives much like our forebears in the last century. Today, over half of the world's industrial wealth is now connected, in some way or other, to the electromagnetic force. Modern civilization without the electromagnetic force is unthinkable.<br />
<br />
Similarly, when the nuclear force was unleashed with the atomic bomb, human history, for the first time, faced a new and frightening set of choices, including the total annihilation of all life on earth. With the nuclear force, we could finally understand the enormous engine that lies within the sun and the stars, but we could also glimpse for the first time the end of humanity itself.<br />
<br />
Thus, whenever scientists unraveled the secrets of one of the four fundamental forces, it irrevocably altered the course of modern civilization. In some sense, some of the greatest breakthroughs in the history of the sciences can be traced back to the gradual understanding of these four fundamental forces. Some have said that the progress of the last 2,000 years of science can be summarized by the mastery of these four fundamental forces.<br />
<br />
Given the importance of these four fundamental forces, the next question is: can they be united into one super force? Are they but the manifestations of a deeper reality?<br />
<br />
<br />
Two Great Theories<br />
<br />
At present there are two physical frameworks which have partially explained the mysterious features of these four fundamental forces. Remarkably, these two formalisms, the quantum theory and general relativity, allow us to explain the sum total of all physical knowledge at the fundamental level. Without exception.<br />
<br />
The laws of physics and chemistry, which can fill entire libraries with technical journals and books, can in principle be derived from these two fundamental theories, making them the most successful physical theories of all time, withstanding the test of thousands of experiments and challenges.<br />
<br />
Ironically, these two fundamental frameworks are diametrically opposite to each other. The quantum theory, for example, is the theory of the microcosm, with unparalleled success at describing the sub-atomic world. The theory of relativity, by contrast, is a theory of the macrocosmic world, the world of galaxies, super clusters, black holes, and Creation itself.<br />
<br />
The quantum theory explains three of the four forces (the weak, strong, and electro-magnetic forces) by postulating the exchange of tiny packets of energy, called "quanta." When a flashlight is turned on, for example, it emits trillions upon trillion of photons, or the quanta of light. Everything from lasers to radar waves can be described by postulating that they are caused by the movement of these tiny photons of energy. Likewise, the weak force is governed by the exchange of subatomic particles called W-bosons. The strong nuclear force, in turn, binds the proton together by the exchange of "gluons."<br />
<br />
However, the quantum theory stands in sharp contrast to Einstein's general relativity, which postulates an entirely different physical picture to explain the force of gravity.<br />
<br />
Imagine, for the moment, dropping a heavy shot put on a large bed spread. The shot put will, of course, sink deeply into the bed spread. Now imagine shooting a small marble across the bed. Since the bed is warped, the marble will execute a curved path. However, for a person viewing the marble from a great distance, it will appear that the shot put is exerting an invisible "force" on the marble, forcing it to move in a curved path. In other words, we can now replace the clumsy concept of a "force" with the more elegant bending of space itself. We now have an entirely new definition of a "force." It is nothing but the byproduct of the warping of space.<br />
<br />
In the same way that a marble moves on a curved bed sheet, the earth moves around the sun in a curved path because space-time itself is curved. In this new picture, gravity is not a "force" but a byproduct of the warping of space-time. In some sense, gravity does not exist; what moves the planets and stars is the distortion of space and time.<br />
<br />
However, the problem which has stubbornly resisted solution for 50 years is that these two frameworks do not resemble each other in any way. The quantum theory reduces "forces" to the exchange of discrete packet of energy or quanta, while Einstein's theory of gravity, by contrast, explains the cosmic forces holding the galaxies together by postulating the smooth deformation of the fabric of space-time. This is the root of the problem, that the quantum theory and general relativity have two different physical pictures (packets of energy versus smooth space-time continuums) and different mathematics to describe them.<br />
<br />
All attempts by the greatest minds of the twentieth century at merging the quantum theory with the theory of gravity have failed. Unquestionably, the greatest problem of the century facing physicists today is the unification of these two physical frameworks into one theory.<br />
<br />
This sad state of affairs can be compared to Mother Nature having two hands, neither of which communicate with the other. Nothing could be more awkward or pathetic than to see someone whose left hand acted in total ignorance of the right hand.<br />
<br />
<br />
Superstrings<br />
<br />
Today, however, many physicists think that we have finally solved this long-standing problem. This theory, which is certainly "crazy enough" to be correct, has astounded the world's physics community. But it has also raised a storm of controversy, with Nobel Prize winners adamantly sitting on opposite sides of the fence.<br />
<br />
This is the superstring theory, which postulates that all matter and energy can be reduced to tiny strings of energy vibrating in a 10 dimensional universe.<br />
<br />
Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton, who some claim is the successor to Einstein, has said that superstring theory will dominate the world of physics for the next 50 years, in the same way that the quantum theory has dominated physics for the last 50 years.<br />
<br />
As Einstein once said, all great physical theories can be represented by simple pictures. Similarly, superstring theory can be explained visually. Imagine a violin string, for example. Everyone knows that the notes A,B,C, etc. played on a violin string are not fundamental. The note A is no more fundamental than the note B. What is fundamental, of course, is the violin string itself. By studying the vibrations or harmonics that can exist on a violin string, one can calculate the infinite number of possible frequencies that can exist.<br />
<br />
Similarly, the superstring can also vibrate in different frequencies. Each frequency, in turn, corresponds to a sub-atomic particle, or a "quanta." This explains why there appear to be an infinite number of particles. According to this theory, our bodies, which are made of sub-atomic particles, can be described by the resonances of trillions upon trillions of tiny strings.<br />
<br />
In summary, the "notes" of the superstring are the subatomic particles, the "harmonies" of the superstring are the laws of physics, and the "universe" can be compared to a symphony of vibrating superstrings.<br />
<br />
As the string vibrates, however, it causes the surrounding space-time continuum to warp around it. Miraculously enough, a detailed calculation shows that the superstring forces the space-time continuum to be distorted exactly as Einstein originally predicted. Thus, we now have a harmonious description which merges the theory of quanta with the theory of space-time continuum.<br />
<br />
<br />
10 Dimensional Hyperspace<br />
<br />
The superstring theory represents perhaps the most radical departure from ordinary physics in decades. But its most controversial prediction is that the universe originally began in 10 dimensions. To its supporters, the prediction of a 10 dimensional universe has been a conceptual tour de force, introducing a startling, breath-taking mathematics into the world of physics.<br />
<br />
To the critics, however, the introduction of 10 dimensional hyperspace borders on science fiction.<br />
<br />
To understand these higher dimensions, we remember that it takes three number to locate every object in the universe, from the tip of your nose to the ends of the universe.<br />
<br />
For example, if you want to meet some friends for lunch in Manhattan, you say that you will meet them at the building at the corner of 42nd and 5th Ave, on the 37th floor. It takes two numbers to locate your position on a map, and one number to specify the distance above the map. It thus takes three numbers to specify the location of your lunch.<br />
<br />
However, the existence of the fourth spatial dimension has been a lively area of debate since the time of the Greeks, who dismissed the possibility of a fourth dimension. Ptolemy, in fact, even gave a "proof" that higher dimensions could not exist. Ptolemy reasoned that only three straight lines can be drawn which are mutually perpendicular to each other (for example, the three perpendicular lines making up a corner of a room.) Since a fourth straight line cannot be drawn which is mutually perpendicular to the other three axes, Ergo!, the fourth dimension cannot exist.<br />
<br />
What Ptolemy actually proved was that it is impossible for us humans to visualize the fourth dimension. Although computers routinely manipulate equations in N-dimensional space, we humans are incapable of visualizing spatial dimensions beyond three.<br />
<br />
The reason for this unfortunate accident has to do with biology, rather than physics. Human evolution put a premium on being able to visualize objects moving in three dimensions. There was a selection pressure placed on humans who could dodge lunging saber tooth tigers or hurl a spear at a charging mammoth.<br />
<br />
Since tigers do not attack us in the fourth dimension, there simply was no advantage in developing a brain with the ability to visualize objects moving in four dimensions.<br />
<br />
From a mathematical point of view, however, adding higher dimensions is a distinct advantage: it allows us to describe more and more forces. There is more "room" in higher dimensions to insert the electromagnetic force into the gravitational force. (In this picture, light becomes a vibration in the fourth dimension.) In other words, adding more dimensions to a theory always allows us to unify more laws of physics.<br />
<br />
A simple analogy may help. The ancients were once puzzled by the weather. Why does it get colder as we go north? Why do the winds blow to the West? What is the origin of the seasons? To the ancients, these were mysteries that could not be solved. From their limited perspective, the ancients could never find the solution to these mysteries.<br />
<br />
The key to these puzzles, of course, is to leap into the third dimension, to go up into outer space, to see that the earth is actually a sphere rotating around a tilted axis. In one stroke, these mysteries of the weather become transparent. The seasons, the winds, the temperature patterns, etc. all become obvious once we leap into the third dimension.<br />
<br />
Likewise, the superstring is able to accommodate a large number of forces because it has more "room" in its equations to do so.<br />
<br />
<br />
What Happened Before the Big Bang?<br />
<br />
One of the nagging problems of Einstein's old theory of gravity was that it did not explain the origin of the Big Bang. It did not give us a clue as to what happened before the Big Bang.<br />
<br />
The 10 dimensional superstring theory, however, gives us a compelling explanation of the origin of the Big Bang. According to the superstring theory, the universe originally started as a perfect 10 dimensional universe with nothing in it.<br />
<br />
However, this 10 dimensional universe was not stable. The original 10 dimensional space-time finally "cracked" into two pieces, a four and a six dimensional universe. The universe made the "quantum leap" to another universe in which six of the 10 dimensions curled up into a tiny ball, allowing the remaining four dimensional universe to inflate at enormous rates.<br />
<br />
The four dimensional universe (our world) expanded rapidly, eventually creating the Big Bang, while the six dimensional universe wrapped itself into a ball and collapsed down to infinitesimal size.<br />
<br />
This explains the origin of the Big Bang, which is now viewed as a rather minor aftershock of a more cataclysmic collapse: the breaking of a 10 dimensional universe into a four and six dimensional universe.<br />
<br />
In principle, it also explains why we cannot measure the six dimensional universe, because it has shrunk down to a size smaller than an atom. Thus, no earth-bound experiment can measure the six dimensional universe.<br />
<br />
<br />
Recreating Creation<br />
<br />
Although the superstring theory has been called the most sensational discovery in theoretical physics in the past decades, its critics have focused on its weakest point, that it is almost impossible to test. The energy at which the four fundamental forces merge into a single, unified force occurs at the fabulous "Planck energy," which is a billion billion times greater than the energy found in a proton.<br />
<br />
Even if all the nations of the earth were to band together and single-mindedly build the biggest atom smasher in all history, it would still not be enough to test the theory. Because of this, some physicists have scoffed at the idea that superstring theory can even be considered a legitimate "theory." Nobel laureate Sheldon Glashow, for example, has compared the superstring theory to the former Pres. Reagan's Star Wars program (because it is untestable and drains the best scientific talent).<br />
<br />
The reason why the theory cannot be tested is rather simple. The Theory of Everything is necessarily a theory of Creation, that is, it must necessarily explain everything from the origin of the Big Bang down to the lilies of the field. Its full power is manifested at the instant of the Big Bang, where all its symmetries were intact. To test this theory on the earth, therefore, means to recreate Creation on the earth, which is impossible with present-day technology.<br />
<br />
Although this is discouraging, a piece of the puzzle may be supplied by the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), which, if built, will be the world's largest atom smasher.<br />
<br />
<br />
The SSC - Biggest Experiment of All Time<br />
<br />
These questions about unifying the fundamental forces are not academic, because the largest scientific machine ever built, the SSC, may be built to test some of these ideas about the instant of Creation. (Although the SSC was originally approved by the Reagan administration, the project, because of its enormous cost, is still touch-and-go, depending every year on Congressional funding.)<br />
<br />
The SSC is projected to accelerate protons to a staggering energy of tens of trillions of electron volts. When these subatomic particles slam into each other at these fantastic energies, the SSC will create temperatures which have not been seen since the instant of Creation (although it is still too weak to fully test the superstring theory). That is why it is sometimes called a "window on Creation."<br />
<br />
The SSC is projected to cost over $8 billion (which is large compared to the science budget, but insignificant compared to the Pentagon budget). By every measure, it will be a colossal machine. It will consist of a ring of powerful magnets stretched out in a tube over 50 miles in diameter. In fact, one could easily fit the Washington Beltway, which surrounds Washington D.C., inside the SSC. Inside this gigantic tube, protons will be accelerated to unimaginable energies.<br />
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At present, it is scheduled to be finished near the turn of the century in Texas, near the city of Austin. When completed, it will employ thousands of physicists and engineers and cost millions of dollars to operate.<br />
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At the very least, physicists hope that the SSC will find some exotic sub-atomic particles, such as the "Higgs boson" and the "top quark," in order to complete our present-day understanding of the quantum theory. However, there is also the small chance that physicists might discover "supersymmetric" particles, which may be remnants of the original superstring theory. In other words, although the superstring theory cannot be tested directly by the SSC, one hopes to find resonances from the superstring theory among the debris created by smashing protons together.<br />
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Parable of the Gemstone<br />
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To understand the intense controversy surrounding superstring theory, think of the following parable.<br />
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Imagine that, at the beginning of time, there was once a beautiful, glittering gemstone. Its perfect symmetries and harmonies were a sight to behold. However, it possessed a tiny flaw and became unstable, eventually exploding into thousands of tiny pieces. Imagine that the fragments of the gemstone rained down on a flat, two-dimensional world, called Flatland, where there lived a mythical race of beings called Flatlanders.<br />
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These Flatlanders were intrigued by the beauty of the fragments, which could be found scattered all over Flatland. The scientists of Flatland postulated that these fragments must have come from a crystal of unimaginable beauty that shattered in a titanic Big Bang. They then decided to embark upon a noble quest, to reassemble all these pieces of the gemstone.<br />
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After 2,000 years of labor by the finest minds of Flatland, they were finally able to fit many, but certainly not all, of the fragments together into two chunks. The first chunk was called the "quantum," and the second chunk was called "relativity."<br />
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Although they Flatlanders were rightfully proud of their progress, they were dismayed to find that these two chunks did not fit together. For half a century, the Flatlanders maneuvered these two chunks in all possible ways, and they still did not fit.<br />
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Finally, some of the younger, more rebellious scientists suggested a heretical solution: perhaps these two chunks could fit together if they were moved in the third dimension.<br />
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This immediately set off the greatest scientific controversy in years. The older scientists scoffed at this idea, because they didn't believe in the unseen third dimension. "What you can't measure doesn't exist," they declared.<br />
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Furthermore, even if the third dimension existed, one could calculate that the energy necessary to move the pieces up off Flatland would exceed all the energy available in Flatland. Thus, it was an untestable theory, the critics shouted.<br />
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However, the younger scientists were undaunted. Using pure mathematics, they could show that these two chunks fit together if they were rotated and moved in the third dimension. The younger scientists claimed that the problem was therefore theoretical, rather than experimental. If one could completely solve the equations of the third dimension, then one could, in principle, fit these two chunks completely together and resolve the problem once and for all.<br />
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We Are Not Smart Enough<br />
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That is also the conclusion of today's superstring enthusiasts, that the fundamental problem is theoretical, not practical. The true problem is to solve the theory completely, and then compare it with present-day experimental data. The problem, therefore, is not in building gigantic atom smashers; the problem is being clever enough to solve the theory.<br />
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Edward Witten, impressed by the vast new areas of mathematics opened up by the superstring theory, has said that the superstring theory represents "21th century physics that fell accidentally into the 20th century." This is because the superstring theory was discovered almost by accident. By the normal progression of science, we theoretical physicists might not have discovered the theory for another century.<br />
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The superstring theory may very well be 21st century physics, but the bottleneck has been that 21st century mathematics has not yet been discovered. In other words, although the string equations are perfectly well-defined, no one is smart enough to solve them.<br />
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This situation is not entirely new to the history of physics. When Newton first discovered the universal law of gravitation at the age of 23, he was unable to solve his equation because the mathematics of the 17th century was too primitive. He then labored over the next 20 years to develop a new mathematical formalism (calculus) which was powerful enough to solve his universal law of gravitation.<br />
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Similarly, the fundamental problem facing the superstring theory is theoretical. If we could only sharpen our analytical skills and develop more powerful mathematical tools, like Newton before us, perhaps we could solve the theory and end the controversy.<br />
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Ironically, the superstring equations stand before us in perfectly well-defined form, yet we are too primitive to understand why they work so well and too dim witted to solve them. The search for the theory of the universe is perhaps finally entering its last phase, awaiting the birth of a new mathematics powerful enough to solve it.<br />
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Imagine a child gazing at a TV set. The images and stories conveyed on the screen are easily understood by the child, yet the electronic wizardry inside the TV set is beyond the child's ken. We physicists are like this child, gazing in wonder at the mathematical sophistication and elegance of the superstring equations and awed by its power. However, like this child, we do not understand why the superstring theory works.<br />
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In conclusion, perhaps some of the readers will be inspired by this story to read every book in their libraries about the superstring theory. Perhaps some of the young readers of this article will be the ones to complete this quest for the Theory of the Universe, begun so many years ago by Einstein.<br />
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Dr. Kaku is author of Beyond Einstein (Bantam) and the forthcoming book, Hyperspace, upon which this article is based.<br />
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BLACK HOLES, WORMHOLES, AND THE 10Th DIMENSION<br />
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Dr. Kaku is professor of theoretical physics at the City Univ. of New York and author of Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universe, Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension (Oxford Univ. Press).<br />
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Last June, astronomers were toasting each other with champagne glasses in laboratories around the world, savoring their latest discovery. The repaired $2 billion Hubble Space Telescope, once the laughing stock of the scientific community, had snared its most elusive prize: a black hole.<br />
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But the discovery of the Holy Grail of astrophysics may also rekindle a long simmering debate within the physics community. What lies on the other side of a black hole? If someone foolishly fell into a black hole, will they be crushed by its immense gravity, as most physicists believe, or will they be propelled into a parallel universe or emerge in another time era?<br />
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To solve this complex question, physicists are opening up one of the most bizarre and tantalizing chapters in modern physics. They have to navigate a minefield of potentially explosive theories, such as the possibility of "wormholes," "white holes," time machines, and even the 10th dimension!<br />
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This controversy may well validate J.B.S. Haldane's wry observation that the universe is "not only queerer than we sup- pose, it is queerer than we can suppose."<br />
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This delicious controversy, which delights theoretical physicists but boggles the mind of mere mortals, is the subject of my recent book, Hyperspace.<br />
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BLACK HOLES: COLLAPSED STARS<br />
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A black hole, simply put, is a massive, dead star whose gravity is so intense than even light cannot escape, hence its name. By definition, it can't be seen, so NASA scientists focused instead on the tiny core of the galaxy M87, a super massive "cosmic engine" 50 million light years from earth.<br />
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Astronomers then showed that the core of M87 consisted of a ferocious, swirling maelstrom of superhot hydrogen gas spinning at l.2 million miles per hour. To keep this spinning disk of gas from violently flying apart in all directions, there had to be a colossal mass concentrated at its center, weighing as much as 2 to 3 billion suns! An object with that staggering mass would be massive enough to prevent light from escaping.<br />
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Ergo, a black hole.<br />
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THE EINSTEIN-ROSEN BRIDGE<br />
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But this also revives an ongoing controversy surrounding black holes. The best description of a spinning black hole was given in 1963 by the New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr, using Einstein's equations of gravity. But there is a quirky feature to his solution. It predicts that if one fell into a black hole, one might be sucked down a tunnel (called the "Einstein-Rosen bridge") and shot out a "white hole" in a parallel universe!<br />
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Kerr showed that a spinning black hole would collapse not into a point, but to a "ring of fire." Because the ring was spinning rapidly, centrifugal forces would keep it from collapsing. Remarkably, a space probe fired directly through the ring would not be crushed into oblivion, but might actually emerge unscratched on the other side of the Einstein-Rosen bridge, in a parallel universe. This "wormhole" may connect two parallel universes, or even distant parts of the same universe. (See diagram.)<br />
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THROUGH THE LOOKING GLASS<br />
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The simplest way to visualize a Kerr wormhole is to think of Alice's Looking Glass. Anyone walking through the Looking Glass would be transported instantly into Wonderland, a world where animals talked in riddles and common sense wasn't so common.<br />
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The rim of the Looking Glass corresponds to the Kerr ring. Anyone walking through the Kerr ring might be transported to the other side of the universe or even the past. Like two Siamese twins joined at the hip, we now have two universes joined via the Looking Glass.<br />
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Some physicists have wondered whether black holes or worm- holes might someday be used as shortcuts to another sector of our universe, or even as a time machine to the distant past (making possible the swashbuckling exploits in Star Wars). However, we caution that there are skeptics. The critics concede that hundreds of wormhole solutions have now been found to Einstein's equations, and hence they cannot be lightly dismissed as the ravings of crack pots. But they point out that wormholes might be unstable, or that intense radiation and sub-atomic forces surrounding the entrance to the wormhole would kill anyone who dared to enter.<br />
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Spirited debates have erupted between physicists concerning these wormholes. Unfortunately, this controversy cannot be re- solved, because Einstein's equations break down at the center of black holes or wormholes, where radiation and sub-atomic forces might be ferocious enough to collapse the entrance. The problem is Einstein's theory only works for gravity, not the quantum forces which govern radiation and sub-atomic particles. What is needed is a theory which embraces both the quantum theory of radiation and gravity simultaneously. In a word, to solve the problem of quantum black holes, we need a "theory of everything!"<br />
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A THEORY OF EVERYTHING?<br />
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One of the crowning achievements of 20th century science is that all the laws of physics, at a fundamental level, can be summarized by just two formalisms: (1) Einstein's theory of gravity, which gives us a cosmic description of the very large, i.e. galaxies, black holes and the Big Bang, and (2) the quantum theory, which gives us a microscopic description of the very small, i.e. the microcosm of sub-atomic particles and radiation.<br />
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But the supreme irony, and surely one of Nature's cosmic jokes, is that they look bewilderingly different; even the world's greatest physicists, including Einstein and Heisenberg, have failed to unify these into one. The two theories use different mathematics and different physical principles to describe the universe in their respective domains, the cosmic and the microscopic.<br />
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Fortunately, we now have a candidate for this theory. (In fact, it is the only candidate. Scores of rival proposals have all been shown to be inconsistent.) It's called "superstring theory," and almost effortlessly unites gravity with a theory of radiation, which is required to solve the problem of quantum wormholes.<br />
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The superstring theory can explain the mysterious quantum laws of sub-atomic physics by postulating that sub-atomic particles are really just resonances or vibrations of a tiny string. The vibrations of a violin string correspond to musical notes; likewise the vibrations of a superstring correspond to the particles found in nature. The universe is then a symphony of vibrating strings.<br />
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An added bonus is that, as a string moves in time, it warps the fabric of space around it, producing black holes, wormholes, and other exotic solutions of Einstein's equations. Thus, in one stroke, the superstring theory unites both the theory of Einstein and quantum physics into one coherent, compelling picture.<br />
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A 10 DIMENSIONAL UNIVERSE<br />
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The curious feature of superstrings, however, is that they can only vibrate in 10 dimensions. This is, in fact, one of the reasons why it can unify the known forces of the universe: in 10 dimensions there is "more room" to accommodate both Einstein's theory of gravity as well as sub-atomic physics. In some sense, previous attempts at unifying the forces of nature failed because a standard four dimensional theory is "too small" to jam all the forces into one mathematical framework.<br />
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To visualize higher dimensions, consider a Japanese tea garden, where carp spend their entire lives swimming on the bottom of a shallow pond. The carp are only vaguely aware of a world beyond the surface. To a carp "scientist," the universe only consists of two dimensions, length and width. There is no such thing as "height." In fact, they are incapable of imagining a third dimension beyond the pond. The word "up" has no meaning for them. (Imagine their distress if we were to suddenly lift them out of their two dimensional universe into "hyperspace," i.e. our world!)<br />
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However, if it rains, then the surface of their pond becomes rippled. Although the third dimension is beyond their comprehension, they can clearly see the waves traveling on the pond's surface. Likewise, although we earthlings cannot "see" these higher dimensions, we can see their ripples when they vibrate. According to this theory, "light" is nothing but vibrations rippling along the 5th dimension. By adding higher dimensions, we can easily accommodate more and more forces, including the nuclear forces. In a nutshell: the more dimensions we have, the more forces we can accommodate.<br />
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One persistent criticism of this theory, however, is that we do not see these higher dimensions in the laboratory. At present, every event in the universe, from the tiniest sub-atomic decay to exploding galaxies, can be described by 4 numbers (length, width, depth, and time), not 10 numbers. To answer this criticism, many physicists believe (but cannot yet prove) that the universe at the instant of the Big Bang was in fact fully 10 dimensional. Only after the instant of creation did 6 of the 10 dimensions "curled up" into a ball too tiny to observe. In a real sense, this theory is really a theory of creation, when the full power of 10 dimensional space-time was manifest.<br />
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21St CENTURY PHYSICS<br />
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Not surprisingly, the mathematics of the 10th dimensional superstring is breathtakingly beautiful as well as brutally complex, and has sent shock waves through the mathematics community. Entirely new areas of mathematics have been opened up by this theory. Unfortunately, at present no one is smart enough to solve the problem of a quantum black hole. As Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton has claimed, "String theory is 21st century physics that fell accidentally into the 20th century." However, 21st century mathematics necessary to solve quantum black holes has not yet been discovered!<br />
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However, since the stakes are so high, that hasn't stopped teams of enterprising physicists from trying to solve superstring theory. Already, over 5,000 papers have been written on the subject. As Nobel laureate Steve Weinberg said, "how can anyone expect that many of the brightest young theorists would not work on it?"<br />
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Progress has been slow but steady. Last year, a significant breakthrough was announced. Several groups of physicists independently announced that string theory can completely solve the problem of a quantum black hole. (However, the calculation was so fiendishly difficult it could only be performed in two, not 10, dimensions.)<br />
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So that's where we stand today. Many physicists now feel that it's only a matter of time before some enterprising physicist completely cracks this ticklish problem. The equations, although difficult, are well-defined. So until then, it's still a bit premature to buy tickets to the nearest wormhole to visit the next galaxy or hunt dinosaurs!<br />
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Back to List of Articles, or Home page<br />
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WHAT HAPPENED BEFORE THE BIG BANG?<br />
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Einstein's theory of gravity, which gives us the Big Bang theory and black holes, was subjected to the most stringent test yet and passed with flying colors. In the latest (Oct.) issue of Physics Today, astronomers from Harvard, MIT, and the Haystack Observatory proudly announced that they had confirmed Einstein's theory to within an astonishing .04% accuracy by measuring the bending of radio waves from the quasar 3C279 near the edge of the visible universe.<br />
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But there is some irony in this announcement. Each success only highlights a yawning gap. Even as scientists hail ever more accurate tests of Einstein's theory of warped space, Einstein himself knew that his theory broke down at the instant of the Big Bang. The theory had feet of clay.<br />
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Relativity was worthless, he realized, when it came to answering the most embarrassing cosmic question in all of science: What happened before the Big Bang? Ask any cosmologist this question, and they will throw up their hands, roll their eyes, and lament, "This may be forever beyond the reach of science. We just don't know."<br />
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Until now, that is.<br />
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A remarkable consensus has been developing recently around what is called "quantum cosmology," where scientists believe that a merger of the quantum theory and Einstein's relativity may resolve these sticky theological questions. Theoretical physicists are rushing in where the angels fear to tread!<br />
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In particular, an appealing but starting new picture is emerging in quantum cosmology which may be able to synthesize some of the great mythologies of creation.<br />
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There are two dominant religious mythologies. According to Judeo-Christian belief, the universe had a definite beginning. This is the Genesis hypothesis, where the universe was hatched from a Cosmic Egg. However, according to the Hindu-Buddhist belief in Nirvana, the universe is timeless; it never had a beginning, nor will it have an end.<br />
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Quantum cosmology proposes a beautiful synthesis of these seemingly hostile viewpoints. In the beginning was Nothing. No space, no matter or energy. But according to the quantum principle, even Nothing was unstable. Nothing began to decay; i.e. it began to "boil," with billions of tiny bubbles forming and expanding rapidly. Each bubble became an expanding universe.<br />
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If this is true, then our universe is actually part of a much larger "multiverse" of parallel universes, which is truly timeless, like Nirvana.<br />
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As Nobel laureate Steve Weinberg has said, "An important implication is that there wasn't a beginning; that there were increasingly large Big Bangs, so that the [multiverse] goes on forever - one doesn't have to grapple with the question of it before the Bang. The [multiverse] has just been here all along. I find that a very satisfying picture."<br />
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Universes can literally spring into existence as a quantum fluctuation of Nothing. (This is because the positive energy found in matter is balanced against the negative energy of gravity, so the total energy of a bubble is zero. Thus, it takes no net energy to create a new universe.)<br />
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As Alan Guth, originator of the inflationary theory, once said, "It's often said there is no such thing as a free lunch. But the universe itself may be a free lunch."<br />
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Andre Linde of Stanford has said, "If my colleagues and I are right, we may soon be saying good-bye to the idea that our universe was a single fireball created in the Big Bang."<br />
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Although this picture is appealing, it also raises more questions. Can life exist on these parallel universes? Stephen Hawking is doubtful; he believes that our universe may co-exist with other universes, but our universe is special. The probability of forming these other bubbles is vanishingly small.<br />
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On the other hand, Weinberg believes most of these parallel universes are probably dead. To have stable DNA molecules, the proton must be stable for at least 3 billion years. In these dead universes, the protons might have decayed into a sea of electrons and neutrinos.<br />
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Our universe may be one of the few compatible with life. This would, in fact, answer the age-old question of why the physical constants of the universe fall in a narrow band compatible with the formation of life. If the charge of the electron, the gravitational constant, etc. were changed slightly, then life would have been impossible. This is called the Anthropic Principle. As Freeman Dyson of Princeton said, "It's as if the universe knew we were coming." The strong version of this states that this proves the existence of God or an all-powerful deity.<br />
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But according to quantum cosmology, perhaps there are millions of dead universes. It was an accident, therefore, that our universe had conditions compatible with the formation of stable DNA molecules.<br />
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This leaves open the possibility, however, that there are parallel universes out there which are almost identical to ours, except for some fateful incident. Perhaps King George III did not lose the Colonies in one such universe.<br />
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However, I can calculate the probability that one day you might be walking down the street, only to fall into hole in space and enter a parallel universe. You would have to wait longer than the lifetime of the universe for such a cosmic event to happen. So I guess the United States is safe for the present!<br />
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As J.B.S. Haldane once said, "the universe is not only queerer than we suppose, it is queerer than we can suppose."<br />
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Dr. Michio Kaku is Prof. of theoretical physics at the City Univ. of New York and author of Hyperspace: a Scientific Odyssey through the 10th Dimension (Oxford Univ. Press).<br />
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HYPERSPACE: A SCIENTIFIC ODYSSEY THROUGH THE TENTH DIMENSION<br />
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Dr. Michio Kaku is professor of theoretical physics at the CUNY Graduate Center and CCNY. This article is adapted from his next book, Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the 10th Dimension (Oxford). He is the author of Introduction to Superstrings (Springer-Verlag).<br />
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Do higher dimensions exist? Are there unseen worlds just beyond our reach, beyond the normal laws of physics?<br />
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Although higher dimensions have historically been the exclusive realm of charlatans, mystics, and science fiction writers, many serious theoretical physicists now believe that higher dimensions not only exist, but may also explain some of the deepest secrets of nature. Although we stress that there is at present no experimental evidence for higher dimensions, in principle they may solve the ultimate problem in physics: the final unification of all physical knowledge at the fundamental level.<br />
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My own fascination with higher dimensions began early in childhood. One of my happiest childhood memories was crouching next to the pond at the famed Japanese Tea Garden in San Francisco, mesmerized by the brilliantly colored carp swimming slowly beneath the water lilies. In these quiet moments, I would ask myself a silly question that a only child might ask: how would the carp in that pond view the world around them?<br />
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Spending their entire lives at the bottom of the pond, the carp would believe that their "universe" consisted of the water and the lilies; they would only be dimly aware that an alien world could exist just above the surface. My world was beyond their comprehension. I was intrigued that I could sit only a few inches from the carp, yet we were separated by an immense chasm.<br />
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I concluded that if there were any "scientists" among the carp, they would scoff at any fish who proposed that a parallel world could exist just above the lilies. An unseen world beyond the pond made no scientific sense.<br />
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Once I imagined what would happen if I reached down and suddenly grabbed one of the carp "scientists" out of the pond. I wondered, how would this appear to the carp?<br />
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The startled carp "scientist" would tell a truly amazing story, being somehow lifted out of the universe (the pond) and hurled into a mysterious nether world, another dimension with blinding lights and strange-shaped objects that no carp had ever seen before. The strangest of all was the massive creature responsible for this outrage, who did not resemble a fish in the slightest. Shockingly, it had no fins whatsoever, but nevertheless could move without them. Obviously, the familiar laws of physics no longer applied in this nether world!<br />
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THE THEORY OF EVERYTHING<br />
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Sometimes I believe that we are like the carp living contently on the bottom of that pond; we live our lives blissfully ignorant of other worlds that might co-exist with us, laughing at any suggestion of parallel universes.<br />
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All this has changed rather dramatically in the past few years. The theory of higher dimensional space may now become the central piece in unlocking the origin of the universe. At the center of this conceptual revolution is the idea that our familiar three dimensional universe is "too small" to describe the myriad forces governing our universe.<br />
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To describe our physical world, with its almost infinite variety of forms, requires entire libraries overflowing with mountains of technical journals and stacks of obscure, learned books. The ultimate goal of physics, some believe, is to have a single equation or expression from which this colossal volume of information can be derived from first principles.<br />
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Today, many physicists believe that we have found the "unified field theory" which eluded Einstein for the last thirty years of his life.<br />
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Although the theory of higher dimensional space has not been verified (and, we shall see, would be prohibitively expensive to prove experimentally), almost 5,000 papers, at last count, have been published in the physics literature concerning higher dimensional theories, beginning with the pioneering papers of Theodore Kaluza and Oskar Klein in the 1920's and 30s, to the supergravity theory of the 1970s, and finally to the superstring theory of the 1980s and 90s. In fact, the superstring theory, which postulates that matter consists of tiny strings vibrating in hyperspace, predicts the precise number of dimensions of space and time: 10. (See xxxx issue of Thesis.)<br />
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WHY CAN'T WE SEE THE FOURTH DIMENSION?<br />
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To understand these higher dimensions, we remember that it takes three numbers to locate every object in the universe, from the tip of your nose to the ends of the world.<br />
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For example, if you want to meet some friends in Manhattan, you tell them to meet you at the building at the corner of 42nd street and 5th avenue, on the 37th floor. It takes two numbers to locate your position on a map, and one number to specify the distance above the map. It thus takes three numbers to specify the location of your lunch. (If we meet our friends at noon, then it takes four numbers to specify the space and time of the meeting.)<br />
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However, try as we may, it is impossible for our brains to visualize the fourth spatial dimension. Computers, of course, have no problem working in N dimensional space, but spatial dimensions beyond three simply cannot be conceptualized by our feeble brains. (The reason for this unfortunate accident has to do with biology, rather than physics. Human evolution put a premium on being able to visualize objects moving in three dimensions. There was a selection pressure placed on humans who could dodge lunging saber tooth tigers or hurl a spear at a charging mammoth. Since tigers do not attack us in the fourth spatial dimension, there simply was no advantage in developing a brain with the ability to visualize objects moving in four dimensions.)<br />
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MEETING A HIGHER DIMENSIONAL BEING<br />
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To understand some of the mind-bending features of higher dimensions, imagine a two-dimensional world, called Flat land (after Edwin A. Abbott's celebrated novel) that resembles a world existing on a flat table-top.<br />
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If one of the Flatlanders becomes lost, we can quickly scan all of Flatland, peering directly inside houses, buildings, and even concealed places. If one of the Flatlanders becomes sick, we can reach directly into their insides and per form surgery, without ever cutting their skin. If one of the Flatlanders is incarcerated in jail (which is a circle enclosing the Flatlander) we can simply peel the person off from Flatland into the third dimension and place the Flatlander back somewhere else.<br />
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If we become more ambitious and stick our fingers and arms through Flatland, the Flatlanders would only see circles of flesh that hover around them, constantly changing shape and merging into other circles. And lastly, if we fling a Flatlander into our three dimensional world, the Flatlander can only see two dimensional cross sections of our world, i.e. a phantasmagoria of circles, squares, etc. which constantly change shape and merge (see fig. 1 and 2).<br />
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Now imagine that we are "three dimensional Flatlanders" being visited by a higher dimensional being. If we became lost, a higher dimensional being could scan our entire universe all at once, peering directly into the most tightly sealed hiding places. If we became sick, a higher dimensional being could reach into our insides and perform surgery without ever cutting our skin. If we were in a maximum-security, escape-proof jail, a higher dimensional being could simply "yank" us into a higher dimension and redeposit us back somewhere else. If higher dimensional beings stick their "fingers" into our universe, they would appear to us to be blobs of flesh which float above us and constantly merge and split apart. And lastly, if we are flung into hyperspace, we would see a collection of spheres, blobs, and polyhedra which suddenly appear, constantly change shape and color, and then mysteriously disappear.<br />
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Higher dimensional people, therefore, would have powers similar to a god: they could walk through walls, disappear and reappear at will, reach into the strongest steel vaults, and see through buildings. They would be omniscient and omnipotent. Not surprisingly, speculation about higher dimensions has sparked enormous literary and artistic interest over the last hundred years.<br />
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MYSTICS AND MATHEMATICIANS<br />
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Fyodor Dostoyevsky, in The Brothers Karamazov, had his protagonist Ivan Karamazov speculate on the existence of higher dimensions and non-Euclidean geometries during a discussion on the existence of God. In H. G. Wells' The Invisible Man, the source of invisibility was his ability to manipulate the fourth dimension. Oscar Wilde even refers to the fourth dimension in his play The Canterville Ghost as the homeworld for ghosts.<br />
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The fourth dimension also appears in the literary works of Marcel Proust and Joseph Conrad; it inspired some of the musical works of Alexander Scriabin, Edgar Varege, and George Antheil. It fascinated such diverse personalities as the psychologist William James, literary figure Gertrude Stein, and revolutionary socialist Vladimir Lenin.<br />
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Lenin even waged a polemic on the N-th dimension with philosopher Ernst Mach in his Materialism and Empirio-Criticism. Lenin praised Mach, who "has raised the very important and useful question of a space of n-dimensions as a conceivable space," but then took him to task by insisting that the Tsar could only be overthrown in the third dimension.<br />
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Artists have been particularly interested in the fourth dimension because of the possibilities of discovering new laws of perspective. In the Middle Ages, religious art was distinctive for its deliberate lack of perspective. Serfs, peasants, and kings were depicted as if they were flat, much the way children draw people. Since God was omnipotent and could therefore see all parts of our world equally, art had to reflect His point of view, so the world was painted two-dimensionally.<br />
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Renaissance art was a revolt against this flat God- centered perspective. Sweeping landscapes and realistic, three dimensional people were painted from the point of view of a person's eye, with the lines of perspective vanishing into the horizon. Renaissance art reflected the way the human eye viewed the world, from the singular point of view of the observer. In other words, Renaissance art discovered the third dimension.<br />
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With the beginning of the machine age and capitalism, the artistic world revolted against the cold materialism that seemed to dominate industrial society. To the Cubists, positivism was a straitjacket that confined us to what could be measured in the laboratory, suppressing the fruits of our imagination. They asked: Why must art be clinically "realistic?" This Cubist "revolt against perspective" seized the fourth dimension because it touched the third dimension from all possible perspectives. Simply put, Cubist art embraced the fourth dimension.<br />
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Picasso's paintings are a splendid example, showing a clear rejection of three dimensional perspective, with women's faces viewed simultaneously from several angles. Instead of a single point-of-view, Picasso's paintings show multiple perspectives, as if they were painted by a being from the fourth dimension, able to see all perspectives simultaneously.<br />
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As art historian Linda Henderson has written, "the fourth dimension and non-Euclidean geometry emerge as among the most important themes unifying much of modern art and theory."<br />
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UNIFYING THE FOUR FORCES<br />
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Historically, physicists dismissed the theory of higher dimensions because they could never be measured, nor did they have any particular use. But to understand how adding higher dimensions can, in fact, simplify physical problems, consider the following example. To the ancient Egyptians, the weather was a complete mystery. What caused the seasons? Why did it get warmer as they traveled south? The weather was impossible to explain from the limited vantage point of the ancient Egyptians, to whom the earth appeared flat, like a two-dimensional plane.<br />
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But now imagine sending the Egyptians in a rocket into outer space, where they can see the earth as simple and whole in its orbit around the sun. Suddenly, the answers to these questions become obvious. From outer space, it is clear that the earth tilts about 23 degrees on its axis in its orbit around the sun. Because of this tilt, the northern hemisphere receives much less sunlight during one part of its orbit than during another part. Hence we have winter and summer. And since the equator receives more sunlight on the average than the northern or southern polar regions, it becomes warmer as we approach the equator.<br />
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In summary, the rather obscure laws of the weather are easy to understand once we view the earth from space. Thus, the solution to the problem is to go up into space, into the third dimension. Facts that were impossible to understand in a flat world suddenly become obvious when viewing a unified picture of a three dimensional earth.<br />
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THE FOUR FUNDAMENTAL FORCES<br />
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Similarly, the current excitement over higher dimensions is that they may hold the key to the unification of all known forces. The culmination of 2,000 years of painstaking observation is the realization that that our universe is governed by four fundamental forces. These four forces, in turn, may be unified in higher dimensional space. Light, for example, may be viewed simply as vibrations in the fifth dimension. The other forces of nature may be viewed as vibrations in increasingly higher dimensions.<br />
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At first glance, however, the four fundamental forces seem to bear no resemblance to each other. They are:<br />
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Gravity is the force which keeps our feet anchored to the spinning earth and binds the solar system and the galaxies together. Without gravity, we would be immediately flung into outer space at l,000 miles per hour. Furthermore, without gravity holding the sun together, it would explode in a catastrophic burst of energy.<br />
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Electro-magnetism is the force which lights up our cities and energizes our household appliances. The electronic revolution, which has given us the light bulb, TV, the telephone, computers, radio, radar, microwaves, light bulbs, and dishwashers, is a byproduct of the electro-magnetic force.<br />
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The strong nuclear force is the force which powers the sun. Without the nuclear force, the stars would flicker out and the heavens would go dark. The nuclear force not only makes life on earth possible, it is also the devastating force unleashed by a hydrogen bomb, which can be compared to a piece of the sun brought down to earth.<br />
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The weak force is the force responsible for radio active decay involving electrons. The weak force is harnessed in modern hospitals in the form of radioactive tracers used in nuclear medicine. The weak force also wrecked havoc at Chernobyl.<br />
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Historically, whenever scientists unraveled the secrets of one of the four fundamental forces, this irrevocably altered the course of modern civilization, from the mastery of mechanics and Newtonian physics in the 1700s, to the harnessing of the electro-magnetism in the 1800s, and finally to the unlocking of the nuclear force in the 1900s. In some sense, some of the greatest breakthroughs in the history of science can be traced back to the gradual understanding of these four fundamental forces. Some have even claimed that the progress of the last 2,000 years of science can be understood as the successive mastery of these four fundamental forces.<br />
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Given the importance of these four fundamental forces, the next question is: can they be united into one super force? Are they but the manifestations of a deeper reality?<br />
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Given the fruitless search that has stumped the world's Nobel Prize winners for half a century, most physicists agree that the Theory of Everything must be a radical departure from everything that has been tried before. For example, Niels Bohr, founder of the modern atomic theory, once listened to Wolf gang Pauli's explanation of his version of the unified field theory. In frustration, Bohr finally stood up and said, "We are all agreed that your theory is absolutely crazy. But what divides us is whether your theory is crazy enough."<br />
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Today, however, after decades of false starts and frustrating dead ends, many of the world's leading physicists think that they have finally found the theory "crazy enough" to be the unified field theory. There is widespread belief (although certainly not unanimous by any means) in the world's major re search laboratories that we have at last found the Theory of Everything.<br />
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FIELD THEORY IN HIGHER DIMENSIONS<br />
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To see how higher dimensions helps to unify the laws of nature, physicists use the mathematical device called "field theory." For example, the magnetic field of a bar magnet resembles a spider's web which fills up all of space. To describe the magnetic field, we introduce the field, a series of numbers defined at each point in space which describes the intensity and direction of the force at that point.<br />
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James Clerk Maxwell, in the last century, proved that the electro-magnetic force can be described by four numbers at each point in four dimensional space-time (labeled by A _ 1, A _ 2 , A _ 3 , A _ 4 ). These four numbers, in turn, obey a set of equations (called Maxwell's field equations).<br />
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For the gravitational force, Einstein showed that the field requires a total of 10 numbers at each point in four dimensions. These 10 numbers can be assembled into the array shown in fig. 3. (Since g _ 12 = g _ 21 , only 10 of the 16 numbers contained within the array are independent.) The gravitational field, in turn, obey Einstein's field equations.<br />
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The key idea of Theodore Kaluza in the 1920s was to write down a five dimensional theory of gravity. In five dimensions, the gravitational field has 15 independent numbers, which can be arranged in a five dimensional array (see fig.4). Kaluza then re-defined the 5th column and row of the gravitation al field to be the electromagnetic field of Maxwell. The truly miraculous feature of this construction is that the five dimensional theory of gravity reduces down precisely to Einstein's original theory of gravity plus Maxwell's theory of light. In other words, by adding the fifth dimension, we have trivially unified light with gravity. In other words, light is now viewed as vibrations in the fifth dimension. In five dimensions, there is "enough room" to unify both gravity and light.<br />
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This trick is easily extended. For example, if we generalize the theory to N dimensions, then the N dimensional gravitational field can be split-up into the following pieces (see fig. 5). Now, out pops a generalization of the electromagnetic field, called the "Yang-Mills field," which is known to describe the nuclear forces. The nuclear forces, therefore, may be viewed as vibrations of higher dimensional space. Simply put, by adding more dimensions, we are able to describe more forces.<br />
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Similarly, by adding higher dimensions and further embellishing this approach (with something called "supersymmetry), we can explain the entire particle "zoo" that has been discovered over the past thirty years, with bizarre names like quarks, neutrinos, muons, gluons, etc. Although the mathematics required to extend the idea of Kaluza has reached truly breathtaking heights, startling even professional mathematicians, the basic idea behind unification remains surprisingly simple: the forces of nature can be viewed as vibrations in higher dimensional space.<br />
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WHAT HAPPENED BEFORE THE BIG BANG?<br />
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One advantage to having a theory of all forces is that we may be able to resolve some of the thorniest, long-standing questions in physics, such as the origin of the universe, and the existence of "wormholes" and even time machines.<br />
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The 10 dimensional superstring theory, for example, gives us a compelling explanation of the origin of the Big Bang, the cosmic explosion which took place 15 to 20 billion years ago, which sent the stars and galaxies hurling in all directions. In this theory, the universe originally started as a perfect 10 dimensional universe with nothing in it. In the beginning, the universe was completely empty. However, this 10 dimensional universe was not stable. The original 10 dimensional space-time finally "cracked" into two pieces, a four and a six dimensional universe. The universe made the "quantum leap" to another universe in which six of the 10 dimensions collapsed and curled up into a tiny ball, allowing the remaining four dimensional universe to explode outward at an enormous rate. The four dimensional universe (our world) expanded rapidly, creating the Big Bang, while the six dimensional universe wrapped itself into a tiny ball and shrunk down to infinitesimal size.<br />
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This explains the origin of the Big Bang. The cur rent expansion of the universe, which we can measure with our instruments, is a rather minor aftershock of a more cataclysmic collapse: the breaking of a 10 dimensional universe into a four and six dimensional universe.<br />
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In principle, this also explains why we cannot measure the six dimensional universe, because it has shrunk down to a size much smaller than an atom. Thus, no earth-bound experiment can measure the six dimensional universe because it has curled up into a ball too small to be analyzed by even our most powerful instruments. (This will be disappointing to those who would like to visit these higher dimensions in their lifetimes. These higher dimensions are much too small to enter.)<br />
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TIME MACHINES?<br />
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Another longstanding puzzle concerns parallel universes and time travel. According to Einstein's theory of gravity, space-time can be visualized as a fabric which is stretched and distorted by the presence of matter and energy. The gravitational field of a black hole, for example, can be visualized as a funnel, with a dead, collapsed star at the very center (see fig. 6). Anyone unfortunate enough to get too close to the funnel inexorably falls into it and is crushed to death.<br />
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One puzzle, however, is that, according to Einstein's equations, the funnel of a black hole necessarily connects our universe with a parallel universe. Furthermore, if the funnel connects our universe with itself, then we have a "worm hole" (see fig. 7). These anomalies did not bother Einstein because it was thought that travel through the neck of the funnel, called the "Einstein-Rosen bridge," would be impossible (since anyone falling into the black hole would be killed).<br />
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However, over the years physicists like Roy Kerr as well as Kip Thorne at the Calif. Institute of Technology have found new solutions of Einstein's equations in which the gravitational field does not become infinite at the center, i.e. in principle, a rocket ship could travel through the Einstein- Rosen bridge to an alternate universe (or a distant part of our own universe) without being ripped apart by intense gravitational fields. (This wormhole is, in fact, the mathematical representation of Alice's Looking Glass.)<br />
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Even more intriguing, these wormholes can be viewed as time machines. Since the two ends of the wormhole can connect two time eras, Thorne and his colleagues have calculated the conditions necessary to enter the wormhole in one time era and exit the other side at another time era. (Thorne is undaunted by the fact that the energy necessary to open an Einstein-Rosen bridge exceeds that of a star, and is hence beyond the reach of present-day technology. But to Thorne, this is just a small detail for the engineers of some sufficiently advanced civilization in outer space!)<br />
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Thorne even gives a crude idea of what a time machine might look like when built. (Imagine, however, the chaos that could erupt if time machines were as common as cars. History books could never be written. Thousands of meddlers would constantly be going back in time to eliminate the ancestors of their enemies, to change the outcome of World War I and II, to save John Kennedy's and Abraham Lincoln's life, etc. "History" as we know it would become impossible, throwing professional historians out of work. With every turn of a time machine's dial, history would be changing like sands being blown by the wind.)<br />
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Other physicists, however, like Steven Hawking, are dubious about time travel. They argue that quantum effects (such as intense radiation fields at the funnel) may close the Einstein-Rosen bridge. Hawking even advanced an experimental "proof" that time machines are not possible (i.e. if they existed, we would have been visited by tourists from the future).<br />
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This controversy has recently generated a flurry of papers in the physics literature. The essential problem is that although Einstein's equations for gravity allow for time travel, they also break down when approaching the black hole, and quantum effects, such as radiation, take over. But to calculate if these quantum corrections are intense enough to close the Einstein-Rosen bridge, one necessarily needs a unified field theory which includes both Einstein's theory of gravity as well as the quantum theory of radiation. So there is hope that soon these questions may be answered once and for all by a unified field theory. Both sides of the controversy over time travel acknowledge that ultimately this question will be resolved by the Theory of Everything.<br />
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RECREATING CREATION<br />
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Although the 10 dimensional superstring theory has been called the most fascinating discovery in theoretical physics in the past decades, its critics have focused on its weakest point, that it is almost impossible to test. The energy at which the four fundamental forces merge into a single, unified force occurs at the fabulous "Planck energy," which is a billion billion times greater than the energy found in a proton.<br />
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Even if all the nations of the earth were to band together and single-mindedly build the biggest atom smasher in all history, it would still not be enough to test the theory. Because of this, some physicists have scoffed at the idea that superstring theory can even be considered a legitimate "theory." Nobel laureate Sheldon Glashow, for example, has compared the superstring theory to the former Pres. Reagan's Star Wars program (because it is untestable and drains the best scientific talent).<br />
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The reason why the theory cannot be tested is rather simple. The Theory of Everything is necessarily a theory of Creation, that is, it must explain everything from the origin of the Big Bang down to the lilies of the field. Its full power is manifested at the instant of the Big Bang, where all its symmetries were intact. To test this theory, therefore, means recreating Creation on the earth, which is impossible with present-day technology. (This criticism applies, in fact, to any theory of Creation. The philosopher David Hume, for example, believed that a scientific theory of Creation was philosophically impossible. This was because the foundation of science depends on reproducibility, and Creation is one event which can never be reproduced in the laboratory.)<br />
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Although this is discouraging, a piece of the puzzle may be supplied by the Superconducting Supercollider (SSC), which, if built, will be the world's largest atom smasher. The SSC (which is likely to be cancelled by Congress) is designed to accelerate protons to a staggering energy of tens of trillions of electron volts. When these sub-atomic particles slam into each other at these fantastic energies within the SSC, temperatures which have not been seen since the instant of Creation will be generated. That is why it is sometimes called a "window on Creation."<br />
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Costing /8-10 billion, the SSC consists of a ring of powerful magnets stretched out in a tube over 50 miles long. In fact, one could easily fit the Washington Beltway, which surrounds Washington D.C., inside the SSC.<br />
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If and when it is built, physicists hope that the SSC will find some exotic sub-atomic particles in order to complete our present-day understanding of the four forces. However, there is also the small chance that physicists might discover "super- symmetric" particles, which may be remnants of the original superstring theory. In other words, although the superstring theory cannot be tested directly by the SSC, one hopes to find resonances from the superstring theory among the debris created by smashing protons together at energies not found since the Big Bang.<br />
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WE ARE NOT SMART ENOUGH<br />
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Superstring physicists, however, are not bothered by these criticisms. To them, the fundamental problem is theoretical, not practical. The true problem is to solve the theory completely, and then compare it with present-day experimental data. The problem, therefore, is not in building ever larger atom smashers; the problem is being clever enough to solve the theory.<br />
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Edward Witten of the Institute for Advanced Study, impressed by the vast new areas of mathematics opened up by the superstring theory, has said that the superstring theory represents "21th century physics that fell accidentally into the 20th century." This is because the theory was discovered by accident. By the normal progression of science, we theoretical physicists might not have discovered the theory for another century.<br />
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The superstring theory may very well be 21st century physics, but the bottleneck is that 21st century mathematics has not yet been discovered. That is the fundamental problem: at present, millions of solutions to these equations have been discovered, but no one is smart enough to determine how to select the correct one. In other words, although the string equations are perfectly well-defined and have millions of solutions, no one is capable at present of determining which is the unique solution. If we could only sharpen our analytical skills and develop even more powerful mathematical tools, perhaps we could solve for the unique solution and settle the controversy.<br />
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Ironically, the superstring equations stand before us in perfectly well-defined form, yet we are too primitive to understand why they work so well and too dim witted to determine its unique solution.<br />
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Imagine a child gazing at a TV set. The images and stories conveyed on the screen are easily understood by the child, who can easily change the channels and manipulate the settings on the TV Yet the electronic wizardry inside the TV set is beyond the child's ken. We physicists are like this child, gazing in wonder at the mathematical sophistication and elegance of the superstring equations and awed by its power. However, like this child, we do not understand why the theory works.<br />
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PARABLE OF THE GEMSTONE<br />
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To understand the intense controversy surrounding superstring theory, think of the following parable. Imagine that, at the beginning of time, there was once a beautiful, glittering gemstone. Its perfect symmetries and harmonies were a sight to behold. However, it possessed a tiny flaw and became unstable, eventually exploding into thousands of tiny pieces. Imagine that the fragments of the gemstone then rained down on Flatland.<br />
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These Flatlanders were intrigued by the beauty of the fragments, which could be found scattered all over their world. The scientists of Flatland concluded that these fragments must have come from a single crystal of unimaginable beauty that shattered in a titanic Big Bang. They then decided to embark upon a noble quest, to reassemble all these pieces of the gemstone.<br />
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After 2,000 years of labor by the finest minds of Flatland, they were finally able to fit only a few of the fragments together. Many Flatlanders began to think that these pieces could never be reassembled. Finally, some of the younger, more rebellious scientists suggested a heretical solution: perhaps these chunks could fit together if they were moved "up" in the third dimension.<br />
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This immediately set off the greatest scientific controversy in years. The older scientists scorned at this idea, because they didn't believe in the unseen third dimension. "What you can't measure doesn't exist," they declared. Furthermore, even if the third dimension existed, one could calculate that the energy necessary to move the pieces up off Flatland would exceed all the energy available in Flatland. Thus, it was an untestable theory, the critics shouted, and hence not a theory at all.<br />
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However, the younger scientists were undaunted. Using pure mathematics, they could show that every one of these pieces fit together perfectly if they were assembled in the unseen third dimension. The younger scientists claimed that the problem was therefore theoretical, rather than experimental, even if it can never be tested.<br />
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And so the controversy rages, both in Flatland as well as in our own three dimensional world.<br />
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"THE MIND OF GOD"<br />
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In conclusion, the theory of higher dimensions has set off perhaps the most delicious, lively debate in theoretical physics in generations. Although the existence of these higher dimensions cannot be verified by any experiment on this planet, it has already sparked an avalanche of papers in the leading research institutes around the world. Although the mathematics required to find the unique solution has soared to dizzying heights, physicists around the world are confident that the unique solution will eventually be found.<br />
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Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg, in his book Dreams of a Final Theory, holds out for the exciting possibility of attaining the Final Theory. He writes, "How strange it would be if the final theory were to be discovered in our lifetimes! The discovery of the final laws of nature will mark a discontinuity in human intellectual history, the sharpest that has occurred since the beginning of modern science in the seventeenth century."<br />
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Cosmologist Steven Hawking, who closes his book A Brief History of Time on this theory, has written, "...if we do discover a complete theory, it should in time be understandable in broad principle by everyone, not just a few scientists. Then we shall all, philosophers, scientists, and just ordinary people, be able to take part in the discussion of the question of why it is that we and the universe exist. If we find the answer to that, it would be the ultimate triumph of human reason - for then we would know the mind of God."<br />
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Perhaps one day one of the readers of this article may gaze into a pond and notice the carp swimming on the bottom, beneath the lilies. Perhaps the reader will be inspired to investigate the theory of higher dimensions and complete the quest for the Theory of the Universe. <br />
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[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Superstring_Theory&diff=1822Superstring Theory2021-03-26T08:36:02Z<p>Netfreak: </p>
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<div>Superstring theory resolves the most enigmatic problem of twentieth century theoretical physics: the mathematical incompatibility of the foundational pillars of quantum mechanics and the General Theory of Relativity. In doing so, string theory modifies our understanding of spacetime and the gravitational force. One recently discovered consequence of this modification is that spacetime can undergo remarkable rearrangements of its basic structure requiring the fabric of spacetime to tear apart and subsequently reconnect. Such processes are at best unlikely and probably impossible in pre-string theories as they would be accompanied by violent physical effects. In string theory, on the contrary, these processes are physically sensible and thoroughly common.<br />
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The usual domains of general relativity and quantum mechanics are quite different. General relativity describes the force of gravity and hence is usually applied to the largest and most massive structures including stars, galaxies, black holes and even, in cosmology, the universe itself. Quantum mechanics is most relevant in describing the smallest structures in the universe such as electrons and quarks. In most ordinary physical situations, therefore, either general relativity or quantum mechanics is required for a theoretical understanding, but not both. There are, however, extreme physical circumstances which require both of these fundamental theories for a proper theoretical treatment.<br />
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Prime examples of such situations are spacetime singularities such as the central point of a black hole or the state of the universe just before the big bang. These exotic physical structures involve enormous mass scales (thus requiring general relativity) and extremely small distance scales (thus requiring quantum mechanics). Unfortunately, general relativity and quantum mechanics are mutually incompatible: any calculation which simultaneously uses both of these tools yields nonsensical answers. The origin of this problem can be traced to equations which become badly behaved when particles interact with each other across minute distance scales on the order of 10 cm ( 10 in)--- the Planck length.<br />
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String theory solves the deep problem of the incompatibility of these two fundamental theories by modifying the properties of general relativity when it is applied to scales on the order of the Planck length. String theory is based on the premise that the elementary constituents of matter are not described correctly when we model them as point-like objects. Rather, according to this theory, the elementary "particles" are actually tiny closed loops of string with radii approximately given by the Planck length. Modern accelerators can only probe down to distance scales around 10 cm ( 10 in) and hence these loops of string appear to be point objects. However, the string theoretic hypothesis that they are actually tiny loops, changes drastically the way in which these objects interact on the shortest of distance scales. This modification is what allows gravity and quantum mechanics to form a harmonious union.<br />
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There is a price to be paid for this solution, however. It turns out that the equations of string theory are self consistent only if the universe contains, in addition to time, nine spatial dimensions. As this is in gross conflict with the perception of three spatial dimensions, it might seem that string theory must be discarded. This is not true.<br />
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Kaluza-Klein Theory.<br />
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The idea that our universe might have more than the three familiar spatial dimensions is one which was introduced more than half a century before the advent of string theory by T. Kaluza and by O. Klein. The basic premise of such Kaluza-Klein theories is that a dimension can be either large and directly observable or small and essentially invisible. An analogy with a garden hose can be helpful. From a distance, a garden hose looks like a long one dimensional object. From a closer vantage point (or from a long distance using a visual aid) an additional dimension --- the circular dimension winding around the hose --- becomes evident. Thus, depending on the scale of sensitivity of the observer, the hose will either appear as one or two dimensional. Kaluza-Klein theories state that the same thing can be true of the universe. No experiment rules out the possible existence of additional spatial dimensions curled up (like the circular dimension of the hose) on scales smaller than 10 cm ( 10 in), the limit of present day accessibility. Although originally introduced in the context of point particle theories, this notion can be applied to strings. String theory, therefore, is physically sensible if the six extra dimensions which it requires curl up in this fashion.<br />
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A universe with both extended dimensions (two shown) and curled up dimensions (two shown).<br />
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A remarkable property of these theories is that the precise size, shape, number of holes, etc. of these extra dimensions determines properties such as the masses and electric charges of the elementary 'particles'.<br />
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Gravitational Fluctuations and the Topology of Spacetime.<br />
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A number of issues, unresolved at present, prevent the application of string theory to the analysis of the kind of spacetime singularities described above. The theory can be successfully applied, though, to another class of singularities which control the topology of the universe.<br />
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Topology is a mathematical concept that embodies those properties of a geometrical space which do not change if the space is stretched, twisted or bent but not torn. A doughnut and a sphere are distinct from the topological viewpoint because there is no way to deform one into the other smoothly, that is, without tearing either object. A doughnut and a teacup, both of which have one hole, can be continuously deformed into each other and hence have the same topology.<br />
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General relativity predicts that the fabric of spacetime will smoothly deform its size and shape in response to the presence of matter and energy. A familiar manifestation of this spacetime stretching is the expansion of the universe. The topology of the universe, however, remains fixed. A long standing question is whether there might be physical processes which, unlike those familiar from general relativity, cause the topology of the universe to change. There is a heuristic reason for suspecting this possibility based on a naive application of quantum mechanics. Namely, a universal feature of quantum mechanics is that on the smallest distance scales even the most quiescent systems undergo 'quantum jitter': the value of quantities characterizing the system fluctuate, sometimes violently, averaging out to their measured values on larger distance scales. This notion, applied the fabric of spacetime, yields the image of a frothing, undulating structure on small distance scales which averages out on larger scales to the smooth geometrical description of general relativity. It is conceivable that, behind the veil of quantum jitter, the fabric of spacetime could momentarily tear and subsequently reconnect in a manner resulting in a change of the topology of the universe. Prior to the advent of string theory, the incompatibility of general relativity and quantum mechanics made it impossible to address this possibility in a quantitative manner.<br />
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Topology Change in String Theory.<br />
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Due to the above reasoning, the possibility of spacetime topology change was suggested as a novel characteristic of the union of gravity and quantum mechanics. String theory, which achieves this union, has recently been shown to permit physical processes which do result in a particular kind topology change, at least in the extra six dimensional component of spacetime.<br />
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There is a well studied mathematical operation called a flop which is a systematic procedure for changing the topology of a geometrical space in a "minimal" manner. It involves singling out a sphere in the space, continuously shrinking its volume down to zero (leaving the rest of the space fully intact) and then blowing its volume back up, but in an orthogonal direction. The point at which the volume is zero is the singularity which may be considered as a minimal tear. The result of this operation is a new geometrical space whose topology is different from the original. The change in topology is not as drastic as that between a doughnut and a sphere, but nonetheless it is different.<br />
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Mathematically, this is a rigorously defined and well studied operation. It can, for instance, be applied to the curled up six dimensional part of spacetime in a theory based on strings. The crucial question is whether this operation is physically realizable. The criterion for determining this is simple: can this operation be achieved in a manner which does not result in any catastrophic physical consequences? In general relativity the answer to this question is no as the physical model ceases to make sense at the singular point --- the point at which the chosen sphere has zero volume. Since string theory differs from general relativity on short distance scales, it is conceivable that a different answer might emerge. At first sight, however, even the equations of string theory appear difficult to analyze in this context. Only with the tool of mirror manifolds can this question be addressed.<br />
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Mirror Manifolds.<br />
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Four years ago it was shown that the interpretation of string theory using the Kaluza-Klein idea of curled up dimensions comes with a remarkable twist. Two completely different possibilities for the curled up space (different sizes, shapes and number of holes) can, if properly chosen, give rise to identical observable physics. This is completely unexpected from a point particle viewpoint. The reason for this is that in point particle theories, the physical and mathematical descriptions of a geometric space are both based on considering it to be a collection of an infinite number of points grouped together in a particular manner. In string theory, the physical model is based on tiny loops and hence differs markedly from the mathematical description. This, in turn, allows two mathematically distinct curled up spaces to yield physically identical string models. This is a purely string theoretic phenomenon which relies profoundly on the extended nature of a string.<br />
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Although either member of a mirror pair gives rise to the same physical theory, the technical description of a given physical process very often differs drastically between the two constructions. In fact, certain processes which have an extremely complicated, and difficult to analyze, description when one curled up space is used, have a transparent, and easy to analyze, description when the mirror is used.<br />
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Recently, the mirror description of the topology changing flop operation discussed above has been analyzed. This results in a remarkable simplification of the string equations governing this process. An analysis of these simplified equations has revealed that there are no catastrophic physical consequences of this topology changing process. In fact, the mirror description makes it clear that such topology changing events are not only physically realizable, but commonplace as well. Thus, using the tool of mirror manifolds, it has been shown that the long suspected possibility of topology changing processes can be explicitly realized in string theory.<br />
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Bibliography.<br />
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Superstrings: A Theory of Everything?, ed. P.C.W. Davies and J. Brown, Cambridge University Press, 1988; Mirror Manifolds, ed. S-T. Yau, International Press, (1992); B. R. Greene, P. S. Aspinwall and D. Morrison, Multiple Mirror Manifolds and Topology Change in String Theory, Physics Letters B303, (1993) 249; E. Witten, Phases of N = 2 Theories in Two Dimensions, Institute for Advanced Studies Preprint IAS-HEP-93-3. <br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Superstring_Theory&diff=1821Superstring Theory2021-03-26T08:35:23Z<p>Netfreak: </p>
<hr />
<div>Superstring theory resolves the most enigmatic problem of twentieth century theoretical physics: the mathematical incompatibility of the foundational pillars of quantum mechanics and the General Theory of Relativity. In doing so, string theory modifies our understanding of spacetime and the gravitational force. One recently discovered consequence of this modification is that spacetime can undergo remarkable rearrangements of its basic structure requiring the fabric of spacetime to tear apart and subsequently reconnect. Such processes are at best unlikely and probably impossible in pre-string theories as they would be accompanied by violent physical effects. In string theory, on the contrary, these processes are physically sensible and thoroughly common.<br />
<br />
The usual domains of general relativity and quantum mechanics are quite different. General relativity describes the force of gravity and hence is usually applied to the largest and most massive structures including stars, galaxies, black holes and even, in cosmology, the universe itself. Quantum mechanics is most relevant in describing the smallest structures in the universe such as electrons and quarks. In most ordinary physical situations, therefore, either general relativity or quantum mechanics is required for a theoretical understanding, but not both. There are, however, extreme physical circumstances which require both of these fundamental theories for a proper theoretical treatment.<br />
<br />
Prime examples of such situations are spacetime singularities such as the central point of a black hole or the state of the universe just before the big bang. These exotic physical structures involve enormous mass scales (thus requiring general relativity) and extremely small distance scales (thus requiring quantum mechanics). Unfortunately, general relativity and quantum mechanics are mutually incompatible: any calculation which simultaneously uses both of these tools yields nonsensical answers. The origin of this problem can be traced to equations which become badly behaved when particles interact with each other across minute distance scales on the order of 10 cm ( 10 in)--- the Planck length.<br />
<br />
String theory solves the deep problem of the incompatibility of these two fundamental theories by modifying the properties of general relativity when it is applied to scales on the order of the Planck length. String theory is based on the premise that the elementary constituents of matter are not described correctly when we model them as point-like objects. Rather, according to this theory, the elementary "particles" are actually tiny closed loops of string with radii approximately given by the Planck length. Modern accelerators can only probe down to distance scales around 10 cm ( 10 in) and hence these loops of string appear to be point objects. However, the string theoretic hypothesis that they are actually tiny loops, changes drastically the way in which these objects interact on the shortest of distance scales. This modification is what allows gravity and quantum mechanics to form a harmonious union.<br />
<br />
There is a price to be paid for this solution, however. It turns out that the equations of string theory are self consistent only if the universe contains, in addition to time, nine spatial dimensions. As this is in gross conflict with the perception of three spatial dimensions, it might seem that string theory must be discarded. This is not true.<br />
<br />
<br />
Kaluza-Klein Theory.<br />
<br />
The idea that our universe might have more than the three familiar spatial dimensions is one which was introduced more than half a century before the advent of string theory by T. Kaluza and by O. Klein. The basic premise of such Kaluza-Klein theories is that a dimension can be either large and directly observable or small and essentially invisible. An analogy with a garden hose can be helpful. From a distance, a garden hose looks like a long one dimensional object. From a closer vantage point (or from a long distance using a visual aid) an additional dimension --- the circular dimension winding around the hose --- becomes evident. Thus, depending on the scale of sensitivity of the observer, the hose will either appear as one or two dimensional. Kaluza-Klein theories state that the same thing can be true of the universe. No experiment rules out the possible existence of additional spatial dimensions curled up (like the circular dimension of the hose) on scales smaller than 10 cm ( 10 in), the limit of present day accessibility. Although originally introduced in the context of point particle theories, this notion can be applied to strings. String theory, therefore, is physically sensible if the six extra dimensions which it requires curl up in this fashion.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
A universe with both extended dimensions (two shown) and curled up dimensions (two shown).<br />
<br />
A remarkable property of these theories is that the precise size, shape, number of holes, etc. of these extra dimensions determines properties such as the masses and electric charges of the elementary 'particles'.<br />
<br />
<br />
Gravitational Fluctuations and the Topology of Spacetime.<br />
<br />
A number of issues, unresolved at present, prevent the application of string theory to the analysis of the kind of spacetime singularities described above. The theory can be successfully applied, though, to another class of singularities which control the topology of the universe.<br />
<br />
Topology is a mathematical concept that embodies those properties of a geometrical space which do not change if the space is stretched, twisted or bent but not torn. A doughnut and a sphere are distinct from the topological viewpoint because there is no way to deform one into the other smoothly, that is, without tearing either object. A doughnut and a teacup, both of which have one hole, can be continuously deformed into each other and hence have the same topology.<br />
<br />
General relativity predicts that the fabric of spacetime will smoothly deform its size and shape in response to the presence of matter and energy. A familiar manifestation of this spacetime stretching is the expansion of the universe. The topology of the universe, however, remains fixed. A long standing question is whether there might be physical processes which, unlike those familiar from general relativity, cause the topology of the universe to change. There is a heuristic reason for suspecting this possibility based on a naive application of quantum mechanics. Namely, a universal feature of quantum mechanics is that on the smallest distance scales even the most quiescent systems undergo 'quantum jitter': the value of quantities characterizing the system fluctuate, sometimes violently, averaging out to their measured values on larger distance scales. This notion, applied the fabric of spacetime, yields the image of a frothing, undulating structure on small distance scales which averages out on larger scales to the smooth geometrical description of general relativity. It is conceivable that, behind the veil of quantum jitter, the fabric of spacetime could momentarily tear and subsequently reconnect in a manner resulting in a change of the topology of the universe. Prior to the advent of string theory, the incompatibility of general relativity and quantum mechanics made it impossible to address this possibility in a quantitative manner.<br />
<br />
<br />
Topology Change in String Theory.<br />
<br />
Due to the above reasoning, the possibility of spacetime topology change was suggested as a novel characteristic of the union of gravity and quantum mechanics. String theory, which achieves this union, has recently been shown to permit physical processes which do result in a particular kind topology change, at least in the extra six dimensional component of spacetime.<br />
<br />
There is a well studied mathematical operation called a flop which is a systematic procedure for changing the topology of a geometrical space in a ``minimal'' manner. It involves singling out a sphere in the space, continuously shrinking its volume down to zero (leaving the rest of the space fully intact) and then blowing its volume back up, but in an orthogonal direction. The point at which the volume is zero is the singularity which may be considered as a minimal tear. The result of this operation is a new geometrical space whose topology is different from the original. The change in topology is not as drastic as that between a doughnut and a sphere, but nonetheless it is different.<br />
<br />
Mathematically, this is a rigorously defined and well studied operation. It can, for instance, be applied to the curled up six dimensional part of spacetime in a theory based on strings. The crucial question is whether this operation is physically realizable. The criterion for determining this is simple: can this operation be achieved in a manner which does not result in any catastrophic physical consequences? In general relativity the answer to this question is no as the physical model ceases to make sense at the singular point --- the point at which the chosen sphere has zero volume. Since string theory differs from general relativity on short distance scales, it is conceivable that a different answer might emerge. At first sight, however, even the equations of string theory appear difficult to analyze in this context. Only with the tool of mirror manifolds can this question be addressed.<br />
<br />
<br />
Mirror Manifolds.<br />
<br />
Four years ago it was shown that the interpretation of string theory using the Kaluza-Klein idea of curled up dimensions comes with a remarkable twist. Two completely different possibilities for the curled up space (different sizes, shapes and number of holes) can, if properly chosen, give rise to identical observable physics. This is completely unexpected from a point particle viewpoint. The reason for this is that in point particle theories, the physical and mathematical descriptions of a geometric space are both based on considering it to be a collection of an infinite number of points grouped together in a particular manner. In string theory, the physical model is based on tiny loops and hence differs markedly from the mathematical description. This, in turn, allows two mathematically distinct curled up spaces to yield physically identical string models. This is a purely string theoretic phenomenon which relies profoundly on the extended nature of a string.<br />
<br />
Although either member of a mirror pair gives rise to the same physical theory, the technical description of a given physical process very often differs drastically between the two constructions. In fact, certain processes which have an extremely complicated, and difficult to analyze, description when one curled up space is used, have a transparent, and easy to analyze, description when the mirror is used.<br />
<br />
Recently, the mirror description of the topology changing flop operation discussed above has been analyzed. This results in a remarkable simplification of the string equations governing this process. An analysis of these simplified equations has revealed that there are no catastrophic physical consequences of this topology changing process. In fact, the mirror description makes it clear that such topology changing events are not only physically realizable, but commonplace as well. Thus, using the tool of mirror manifolds, it has been shown that the long suspected possibility of topology changing processes can be explicitly realized in string theory.<br />
<br />
<br />
Bibliography.<br />
<br />
Superstrings: A Theory of Everything?, ed. P.C.W. Davies and J. Brown, Cambridge University Press, 1988; Mirror Manifolds, ed. S-T. Yau, International Press, (1992); B. R. Greene, P. S. Aspinwall and D. Morrison, Multiple Mirror Manifolds and Topology Change in String Theory, Physics Letters B303, (1993) 249; E. Witten, Phases of N = 2 Theories in Two Dimensions, Institute for Advanced Studies Preprint IAS-HEP-93-3. <br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Superstring_Theory&diff=1820Superstring Theory2021-03-26T08:34:52Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "Superstring theory resolves the most enigmatic problem of twentieth century theoretical physics: the mathematical incompatibility of the foundational pillars of quantum mechan..."</p>
<hr />
<div>Superstring theory resolves the most enigmatic problem of twentieth century theoretical physics: the mathematical incompatibility of the foundational pillars of quantum mechanics and the General Theory of Relativity. In doing so, string theory modifies our understanding of spacetime and the gravitational force. One recently discovered consequence of this modification is that spacetime can undergo remarkable rearrangements of its basic structure requiring the fabric of spacetime to tear apart and subsequently reconnect. Such processes are at best unlikely and probably impossible in pre-string theories as they would be accompanied by violent physical effects. In string theory, on the contrary, these processes are physically sensible and thoroughly common.<br />
<br />
The usual domains of general relativity and quantum mechanics are quite different. General relativity describes the force of gravity and hence is usually applied to the largest and most massive structures including stars, galaxies, black holes and even, in cosmology, the universe itself. Quantum mechanics is most relevant in describing the smallest structures in the universe such as electrons and quarks. In most ordinary physical situations, therefore, either general relativity or quantum mechanics is required for a theoretical understanding, but not both. There are, however, extreme physical circumstances which require both of these fundamental theories for a proper theoretical treatment.<br />
<br />
Prime examples of such situations are spacetime singularities such as the central point of a black hole or the state of the universe just before the big bang. These exotic physical structures involve enormous mass scales (thus requiring general relativity) and extremely small distance scales (thus requiring quantum mechanics). Unfortunately, general relativity and quantum mechanics are mutually incompatible: any calculation which simultaneously uses both of these tools yields nonsensical answers. The origin of this problem can be traced to equations which become badly behaved when particles interact with each other across minute distance scales on the order of 10 cm ( 10 in)--- the Planck length.<br />
<br />
String theory solves the deep problem of the incompatibility of these two fundamental theories by modifying the properties of general relativity when it is applied to scales on the order of the Planck length. String theory is based on the premise that the elementary constituents of matter are not described correctly when we model them as point-like objects. Rather, according to this theory, the elementary ``particles'' are actually tiny closed loops of string with radii approximately given by the Planck length. Modern accelerators can only probe down to distance scales around 10 cm ( 10 in) and hence these loops of string appear to be point objects. However, the string theoretic hypothesis that they are actually tiny loops, changes drastically the way in which these objects interact on the shortest of distance scales. This modification is what allows gravity and quantum mechanics to form a harmonious union.<br />
<br />
There is a price to be paid for this solution, however. It turns out that the equations of string theory are self consistent only if the universe contains, in addition to time, nine spatial dimensions. As this is in gross conflict with the perception of three spatial dimensions, it might seem that string theory must be discarded. This is not true.<br />
<br />
<br />
Kaluza-Klein Theory.<br />
<br />
The idea that our universe might have more than the three familiar spatial dimensions is one which was introduced more than half a century before the advent of string theory by T. Kaluza and by O. Klein. The basic premise of such Kaluza-Klein theories is that a dimension can be either large and directly observable or small and essentially invisible. An analogy with a garden hose can be helpful. From a distance, a garden hose looks like a long one dimensional object. From a closer vantage point (or from a long distance using a visual aid) an additional dimension --- the circular dimension winding around the hose --- becomes evident. Thus, depending on the scale of sensitivity of the observer, the hose will either appear as one or two dimensional. Kaluza-Klein theories state that the same thing can be true of the universe. No experiment rules out the possible existence of additional spatial dimensions curled up (like the circular dimension of the hose) on scales smaller than 10 cm ( 10 in), the limit of present day accessibility. Although originally introduced in the context of point particle theories, this notion can be applied to strings. String theory, therefore, is physically sensible if the six extra dimensions which it requires curl up in this fashion.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
A universe with both extended dimensions (two shown) and curled up dimensions (two shown).<br />
<br />
A remarkable property of these theories is that the precise size, shape, number of holes, etc. of these extra dimensions determines properties such as the masses and electric charges of the elementary 'particles'.<br />
<br />
<br />
Gravitational Fluctuations and the Topology of Spacetime.<br />
<br />
A number of issues, unresolved at present, prevent the application of string theory to the analysis of the kind of spacetime singularities described above. The theory can be successfully applied, though, to another class of singularities which control the topology of the universe.<br />
<br />
Topology is a mathematical concept that embodies those properties of a geometrical space which do not change if the space is stretched, twisted or bent but not torn. A doughnut and a sphere are distinct from the topological viewpoint because there is no way to deform one into the other smoothly, that is, without tearing either object. A doughnut and a teacup, both of which have one hole, can be continuously deformed into each other and hence have the same topology.<br />
<br />
General relativity predicts that the fabric of spacetime will smoothly deform its size and shape in response to the presence of matter and energy. A familiar manifestation of this spacetime stretching is the expansion of the universe. The topology of the universe, however, remains fixed. A long standing question is whether there might be physical processes which, unlike those familiar from general relativity, cause the topology of the universe to change. There is a heuristic reason for suspecting this possibility based on a naive application of quantum mechanics. Namely, a universal feature of quantum mechanics is that on the smallest distance scales even the most quiescent systems undergo 'quantum jitter': the value of quantities characterizing the system fluctuate, sometimes violently, averaging out to their measured values on larger distance scales. This notion, applied the fabric of spacetime, yields the image of a frothing, undulating structure on small distance scales which averages out on larger scales to the smooth geometrical description of general relativity. It is conceivable that, behind the veil of quantum jitter, the fabric of spacetime could momentarily tear and subsequently reconnect in a manner resulting in a change of the topology of the universe. Prior to the advent of string theory, the incompatibility of general relativity and quantum mechanics made it impossible to address this possibility in a quantitative manner.<br />
<br />
<br />
Topology Change in String Theory.<br />
<br />
Due to the above reasoning, the possibility of spacetime topology change was suggested as a novel characteristic of the union of gravity and quantum mechanics. String theory, which achieves this union, has recently been shown to permit physical processes which do result in a particular kind topology change, at least in the extra six dimensional component of spacetime.<br />
<br />
There is a well studied mathematical operation called a flop which is a systematic procedure for changing the topology of a geometrical space in a ``minimal'' manner. It involves singling out a sphere in the space, continuously shrinking its volume down to zero (leaving the rest of the space fully intact) and then blowing its volume back up, but in an orthogonal direction. The point at which the volume is zero is the singularity which may be considered as a minimal tear. The result of this operation is a new geometrical space whose topology is different from the original. The change in topology is not as drastic as that between a doughnut and a sphere, but nonetheless it is different.<br />
<br />
Mathematically, this is a rigorously defined and well studied operation. It can, for instance, be applied to the curled up six dimensional part of spacetime in a theory based on strings. The crucial question is whether this operation is physically realizable. The criterion for determining this is simple: can this operation be achieved in a manner which does not result in any catastrophic physical consequences? In general relativity the answer to this question is no as the physical model ceases to make sense at the singular point --- the point at which the chosen sphere has zero volume. Since string theory differs from general relativity on short distance scales, it is conceivable that a different answer might emerge. At first sight, however, even the equations of string theory appear difficult to analyze in this context. Only with the tool of mirror manifolds can this question be addressed.<br />
<br />
<br />
Mirror Manifolds.<br />
<br />
Four years ago it was shown that the interpretation of string theory using the Kaluza-Klein idea of curled up dimensions comes with a remarkable twist. Two completely different possibilities for the curled up space (different sizes, shapes and number of holes) can, if properly chosen, give rise to identical observable physics. This is completely unexpected from a point particle viewpoint. The reason for this is that in point particle theories, the physical and mathematical descriptions of a geometric space are both based on considering it to be a collection of an infinite number of points grouped together in a particular manner. In string theory, the physical model is based on tiny loops and hence differs markedly from the mathematical description. This, in turn, allows two mathematically distinct curled up spaces to yield physically identical string models. This is a purely string theoretic phenomenon which relies profoundly on the extended nature of a string.<br />
<br />
Although either member of a mirror pair gives rise to the same physical theory, the technical description of a given physical process very often differs drastically between the two constructions. In fact, certain processes which have an extremely complicated, and difficult to analyze, description when one curled up space is used, have a transparent, and easy to analyze, description when the mirror is used.<br />
<br />
Recently, the mirror description of the topology changing flop operation discussed above has been analyzed. This results in a remarkable simplification of the string equations governing this process. An analysis of these simplified equations has revealed that there are no catastrophic physical consequences of this topology changing process. In fact, the mirror description makes it clear that such topology changing events are not only physically realizable, but commonplace as well. Thus, using the tool of mirror manifolds, it has been shown that the long suspected possibility of topology changing processes can be explicitly realized in string theory.<br />
<br />
<br />
Bibliography.<br />
<br />
Superstrings: A Theory of Everything?, ed. P.C.W. Davies and J. Brown, Cambridge University Press, 1988; Mirror Manifolds, ed. S-T. Yau, International Press, (1992); B. R. Greene, P. S. Aspinwall and D. Morrison, Multiple Mirror Manifolds and Topology Change in String Theory, Physics Letters B303, (1993) 249; E. Witten, Phases of N = 2 Theories in Two Dimensions, Institute for Advanced Studies Preprint IAS-HEP-93-3. <br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Studies_in_the_History_and_Method_of_Science_(1917)&diff=1819Studies in the History and Method of Science (1917)2021-03-26T08:33:16Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/studies_in_the_history_and_method_of_science-1917.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
<hr />
<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/studies_in_the_history_and_method_of_science-1917.pdf</pdf><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Volterra_distortions,_spinning_strings,_and_cosmic_defects&diff=1818Volterra distortions, spinning strings, and cosmic defects2021-03-26T08:31:40Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "Cosmic strings, as topological spacetime defects, show striking resemblance to defects in solid continua: distortions, which can be classified into disclinations and dislocati..."</p>
<hr />
<div>Cosmic strings, as topological spacetime defects, show striking resemblance to defects in solid continua: distortions, which can be classified into disclinations and dislocations, are line-like defects characterized by a delta function-valued curvature and torsion distribution giving rise to rotational and translational holonomy. We exploit this analogy and investigate how distortions can be adapted in a systematic manner from solid state systems to Einstein-Cartan gravity. As distortions are efficiently described within the framework of a SO(3) ? T(3) gauge theory of solid continua with line defects, we are led in a straightforward way to a PoincarŽ gauge approach to gravity which is a natural framework for introducing the notion of distorted spacetimes. Constructing all ten possible distorted spacetimes, we recover, inter alia, the well-known exterior spacetime of a spin-polarized cosmic string as a special case of such a geometry. In a second step, we search for matter distributions which, in Einstein-Cartan gravity, act as sources of distorted spacetimes. The resulting solutions, appropriately matched to the distorted vacua, are cylindrically symmetric and are interpreted as spin-polarized cosmic strings and cosmic dislocations. <br />
<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Dark_matter_and_non-Newtonian_gravity_from_general_relativity_coupled_to_a_fluid_of_strings&diff=1817Dark matter and non-Newtonian gravity from general relativity coupled to a fluid of strings2021-03-26T08:31:03Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "An exact solution of Einstein's field equations for a point mass surrounded by a static, spherically symmetric fluid of strings is presented. The solution is singular at the o..."</p>
<hr />
<div>An exact solution of Einstein's field equations for a point mass surrounded by a static, spherically symmetric fluid of strings is presented. The solution is singular at the origin. Near the string cloud limit there is a 1/r correction to Newton's force law. It is noted that at large distances and small accelerations, this law coincides with the phenomenological force law invented by Milgrom in order to explain the flat rotation curves of galaxies without introducing dark matter. When interpreted in the context of a cosmological model with a string fluid, the new solution naturally explains why the critical acceleration of Milgrom is of the same order of magnitude as the Hubble parameter.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=CONDENSED_GUIDE_TO_SI_UNITS_AND_STANDARDS&diff=1816CONDENSED GUIDE TO SI UNITS AND STANDARDS2021-03-26T08:29:54Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> CONDENSED GUIDE TO SI UNITS AND STANDARDS By Drew Daniels The following is a highly condensed guide to SI units..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
CONDENSED GUIDE TO SI UNITS AND STANDARDS<br />
By Drew Daniels<br />
<br />
The following is a highly condensed guide to SI units, standard usage and <br />
numerical notation for the benefit of people who have occasion to write <br />
specifications or technical literature of any kind.<br />
The abominable disregard for (literary and verbal) communication <br />
standards even among engineers and highly skilled technicians makes for <br />
needless confusion, ambiguity and duplication of effort. <br />
Let's review the world standard means and methods for expressing the <br />
terms we use and use them to codify our jargon and simplify our <br />
communications.<br />
<br />
SI UNITS, STANDARDS AND NOTATION <br />
<br />
All the way back in 1866, the Metric System of units was legalized by <br />
the U.S. Government for trade in the United States.<br />
In 1960 the international "General Conference on Weights and Measures" <br />
met in Paris and named the metric system of units (based on the meter, <br />
kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin and candela) the "International System of <br />
Units". The Conference also established the abbreviation "SI" as the official <br />
abbreviation, to be used in all languages.<br />
The SI units are used to derive units of measurement for all physical <br />
quantities and phenomena. There are only seven basic SI "base units", these <br />
are: <br />
<br />
NAME SYMBOL QUANTITY <br />
-------------------------------------------------<br />
ampere A electric current<br />
candela cd luminous intensity<br />
meter m length<br />
kelvin K thermodynamic temperature<br />
kilogram kg mass<br />
mole mol amount of substance<br />
second s time<br />
<br />
The SI derived units and supplementary units are listed here with applicable <br />
derivative equations:<br />
<br />
NAME SYMBOL QUANTITY DERIVED BY<br />
------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
coulomb C quantity of electricity A*s<br />
farad F capacitance A*s/V<br />
henry H inductance V*s/A<br />
hertz Hz frequency s^-<br />
joule J energy or work N*m<br />
lumen lm luminous flux cd*sr<br />
lux lx illuminance lm/m^2<br />
newton N force kg*m/s^2<br />
ohm (upper case omega) electric resistance V/A<br />
pascal Pa pressure N/m^2<br />
radian rad plane angle<br />
steradian sr solid angle<br />
tesla T magnetic flux density Wb/m^2<br />
volt V potential difference W/A<br />
watt W power J/s<br />
weber Wb magnetic flux V*s<br />
<br />
NAME SYMBOL QUANTITY<br />
--------------------------------------------------------------------<br />
ampere per meter A/m magnetic field strength<br />
candela per square meter cd/m^2 luminance<br />
joule per kelvin J/K entropy<br />
joule per kilogram kelvin J/(kg*K) specific heat capacity<br />
kilogram per cubic meter kg/m^3 mass density (density)<br />
meter per second m/s speed, velocity<br />
meter per second per second m/s^2 acceleration<br />
square meter m^2 area<br />
cubic meter m^3 volume<br />
square meter per second m^2/s kinematic viscosity<br />
newton-second per square meter N*s/m^2 dynamic viscosity<br />
1 per second s^- radioactivity<br />
radian per second rad/s angular velocity<br />
radian per second per second rad/s^2 angular acceleration<br />
volt per meter V/m electric field strength<br />
watt per meter kelvin W/(m*K) thermal conductivity<br />
watt per steradian W/sr radiant intensity<br />
<br />
DEFINITIONS OF SI UNITS <br />
<br />
(The wording used by the Conference may seem a bit stilted, but it is <br />
carefully chosen for semantic clarity to make the definitions unambiguous.)<br />
<br />
The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two straight <br />
parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular cross section, <br />
and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would produce between these conductors a <br />
force equal to 2E-7 newton per meter of length.<br />
<br />
The candela is the luminous intensity, in the perpendicular direction, of a <br />
surface of 1/600,000 square meter of a blackbody at the temperature of <br />
freezing platinum under a pressure of 101,325 newtons per square meter.<br />
<br />
The coulomb is the quantity of electricity transported in 1 second by the <br />
current of 1 ampere.<br />
<br />
The farad is the capacitance of a capacitor between the plates of which <br />
there appears a difference of potential of 1 volt when it is charged by a <br />
quantity of electricity equal to 1 coulomb.<br />
<br />
The henry is the inductance of a closed circuit in which an electromotive <br />
force of 1 volt is produced when the electric current in the circuit varies <br />
uniformly at a rate of 1 ampere per second.<br />
<br />
The joule is the work done when the point of application of 1 newton is <br />
displaced a distance of 1 meter in the direction of the force.<br />
<br />
The kelvin , the unit of thermodynamic temperature, is the fraction 1/273.16 <br />
of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.<br />
<br />
The kilogram is the unit of mass; it is equal to the mass of the <br />
international prototype of the kilogram. (The international prototype of the <br />
kilogram is a particular cylinder of platinum-irridium alloy which is <br />
preserved in a vault at Sevres, France, by the International Bureau of Weights <br />
and Measures.)<br />
<br />
The lumen is the luminous flux emitted in a solid angle of 1 steradian by a <br />
uniform point source having an intensity of 1 candela.<br />
<br />
The meter is the length equal to 1,650,763.73 wavelengths in vacuum of the <br />
radiation corresponding to the transition between the levels 2p sub 10, and 5d <br />
sub 5 of the krypton-86 atom.<br />
<br />
The mole is the amount of substance of a system which contains as many <br />
elementary entities as there are carbon atoms in 12 grams of carbon 12. The <br />
elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms, molecules, ions, <br />
electrons, other particles or specified groups of such particles.<br />
<br />
The newton is that force which gives to a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration <br />
of 1 meter per second per second.<br />
<br />
The ohm is the electric resistance between two points of a conductor when a <br />
constant difference of potential of 1 volt, applied between these two points, <br />
produces in this conductor a current of 1 ampere, this conductor not being the <br />
source of any electromotive force.<br />
<br />
The radian is the plane angle between two radii of a circle which cut off on <br />
the circumference an arc equal in length to the radius.<br />
<br />
The second is the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation <br />
corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground <br />
state of the cesium-133 atom.<br />
<br />
The steradian is the solid angle which, having its vertex in the center of a <br />
sphere, cuts off an area of the surface of the sphere equal to that of a <br />
square with sides of length equal to the radius of the sphere.<br />
<br />
The volt is the difference of electric potential between two points of a <br />
conducting wire carrying a constant current of 1 ampere, when the power <br />
dissipated between these points is equal to 1 watt.<br />
<br />
The watt is the power which gives rise to the production of energy at the <br />
rate of 1 joule per second.<br />
<br />
The weber is the magnetic flux which, linking a circuit of one turn, <br />
produces in it an electromotive force of 1 volt as it is reduced to zero at a <br />
uniform rate in 1 second.<br />
<br />
SI PREFIXES <br />
The names of multiples and submultiples of any SI unit are formed by <br />
application of the prefixes:<br />
<br />
MULTIPLIER PREFIX SYMBOL TIMES 1, IS EQUAL TO:<br />
---------- ------ ------ --------------------------<br />
10^18 exa E 1 000 000 000 000 000 000<br />
10^15 peta P 1 000 000 000 000 000<br />
10^12 tera T 1 000 000 000 000<br />
10^9 giga G 1 000 000 000<br />
10^6 mega M 1 000 000<br />
10^3 kilo k 1 000<br />
10^2 hecto h 100<br />
10 deka da 10<br />
0 -- -- 1 (unity)<br />
10^-1 deci d .1<br />
10^-2 centi c .01<br />
10^-3 milli m .001<br />
10^-6 micro u .000 001<br />
10^-9 nano n .000 000 001<br />
10^-12 pico p .000 000 000 001<br />
10^-15 femto f .000 000 000 000 001<br />
10^-18 atto a .000 000 000 000 000 001<br />
<br />
Some examples: ten-thousand grams is written; 10 kg, 20,000 cycles per <br />
second is written; 20 kHz, 10-million hertz is written; 10 MHz, and 250 <br />
billionths of a weber per meter of magnetic flux is written; 250 nWb/m.<br />
Always use less than 1000 units with an SI prefix; "1000 MGS" is advertizing<br />
hyperbole and should be written " 1 g " only.<br />
SI prefixes and units should be written together and then set off by a <br />
space (single space in print) from their numerators. For example; use the <br />
form " 35 mm " instead of " 35mm " and " 1 kHz " instead of " 1k Hz ".<br />
When writing use standard SI formats and be consistent. You should <br />
consult National Bureau of Standards publication 330, (1977) for details on <br />
usage.<br />
Never combine SI prefixes directly, that is, write 10^-10 farads as 100 <br />
pF instead of 0.1 micro-microfarads (uuF). Keep in mind that whenever you<br />
write out a unit name longhand, the rule is that the name is all lower case, <br />
but when abbreviating, the first letter is upper case if the unit is named <br />
after a person and lower case if it is not; examples: V = volt for Volta, F = <br />
farad for Faraday, T = tesla for Tesla, and so on. Letter m = meter, s = <br />
second, rad = radian, and so on. Revolutions per minute may be written only <br />
as r/min, miles per hour may be written only as mi./hr, and inches per second <br />
may be written only as in./s and so on.<br />
<br />
In addition to the correct upper and lower case, prefixes and <br />
combinations, there is also a conventional text spacing for SI units and <br />
abbreviations. Write 20 Hz, rather than 20Hz. Write 20 kHz, rather than <br />
20k Hz, and so on. Always separate the numerator of a unit from its prefix <br />
and/or unit name, but do not separate the prefix and name. <br />
<br />
SCIENTIFIC AND ENGINEERING NOTATION <br />
(NOTE: "E" stands for power of 10 exponent.)<br />
Scientific notation is used to make big and small numbers easy to handle.<br />
Engineering notation is similar to scientific notation except that it uses <br />
thousands exclusively, rather than tens like scientific notation.<br />
<br />
The number 100 could be written 1E2 (1*10^2) or 10^2 in scientific <br />
notation, but would be written only as 100 in engineering notation. The <br />
number 12,000 would be written 1.2E4 (1.2*10^4) in scientific, and written <br />
12E3 (12*10^3) in engineering notation. Here is a partial listing of possible <br />
Scientific and Engineering notation prefixes:<br />
<br />
SCIENTIFIC ENGINEERING SCIENTIFIC ENGINEERING<br />
---------- ----------- ---------- -----------<br />
10^-18 = 1 a 10^1 = 10 <br />
10^-17 = 10 a 10^2 = 100 <br />
10^-16 = 100 a 10^3 = 1 k<br />
10^-15 = 1 f 10^4 = 10 k<br />
10^-14 = 10 f 10^5 = 100 k<br />
10^-13 = 100 f 10^6 = 1 M<br />
10^-12 = 1 p 10^7 = 10 M<br />
10^-11 = 10 p 10^8 = 100 M<br />
10^-10 = 100 p 10^9 = 1 G<br />
10^-9 = 1 n 10^10 = 10 G<br />
10^-8 = 10 n 10^11 = 100 G<br />
10^-7 = 100 n 10^12 = 1 T<br />
10^-6 = 1 u 10^13 = 10 T<br />
10^-5 = 10 u 10^14 = 100 T<br />
10^-4 = 100 u 10^15 = 1 P<br />
10^-3 = 1 m 10^16 = 10 P<br />
10^-2 = 10 m 10^17 = 100 P<br />
10^-1 = 100 m 10^18 = 1 E<br />
10^0 = 1 10^19 = 10 E<br />
10^20 = 100 E<br />
<br />
Engineering notation is used by default when we speak because the <br />
numerical values of the spoken names of SI prefixes run in increments of <br />
thousands such as; kilohertz, microfarads, millihenrys and megaohms <br />
(pronounced "megohms"). The spoken term "20 kilohertz" is already in <br />
engineering notation, and would be written on paper as 20E3 (20*10^3) hertz in <br />
strict engineering notation and as 2E4 (2*10^4) in scientific notation if it <br />
were not written in the more familiar form, 20 kHz.<br />
<br />
In either case, scientific or engineering, the rule is: for numbers <br />
greater than 1, the En part of the figure indicates the number of decimal <br />
places to the right that zeros will be added to the original number. For <br />
numbers smaller than 1, the E-n part of the figure indicates the number of <br />
decimal places to the left of the original number that the decimal point <br />
itself should be moved. The small "n" and "-n" here stand for the digits in <br />
the exponent itself.<br />
<br />
A definitive phamphlet describing SI units, conversions between SI units,<br />
older CGS and MKS units and units outside the SI system of units is available <br />
in the form of NASA Publication SP-7012, (1973). Inquire to the U.S. <br />
Government Printing Office in Pueblo, Colorado or in Washington, D.C. for this <br />
and other publications about SI units, their use and history.<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Unsorted]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Space_and_Time_Warps&diff=1815Space and Time Warps2021-03-26T08:29:03Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Stephen%20Hawking-Space%20And%20Time%20Warps.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Stephen%20Hawking-Space%20And%20Time%20Warps.pdf</pdf><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Stephen_Hawking%27s_Universe_-_Teachers_Guide&diff=1814Stephen Hawking's Universe - Teachers Guide2021-03-26T08:06:36Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Stephen%20Hawking's%20Universe%20-%20Teachers%20Guide.pdf</pdf> Category:Science & Technology"</p>
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<div><pdf>https://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/science_and_technology/Stephen%20Hawking's%20Universe%20-%20Teachers%20Guide.pdf</pdf><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=SELF-SUSTAINED_ELECTROMAGNETIC_PROPULSION&diff=1813SELF-SUSTAINED ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPULSION2021-03-26T08:05:46Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> SELF-SUSTAINED ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPULSION (or 'How to generate mechanical momentum from enclosed electromagnetic energy only'). (Patent Pending). Michael J.G. Polonyi..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
<br />
SELF-SUSTAINED ELECTROMAGNETIC PROPULSION<br />
<br />
(or 'How to generate mechanical momentum from enclosed<br />
electromagnetic energy only'). (Patent Pending).<br />
<br />
Michael J.G. Polonyi,<br />
Consultant,<br />
54-44 69th. St.,<br />
Maspeth, NY 11378<br />
<br />
<br />
According to Ref.1 and others, it is not possible to create<br />
mechanical momentum from enclosed electromagnetic energy only :<br />
'For it is an obvious postulate that in stationary state in which<br />
matter is at rest and in which there are no waves escaping, there<br />
can be no electromagnetic momentum'.<br />
<br />
Still, this should be possible, and simpler than originally<br />
thought of :<br />
<br />
Suppose a Helmholtz coils arrangement, i.e. two flat coils,<br />
separated a distance approximately equal to the radius of a coil.<br />
<br />
If an alternating current is applied on each coil, an<br />
electromagnetic field will be generated by each one. So, an<br />
attraction and repulsion effect will appear at the frequency of<br />
the applied currents and fields, on each coil, due to the field<br />
generated by the other coil.<br />
<br />
Now, the question arises: is it possible that, instead of the<br />
coils attracting and repelling each other, both will experiment a<br />
force in the same direction? In other words: if you mount them<br />
on a cart, will the cart move in one direction ?<br />
<br />
Apparently it is possible after all, at least theoretically,<br />
because it is not the current but the FIELD generated by the<br />
said current that reacts with the other coil, and, since it takes<br />
a certain amount of time for the field to cross the space between<br />
the coils, it is just a matter of finding an arrangement that<br />
will create a unidirectional force condition.<br />
<br />
Is there such a force condition ? Yes, and it is very simple :<br />
<br />
If, (a) the frequency is sufficiently high so that the distance<br />
'D' between the coils will be a quarter of a wavelength, (b) both<br />
fields are of the same frequency, and (c) are in phase when they<br />
meet at one coil (they will be in opposite phase when they reach<br />
the second coil), then, a force will appear alternating on each<br />
coil but this force will always point in the same direction,<br />
since, one of the coils (the leading one) will always be 'pushed'<br />
by the field of the lagging one, which in turn will always be<br />
'pulled' by the leading coil field.<br />
<br />
For clarity, see the following chart that corresponds to the<br />
schematic further down :<br />
<br />
<br />
| FIELD | FIELD | FIELD | FIELD | DIREC. | FORCE<br />
Time| COIL1 | COIL1 | COIL2 | COIL2 | OF | ON<br />
| POS.1 | POS.2 | POS.1 | POS.2 | FORCE | COIL #<br />
-------------------------------------------------------<br />
| | | | | |<br />
0 | MAX | | | 0 | |<br />
| | | | | |<br />
D/C | 0 | MAX | 0 | MAX | + | 2<br />
| | | | | |<br />
2D/C | MIN | 0 | MAX | 0 | + | 1<br />
| | | | | |<br />
3D/C | 0 | MIN | 0 | MIN | + | 2<br />
<br />
and so on ...<br />
<br />
C : speed of the magnetic vector<br />
<br />
D/C : quarter-wavelength travel time.<br />
<br />
Now, to avoid electromagnetic radiation the assembly CAN BE<br />
ENCLOSED. The enclosure will also affect the wavelength and<br />
force, depending on the particular shape and quality of the<br />
enclosure. But this also means that the electromagnetic energy is<br />
not radiated (other than termal losses) and CAN BE RECIRCULATED<br />
i.e. an 'electromagnetic wheeling' effect.<br />
<br />
This arrangement is similar to a directional coupler in microwave<br />
technology, in which the electromagnetic energy propagates in one<br />
direction only.<br />
<br />
If the energy can propagate in one direction only in a closed<br />
waveguide, then both ends of the waveguide can be joined in a<br />
ring-shape, and consequently angular mechanical momentum can be<br />
generated at will.<br />
<br />
Obviously:<br />
<br />
(a) Any two electromagnetic sources, out-of-phase<br />
in time and space will give you this effect.<br />
The force will be maximum when the sources are<br />
a quarter of a wavelength appart, in space and<br />
time.<br />
<br />
(b) It can be enclosed in a metal box of any shape,<br />
something very similar to a resonant cavity,<br />
which in turn SHOULD BE ABLE TO MOVE.<br />
<br />
(c) When the fields are in-phase there is no<br />
resultant force but an increase in<br />
electromagnetic mass !<br />
<br />
<br />
As far as the calculations go, here is some preliminary:<br />
<br />
coil1 coil2<br />
------------|----------------------|------------------------> x<br />
x=0 x=c/4f<br />
<br />
<br />
c = field propagation velocity<br />
f = field frequency<br />
<br />
<br />
coil 1 : H1 = I1 sin wt<br />
<br />
coil 2 : H2 = I2 cos wt<br />
___<br />
distance : c/4f = // /2 ; i.e. quarter-wavelength<br />
<br />
___<br />
Field H1 at coil 2: H12 = I1 sin (wt - // /2) = I1 (-cos wt)<br />
<br />
2<br />
Force at coil 2 F2 = u H12 * H2 = - u I1 I2 cos wt<br />
<br />
This expression says that coil2 will always feel attracted, or<br />
pulled by coil 1.<br />
<br />
___<br />
Field H2 at coil 1: H21 = - I2 cos(wt - // /2) = -I2 sin wt<br />
<br />
is negative because it travels in the opposite<br />
direction.<br />
<br />
2<br />
Force at coil 1 : F1 = u H1 * H21 = - u I1 I2 sin wt<br />
<br />
I.e.: coil1 always feels repelled, or pushed, by coil2.<br />
<br />
Ergo, a unidirectional force !<br />
<br />
To concentrate the field and avoid magnetic lines dispersion, a<br />
core or nucleus of magnetic material can be used to improve the<br />
force effect. The magnetic material will then slow down the<br />
propagation of the magnetic field waves, therefore allowing to<br />
decrease, either the frequency or the distance between coils.<br />
This core behaves very much like a 'resonant cavity' also.<br />
<br />
For enclosed electromagnetic fields, the electromagnetic force<br />
equation in integral form can be used (Ref.2).<br />
<br />
The magnitude of the forces involved is very small, therefore it<br />
is difficult to set up an experiment that will demonstrate the<br />
principle, since very high frequencies and fields are necessary.<br />
<br />
For two coils mounted on a ferrite antenna core, with a relative<br />
permeability of 10, separated 6 cm, 28.2 ampturn at 395 MHZ and<br />
156 ohms/turn are needed to generate 1 Newton ! This is 124 kVA !<br />
plus losses.<br />
<br />
But, according to the 'Principle of Equivalence' if it is<br />
possible to create a force, in space, from enclosed<br />
electromagnetic energy only, it should be possible to create the<br />
inverse, i.e. electromagnetic energy from a 'force field'.<br />
<br />
In a previous work by this author (Ref.3), it was suggested that<br />
the 'electromagnetic momentum density' was the (missing) link<br />
between mechanics and electrodynamics. This would suggest in<br />
turn, that gravitation is nothing else than 'phase waves',<br />
similar to the ones that develop in microwave guides and resonant<br />
cavities. But for 'phase waves' to exist, there must be an<br />
electromagnetic field of that frequency present already.<br />
<br />
This, in turn, brings back the concept of 'ether', and that all<br />
mass, and even the whole universe is probably nothing else but a<br />
gigantic 'resonant cavity'. A very powerful concept.<br />
<br />
In (4) it is claimed, that an experiment has been set-up that can<br />
measure absolute velocities, and explains why the Michelson-<br />
Morley experiment fails to do so. This, in turn, would be<br />
complementary proof of the above, the existence of an 'ether'.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
References :<br />
<br />
(1) Casimir, H.B.G., 'ON ELECTROMAGNETIC MOMENTUM AND<br />
PONDEROMOTRIC FORCES', Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie<br />
van Wetenschappen, Proc. B (Netherlands), Vol.75, No.1, 6-<br />
11, 1972.<br />
<br />
<br />
(2) Paris D.T. and Hurd F.K., 'BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY.<br />
McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1969, Chapter 6, p.290. eq 6-51.<br />
<br />
(3) Polonyi, M.J.G., 'ELECTRODYNAMICS, INERTIA AND GRAVITATION :<br />
a unfying approach', Speculations in Science and Technology,<br />
Vol.10, No.2 page 145, 9/1987.<br />
<br />
<br />
(4) Silvertooth, E.W., 'EXPERIMENTAL DETECTION OF THE ETHER',<br />
Speculations in Science and Technology, Vol.10, N0.1, p.3,<br />
1987.<br />
<br />
<br />
-end-<br />
<br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=The_Speed_of_Light_-_A_Limit_on_Principle&diff=1812The Speed of Light - A Limit on Principle2021-03-26T08:04:55Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "The Speed of Light - A Limit on Principle? A physicist's view on an old controversy by Laro Schatzer "Easy" Treatise Contemporary physics states that no object should be..."</p>
<hr />
<div>The Speed of Light - A Limit on Principle?<br />
<br />
A physicist's view on an old controversy<br />
<br />
by Laro Schatzer <br />
<br />
<br />
"Easy" Treatise<br />
<br />
Contemporary physics states that no object should be able to travel faster than the speed of<br />
light <br />
<br />
c = 299'792'458.5 metres per second. <br />
<br />
Although the value of c appears to be enormous when compared with conventional traveling<br />
speeds, it suggests a limit which renders a practical realization of interstellar travel<br />
improbable. Whereas another planet in our solar system is reachable within minutes or at<br />
least hours at the speed of light, a journey to the nearest star system Alpha Centauri would<br />
already demand a traveling time of several years. Surely, the question remains: Are<br />
faster-than-light speeds possible? At the present time most scientists believe that the<br />
correct answer should be "no". However, it has to be emphasized that there is no definite<br />
proof for this claim. Actually, whether superluminal speeds are possible in principle<br />
depends on the real structure of the space-time continuum, which contemporary physics<br />
ignores, however. Basically, there exist two distinct notions of space-time in physics, both<br />
of which represent a possibility: <br />
<br />
Galilean Space-Time (GST) <br />
Minkowski Space-Time (MST) <br />
<br />
Briefly, whereas Galilean space-time allows the realization of faster-than-light speeds, at<br />
least in principle, Minkowski space-time does not. What is the reason for this difference?<br />
In the next sections it is exposed that the key point is the conception of global time, ie. the<br />
physical significance of the term simultaneity. In fact, what does it mean when we call<br />
two spatially separated events "simultaneous", actually? What we need is a clear physical<br />
notion of past, present and future, not only on a local but on a global level. <br />
<br />
It is important to note that without some definition of global time the physical quantity<br />
speed (and thus light-speed) has no definite meaning anyway. Why? Consider an example:<br />
Imagine an object moving from position A to B. Its speed v is given by the formula <br />
<br />
Here, the start time t(A,start) and the finish time t(B,finish) are read off from two<br />
spatially separated clocks: one clock is located at point A and the other one at point B. Now,<br />
the difference of the two times in the denominator t(B,finish) - t(A,start) is an indefinite<br />
expression, unless there exists a rule how to synchronize both clocks, because clock B<br />
ignores the "current" time at clock A at first. But, in fact, the decision in favour of a<br />
particular synchronization rule is pure convention, because it seems impossible to send<br />
an "instantenous" (infinitely fast) message from A to B like "Initialize the clocks now!".<br />
Thus, the actual quantity of speed is conventional too, depending on the particular choice of<br />
the simultaneity definition. <br />
<br />
The question concerning global time is also important in the context of different reference<br />
frames. What is a reference frame? A reference frame R is simply a coordinate system of<br />
some observer. (For instance, let us imagine a physicist experimenting in his laboratory.)<br />
The observer attaches to all physical events personal coordinates, ie. space coordinates x,<br />
y, z (where?) and a time coordinate t (when?). Another observer in his personal reference<br />
frame R' attaches to all physical events another (not necessarily equal) set of coordinates<br />
x', y', z' and t'. (Let us here imagine another physicist who is working in a train moving with<br />
constant velocity v with respect to the reference frame R.) While two events may appear<br />
simultaneous in reference frame R (happening at equal time t), does this still hold in<br />
reference frame R' (at equal time t')? And while the physical laws have a particular form in<br />
frame R, does one obtain the same formulas in frame R' also? The answer is given by a<br />
theory which relates the new coordinates x', y', z', t' to the old ones x, y, z, t. Essentially,<br />
this is what a theory of relativity is all about. <br />
<br />
Remark: For a better understanding of the distinct space-time concepts it is fruitful to<br />
study a geometrical representation of space-time, the space-time diagram (see below). In<br />
this picture four-dimensional space-time is reduced to two dimensions. Instead of three<br />
space x, y, z and one time coordinate t, one uses only one space and the time coordinate, x<br />
and t, respectively. (Obviously, it is much more easier to draw and think in two than in four<br />
dimensions.) For reasons of convenience the units are chosen such that the speed of light<br />
equals unity c=1. Hence, a light ray, which is described by x=+ct or x=-ct, appears as a<br />
straight line in the (x,t)-plane at 45&deg; or 135&deg;, respectively. <br />
<br />
The reader is encouraged to reconstruct the arguments by studying the space-time diagram.<br />
Remember that the x-axis is the line of simultaneity (ie. with constant time t=0), and that<br />
the t-axis is the line of constant position (x=0). <br />
<br />
<br />
Galilean Space-Time<br />
<br />
In Galilean Space-Time the physical existence of an absolute time is assumed. The pioneer<br />
of physics Isaac Newton defined it in the following way [1]: <br />
<br />
"Absolute, true and mathematical time, in itself, and from its own nature,<br />
flows equally, without relation to any thing external; and by other name called<br />
Duration. Relative, apparent, and vulgar time, is some sensible and external<br />
measure of duration by motion, whether accurate or unequable, which is<br />
commonly used instead of true time; as an hour, a day, a month, a year. It may<br />
be, that there is no equable motion, whereby time may be accurately measured.<br />
All motions may be accelerated and retarded, but the flowing of absolute time<br />
is liable to no change." <br />
<br />
Because of this absolute time the global notion of past, present and future is the same in<br />
all reference frames. If two events are simultaneous in one particular reference frame, this<br />
means that they are also simultaneous in all reference frames. Thus, there is a unique<br />
separation between past and future events - the line of present in the space-time diagram<br />
(see below). Within the framework of Galilean Space-Time, faster-than-light speeds are<br />
possible in principle. However, electromagnetical waves are limited not to exceed the speed<br />
of light c, which usually depends on the direction of the light signal the reference frame in<br />
which it is measured. The speed of light is constant only in the absolute space-time frame,<br />
which is also called the Newtonian rest frame. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
There has been a variety of attempts to describe electromagnetical waves (light) as<br />
excitations of some medium, quite in analogy to sonic waves which propagate in the medium<br />
air. The hypothetical light medium was called the ether and it was supposed to be in rest in<br />
the absolute space-time frame. (That is why the absolute frame is also called ether frame<br />
sometimes.) Since the establishment of the theory of special relativity it has become<br />
extremely unpopular among scientists to speak about an "ether". But it is well known that<br />
electromagnetical waves can be indeed interpreted as excitations of some "medium".<br />
However, this medium is not a solid or a liquid in the sense of classical physics, but it is<br />
governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. In quantum field theory it is simply called<br />
vacuum ("void"). Some physicists prefer to interprete the vacuum as space-time itself, but<br />
this does not cover the fact that its true nature still remains a mystery. Anyhow, the term<br />
quantum ether might be used to indicate a thinkable modern synthesis of both concepts. <br />
<br />
<br />
Minkowski Space-Time<br />
<br />
Minkowski Space-Time does not know any absolute time which is physically meaningful. It<br />
was the revolutionary idea of Albert Einstein to give the notion of simultaneity a new<br />
definition. Especially, because all experimental tests to determine the motion with respect<br />
to some absolute space-time frame had failed, he decided to abandon the notion of absolute<br />
time at all. In the famous theory of relativity he postulated two principles which should<br />
hold for all physics: <br />
<br />
1) All physical laws appear according to the same laws in all reference frames.<br />
<br />
2) The speed of light is constant in all reference frames. <br />
<br />
Now, while the first postulate seems well established by observation and experiments, the<br />
second one is simply an assumption. It implies, in contrast to Galilean Space-Time, that<br />
simultaneity is not an absolute physical quality, but a relative one, depending on the motion<br />
of the observer (ie. the reference frame). However, it has to be emphasized that although<br />
the existence of a physical absolute time (or, equivalently, a preferred reference frame)<br />
could not be established by experiments, the theory of special relativity does not disprove<br />
it either. <br />
<br />
Now, how does the theory of relativity allow to compare the relative time of two events at<br />
distant positions? How can one synchronize clocks being spatially separated? The<br />
definition Albert Einstein offered, which is completely equivalent to his second postulate,<br />
is the following: <br />
<br />
Choose two clocks (let us label them 1 and 2) in some reference frame R. In<br />
order to synchronize them place a mirror at position 2, then emit a light signal<br />
from clock 1 at space-time point A. The light signal arrives at clock 2 at<br />
space-time point B, it is reflected in the opposite direction and arrives at<br />
clock 1 at space-time point C (see the space-time diagram below). Since the<br />
speed of light is per definition constant and the light signal travels the same<br />
distance in both directions, the instant t(B) of the reflection equals exactly<br />
t(P), which is in the mean-time of A and C. Or, more formally, t(B) = t(P) =<br />
(t(A)+t(C))/2. <br />
<br />
With this definition of global time, simultaneous events in one particular reference frame<br />
need not to be simultaneous in another frame. This can be checked by following the same<br />
procedure in a frame R' where all clocks are moving with relative speed v with respect to<br />
the former reference frame R. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Now, because absolute time and thus the Newtonian reference frame have disappeared in the<br />
theory of special relativity, all reference frames are completely equivalent. This implies<br />
that two superluminally separated events in space-time can be made instantenous by<br />
choosing a particular reference frame. Hence, present appears no more as a simple line in<br />
the space-time diagram, but it equals the whole region of "faster-than-light" processes.<br />
Furthermore, since there is no absolute reference frame separating the regions of<br />
superluminal past and future, faster-than-light motion in Minkowski space-time implies<br />
the possibility of time travel. Therefore, because this leads to the well known severe<br />
logical paradoxes of time travel, the theory of special relativity excludes faster-than-light<br />
speeds a priori. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Summary<br />
<br />
The question whether the speed of light is a true physical limit has no definite answer yet.<br />
It depends on the real structure of the space-time continuum, which is presently unknown.<br />
If absolute time (and a preferred reference frame) exist, then faster-than-light speeds -<br />
and even faster-than-light travel - are possible, at least in principle. Although the theory<br />
of special relativity states against absolute time and superluminal phenomena, it does it<br />
not by proof, but only by assumption. If superluminal signals are to be discovered in the<br />
future, then the notion absolute time will surely have to be reintroduced to physics. <br />
<br />
Are there indications that absolute time and faster-than-light processes exist? The opinion<br />
of the author is "yes"! It is the task of the next section to present some physical evidence. <br />
<br />
<br />
Physical Treatise<br />
<br />
For the description of physical phenomena it is sufficient to use only the first of Einstein's<br />
postulates [2]. Without loss of generality one may choose a reference frame R (with<br />
coordinates x, y, z, t) where the speed of light c is constant in all directions. The general<br />
coordinate transformation from this particular reference frame R to a general one R'<br />
(primed coordinates) reads <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
where the relative speed v of R' with respect to R is chosen to be parallel to the x-axis. The<br />
transformation properly expresses the apparent contraction of moving rods<br />
(Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction) and the slowing of moving clocks (time dilation). The<br />
function S(x') simply determines the notion of simultaneity in frame R'. Generally, S(x') can<br />
be an arbitrary function, but it is convenient to impose S(0) = 0 such that the clocks of the<br />
reference frames R and R' are synchronized at the origin (x,t) = (0,0) = (x',t'). Furthermore,<br />
in order to avoid acceleratory effects, one usually imposes that S(x') is linear in x', ie. S(x')<br />
= s x'. <br />
<br />
<br />
Minkowski Space-Time<br />
<br />
It can be shown that Einstein's second postulate is equivalent to setting S(x') = - v/c^2 x',<br />
so that one obtains the well known Lorentz transformation equations <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
with the speed of light c' = dr'/dt'(r=ct) = c constant in all frames. Thus, from the viewpoint<br />
of relativity, all reference frames are completely equivalent. <br />
<br />
The first postulate ensures that physical phenomena have the same appearance in all<br />
reference frames, in the sense that one obtains the same result for all measurable<br />
quantities being but mean round-trip quantities (eg. the mean two-way speed of light). The<br />
second postulate states that there is no preferred reference frame and thus the physical<br />
laws (when expressed in formulas using global coordinates) appear equally in all reference<br />
frames. The space-time coordinates (Lorentz coordinates) are defined in such a way that<br />
the one-way speed of light is constant. <br />
<br />
The success of the theory of relativity can be understood from the fact that the possibility<br />
to formulate all physical laws covariantly, ie. in a relativistically invariant manner,<br />
appears most tempting. One cannot deny that the involved mathematics is highly attractive<br />
from an esthetical point of view. For more information on special relativity and the<br />
principle of covariance one may consult eg. [3], [4]. <br />
<br />
<br />
Galilean Space-Time<br />
<br />
Another possibility is to set S(x') = 0 leading to the affine coordinate transformation <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
It has to be emphasized that these equations are not equivalent although similar to the<br />
well-known transformation equations of Galilean relativity, <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
as the former equations contain additional time dilation and length contraction factors<br />
expressing the Lorentz-Fitzgerald contraction hypothesis. <br />
<br />
In the Galilean framework the reference frame R (with unprimed coordinates x, t) has a<br />
special significance: It is the Newtonian frame of absolute time and space. <br />
<br />
Although the one-way speed of light is not constant in general (ie. when expressed in an<br />
arbitrary reference frame), the mean-speed c of a round-trip is again constant [2], what is<br />
in accordance with all experiments (like Michelson-Morley a.s.o.). It should be emphasized<br />
again that there has been no experiment which determined the one-way speed of light [3],<br />
since this would require the possibility of synchronizing physical clocks by some other<br />
means than finite-speed signals. Thus, in fact, some "experimental proof" of the constancy<br />
of the one-way speed of light has not been given so far. <br />
<br />
Remark: It has to be noted that H. A. Lorentz version of the ether theory (which is set in<br />
such a Newtonian framework), ie. Lorentz relativity, is a valid alternative to special<br />
relativity. It suffices to introduce the hypothesis that moving particles are contracted by<br />
some interaction with the ether (Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction), and that internal time is<br />
dilated by the same factor. <br />
<br />
<br />
Towards a Decision<br />
<br />
Which conception of space-time structure is the physically correct one? Obviously, the<br />
covariant framework is the most attractive one to describe matter in electromagnetical<br />
and gravitational fields. However, it is still possible that there exists an underlying<br />
absolute time preserving causality for superluminal phenomena. The theory of relativity<br />
does not offers an adequate framework for superluminal processes, at least not without<br />
refering to logical paradoxes, but a Galilean theory does. As is pointed out in the following<br />
section, several arguments can be found which indicate the non-generality of covariance<br />
and the existence of superluminal processes. The resurrection of absolute time in physics is<br />
therefore possible, if not even necessary. <br />
<br />
The Non-Generality of Covariance<br />
<br />
Besides the principle of relativity, quantum mechanics is a cornerstone of modern physics.<br />
No physical theory evades relativity and quantum mechanics, but do these cornerstones<br />
actually fit together? Let us repeat what is the time evolution of a physical state |s> in<br />
quantum mechanics (according to the Copenhagen interpretation). There are two steps: <br />
<br />
1) The unitary time evolution |s(t)> = U(t) |s(0)> <br />
<br />
2) The reduction of the state |s(t)> into an eigenstate of an observable P |s(t)> in case<br />
of measurement by an observer, where P is a projection operator. This is the famous<br />
"collapse of the wavefunction". <br />
<br />
The unitary time evolution is represented covariantly in a natural way, for instance, it<br />
leads to the Klein-Gordon or Dirac equation in the case of a relativistic particle. However -<br />
and what is less well known - there exists no covariant representation of the state<br />
reduction postulate [5]. If a physical reality is attached to the wave function, then the<br />
theory of relativity fails bitterly. In this context also belong EPR-like effects [6], which<br />
imply miraculous non-local (superluminal) correlations of measured quantities. Albert<br />
Einstein and other physicists could not believe in the validity of quantum mechanics<br />
because of such effects, which are apparently in conflict with the theory of relativity. One<br />
example is the violation of the Bell inequalities [7], which has been confirmed<br />
experimentally [8]. Thus, quantum mechanics has proven to be correct (see [9] for an<br />
overview). Although non-local effects are a constituent of quantum mechanics, most<br />
physicists still believe in the validity of special relativity, because EPR-like effects have<br />
not allowed to transmit information at superluminal speeds so far. Yet, EPR-correlations<br />
remain a mystery if local realism is assumed to be valid. Therefore, the possibility of<br />
superluminal communication (and thus FTL travel) has been acknowledged by various<br />
authors, eg. [10]. <br />
<br />
While time and space appear somehow "on equal rights" in the Lorentz transformation<br />
equations, this is not the case within the formalism of quantum mechanics. In the quantum<br />
field equations the position of a particle is described by a linear operator (a hermitian<br />
operator) in the Hilbert space of physical states, whereas the time coordinate appears as an<br />
exterior parameter only. It is well known that it is impossible to construct a valid time<br />
operator. There exist no time eigenstates, what is basically a consequence of Heisenberg's<br />
uncertainity relation of energy-time. Therefore, there exists no covariant 4-position<br />
operator in quantum mechanics. This is one of the main reasons why it has not yet been<br />
possible to construct a reasonable quantum field theory of gravitation. Thus, it is evident<br />
that the standard theory of relativity and quantum mechanics are incompatible. <br />
<br />
<br />
Some Arguments in Favour of Absolute Time<br />
<br />
One possible solution to the problem of time in quantum mechanics (and thus in quantum<br />
gravity) would be the reintroduction of a background Newtonian time. There are serious<br />
attempts to quantize gravitation in such a framework, eg. Post-Relativistic Gravity. This<br />
solution is also considered in more advanced research programs, eg. Canonical Quantum<br />
Gravity (see section "Further reading"). <br />
<br />
Moreover, there are some heuristic arguments which might further motivate the<br />
reintroduction of absolute time: <br />
<br />
First, if there is a physical absolute time, then the number of fundamental constants<br />
reduced by one, since the (one-way) speed of light is not a constant any longer. This leads to<br />
a simplification and a new interpretation of the physical quantities and constants [2]. <br />
<br />
Second, it is well known that one can define a universal time, which appears in<br />
cosmological models. For instance, general relativity leads one to the Robertson-Walker<br />
metric [11], which describes the long-range structure of our universe: <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Here, the time parameter t defines an universal time, the cosmological time. If there was<br />
an absolute beginning (with the big bang), it can be identified with the age of the universe.<br />
Anyhow, adopting absolute time would give it a further physical meaning. And, of course,<br />
there exists a measurable preferred reference frame, which can be determined, for<br />
instance, from the absolute motion towards the uniform cosmic background radiation. <br />
<br />
Interestingly, recent investigations of electromagnetic radiation propagating over<br />
cosmological distances seem to reveal a true anisotropy in the structure of our universe,<br />
suggesting that the speed of light might be not a true constant, but dependent on direction<br />
and polarization. These results might possibly represent a further indication in favour of<br />
the existence of an absolute reference frame [12]. <br />
<br />
<br />
Summary<br />
<br />
Which is the real space-time structure? Both Galilean space-time and Minkowski<br />
space-time have appeared to be valid physical concepts. However, the absolute generality of<br />
relativistic covariance is set into doubt by the following arguments: <br />
<br />
The time evolution of a quantum mechanical state has no covariant representation,<br />
because the "measurement process" cannot be described in a relativistically invariant<br />
manner. <br />
EPR-like effects seem to indicate non-local (superluminal) processes. <br />
It is impossible to construct a quantum time observable, so that no covariant<br />
4-position operator exists. <br />
From a cosmological perspective the existence of a preferred reference frame<br />
appears to be natural. <br />
<br />
It has been argued that a solution to these incompatibilities could be the reintroduction of<br />
absolute time to physics. Thus, the concept of Galilean Space-Time might be the correct one<br />
after all. Incidentally, there are active research groups trying to experimentally detect the<br />
existence of a preferred reference frame in this context. <br />
<br />
Conclusion: If our universe has a Newtonian background, ie. if there is an absolute time<br />
underlying the space-time continuum, then there is no threat on causality by superluminal<br />
processes, because time travel and its paradoxes are excluded a priori. And thus, within<br />
this framework, faster-than-light travel is possible, at least in principle. <br />
<br />
Remark: It may be a surprise for many physicists that even within the framework of<br />
general relativity faster-than-light speed is allowed, provided that the space-time metric<br />
of the universe is globally hyperbolic [13]. This condition simply implies that closed<br />
time-like paths in space-time (and thus time-travel) are excluded, so that causality is<br />
again preserved. (In this framework, the cosmological time parameter can be again<br />
interpreted as the absolute time of the universe. However, in order to construct a<br />
propulsion mechanism for faster-than-light travel, exotic matter (with imaginary mass)<br />
would probably be needed in order to produce negative energy densities in space.<br />
Unfortunately, exotic matter is not known to exist, although negative energy densities have<br />
been shown to appear in quantum field theory. But, of course, such a hypothetical propulsion<br />
mechanism just provokes to be given the familiar name of the warp drive. <br />
<br />
<pre><br />
References<br />
<br />
[1] I. Newton: "Mathematical Principles of natural philosophy", (London, Dawson, 1969)<br />
<br />
[2] J. P. Hsu, L. Hsu: "A physical theory based solely on the first postulate of<br />
relativity", Physics Letters A 196 (1994), pgs. 1-6; F. Selleri: "Theories equivalent to<br />
special relativity", in Frontiers of Fundamental Physics, edited by M. Barone and F.<br />
Selleri, (Plenum Press, New York, 1994) <br />
[3] H. Reichenbach: "The philosophy of space and time", (Dover, New York, 1958) <br />
[4] J. D. Jackson: "Classical electrodynamics", (Wiley, New York, 1975), chapter 11 <br />
[5] Y. Aharonov, D. Z. Albert: "Can we make sense of the measurement process in<br />
relativistic quantum mechanics?", Physical Review D 24 (1981), pgs. 359-370; A.<br />
Peres: "Relativistic Quantum Measurements", Annals of the New York Academy of<br />
Sciences, Volume 755 (1995) ("Fundamental Problems in Quantum Theory"), pgs.<br />
445-450 <br />
[6] A. Einstein, B. Podolsky, N. Rosen: "Can quantum-mechanical description of<br />
physical reality be considered complete?", Physical Review 47 (1935), pp. 777 <br />
[7] J. S. Bell: "On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox", Physics 1 (1964), No. 3, pp.<br />
195 <br />
[8] A. Aspect et al.: "Experimental realization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm<br />
gedankenexperiment: A new violation of Bell's inequalities", Physical Review Letters<br />
49 (1982), No. 2, p. 91; "Experimental test of Bell's inequalities using time-varying<br />
analyzers", Physical Review Letters 49 (1982), No. 25, pp. 1804 <br />
[9] R. Y. Chiao, P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg: "Faster than light?", in Scientific American<br />
(1993), August <br />
[10] O. Steinmann: "The EPR Bingo", Helv. Phys. Acta, Vol. 69 (1996), pgs. 702-705 <br />
[11] S. Weinberg: "Gravitation and cosmology", (Wiley, New York, 1972), chapter 14 <br />
[12] B. Nodland, J. P. Ralston: "Indication of Anisotropy in Electromagnetic<br />
Propagation over Cosmological Distances", Physical Review Letters 78 (1997), No. 16.<br />
3043-3046; e-print:astro-ph/9704196; see also here <br />
[13] M. Alcubierre: "The warp drive: hyper-fast travel within general relativity".<br />
Classical and Quantum Gravity 11 (1994), pgs. L73-L77, see also here. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Further Reading (Scientific Papers)<br />
<br />
C. J. Isham: "Prima Facie Questions in Quantum Gravity": Relativity, Classical and<br />
Quantum, eds. J. Ehlers and H. Friedrich, Springer-Verlag, Berlin (1994),<br />
e-print:gr-qc/9310031 <br />
G. K. Au: "The Quest for Quantum Gravity", e-print:gr-qc/9506001 <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Related Pages on the Web<br />
<br />
Special Relativity:<br />
<br />
Rob Salgado: "The Light Cone - An Illuminating Introduction to Relativity". <br />
Alan Pendleton: "Was Einstein right?" offers another critical look at Einstein's theory<br />
of special relativity. <br />
<br />
On the Nature of Space-Time:<br />
<br />
Amara Graps: "Ether: What is it?" <br />
Albert Einstein: "Ether and the Theory of Relativity". It was only 11 years, from 1905<br />
to 1916, that Albert Einstein did not believe in the existence of an ether. In 1920,<br />
some years after the publication of his theory of general relativity, he expressed his<br />
opinion in favour of an existing ether in a talk at the University of Leyden. <br />
Sten Odenwald: "The physical vacuum of space". <br />
<br />
Alternative Gravity Theories:<br />
<br />
Yilmaz Theory of Gravity, a new gravity theory that seems to resolve the defects of<br />
general relativity and that appears to be closer to some kind of "ether" interpretation<br />
of the gravitational field. <br />
<br />
Quantum Mechanics:<br />
<br />
Anton Zeilinger: Interpretation and Philosophical Foundation of Quantum Mechanics:<br />
An excellent summary of existing (meta-)physical interpretations of the<br />
"measurement process". <br />
<br />
"Grand Unified Theories":<br />
<br />
Brian Greene: "Superstring Theory". Superstring theory appears to be a very promising<br />
attempt to unite all fundamental forces including gravity, but it is also not able to<br />
resolve the measurement problem. However, it resides on a fixed space-time<br />
background, and it does allow the existence of a background time parameter. <br />
<br />
Cosmology:<br />
<br />
Borge Nodland: "A Peek into the Crystal Ball of an Anisotropic Universe": Recent<br />
measurements on the propagation of radio waves over cosmological distances seem<br />
to indicate that our universe possesses a preferred direction in space. <br />
<br />
Interstellar Travel:<br />
<br />
"Warp Drive When?": What NASA has to say about interstellar travel. <br />
John G. Cramer: "Space Drives": A collection of articles published in Analog, amongst<br />
a well-done discussion of Miguel Alcubierre's paper on the warp drive. <br />
</pre><br />
<br />
[[Category:Science & Technology]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=Emerging_Possibilities_for_Space_Propulsion_Breakthroughs&diff=1811Emerging Possibilities for Space Propulsion Breakthroughs2021-03-25T09:05:06Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "Originally published in the Interstellar Propulsion Society Newsletter, Vol. I, No. 1, July 1, 1995. Marc G. Millis Space Propulsion Technology Division NASA Lewis Researc..."</p>
<hr />
<div>Originally published in the Interstellar Propulsion Society Newsletter, Vol.<br />
I, No. 1, July 1, 1995.<br />
<br />
<br />
Marc G. Millis<br />
<br />
Space Propulsion Technology Division<br />
<br />
NASA Lewis Research Center<br />
<br />
Cleveland, Ohio<br />
<br />
<br />
The ideal interstellar propulsion system would be one that could get you to<br />
other stars as quickly and comfortably as envisioned in science fiction.<br />
Before this can become a reality, two scientific breakthroughs are needed:<br />
discovery of a means to exceed light speed, and discovery of a means to<br />
manipulate the coupling between mass and spacetime. This article explains<br />
why these breakthroughs are needed and introduces the emerging possibilities<br />
that may eventually lead to these breakthroughs. It should be noted that<br />
either of these breakthroughs by itself would have revolutionary<br />
consequences which would be of enormous value.<br />
<br />
The need to exceed light speed: Simply put, the universe is big. The fastest<br />
thing known is light, yet it takes over four years for light to reach our<br />
nearest neighboring star. When NASA's Voyager spacecraft left our solar<br />
system is was traveling around 37- thousand mph. At that rate it couldn't<br />
reach the nearest star until after 80-thousand years. If we want to cruise<br />
to other stars within comfortable time spans (say, less than a term in<br />
Congress), we have to figure out a way to go faster than light.<br />
<br />
The need to manipulate mass and spacetime coupling: This need is less<br />
obvious than the light speed issue. The problem is fuel, or more<br />
specifically, rocket propellant. Unlike a car that has the road to push<br />
against, or an airplane that has the air to push against, rockets don't have<br />
roads or air in space. Rockets have to carry along all the mass that they'll<br />
need to push against. To circumvent this problem, we need to find a way to<br />
interact with spacetime itself to induce propulsive forces without using<br />
propellant. This implies that we'll need to find a way to alter a vehicle's<br />
inertia, its gravitational field, or its connectivity to the structure of<br />
spacetime itself.<br />
<br />
Just how limited are rockets for interstellar travel? Although rockets are<br />
reasonable for journeys into orbit or to the moon, they become unreasonable<br />
for interstellar travel. If you want to deliver a modest size payload, say a<br />
full Shuttle cargo (20,000 kg), and you are patient enough to wait 900 years<br />
for it to just fly by the nearest star, here's how much propellant you'll<br />
need: If you use a rocket like on the Shuttle (Isp~ 500s), there isn't<br />
enough mass in the universe to get you there. If you use a nuclear fission<br />
rocket (Isp~ 5,000s) you need about a billion super-tankers of propellant.<br />
If you use a nuclear fusion rocket (Isp~ 10,000s) you only need about a<br />
thousand super-tankers. And if you assume that you'll have a super-duper Ion<br />
or Antimatter rocket (Isp~ 50,000s), well now you only need about ten<br />
railway tankers. It gets even worse if you want to get there sooner. (Based<br />
on mass fractions from ref 1, p. 52)<br />
<br />
There are other ideas, like using laser pushed light-sails that don't need<br />
propellant, but these have limitations. The biggest limitation is their<br />
dependence on the laser that remains near Earth. To make an unplanned course<br />
change they need to radio back for the laser to track their new course and<br />
wait for it to do so. At interstellar distances this is prohibitive. At one<br />
light-year from Earth, for example, it would take two years for the command<br />
to be sent and the new pointing received.<br />
<br />
Is there hope?: Science continues to advance. In addition to the continuing<br />
refinements of general relativity and other attempts to better understand<br />
mass, space, and time, there have been some recently published theories<br />
which provide new perspectives, theories which have been reported in various<br />
news articles (Refs 2-6). Each of these theories has some relevance to<br />
propulsion and presents new avenues from which to start searching for the<br />
breakthrough physics. These recent theories are summarized next.<br />
<br />
A theory about "warp drive": Using the formalism of general relativity, it<br />
has been shown that faster than light travel may be possible (ref 7). All<br />
you need to do is contract spacetime in front of your ship and expand<br />
spacetime behind your ship. This "warped" space and the region within it<br />
would propel itself "with an arbitrarily large speed" (ref 7). Observers<br />
outside this "warp" would see it move faster than the speed of light.<br />
Observers inside this "warp" would feel no acceleration as they zip along at<br />
warp speed.<br />
<br />
So what's the catch? First, to expand spacetime behind the ship you'll need<br />
matter having a negative energy density like negative mass, and lots of it<br />
too. It is unknown in physics whether negative mass or negative energy<br />
densities can exist. Classical physics tends toward a "no," while quantum<br />
physics leans to a "maybe, yes." Second, you'll need equal amounts of<br />
positive energy density matter, positive mass, to contract spacetime in<br />
front of the ship. Third, you'll need a way to control this effect to turn<br />
it on and off at will. And lastly, there is the debate about whether this<br />
whole "warp" would indeed move faster than the speed of light. To address<br />
this speeding issue, the theory draws on the "inflationary universe"<br />
perspective. The idea goes something like this: Even though light-speed is a<br />
limit within spacetime, the rate at which spacetime itself can expand or<br />
contract is an open issue. Back during the early moments of the Big Bang,<br />
spacetime expands faster than the speed of light. So if spacetime can expand<br />
faster than the speed of light during the Big Bang, why not for our warp<br />
drive?<br />
<br />
Just prior to the publication of the above theory, there was a workshop held<br />
at JPL to examine the possibilities for faster-than-light travel (ref 8).<br />
Wormholes, tachyons, and alternate dimensions were just some of the topics<br />
examined. The conclusions from this informal two-day workshop are as<br />
follows:<br />
<br />
(1) Faster-than-light travel is beyond our current horizons. Not only is the<br />
physics inadequately developed, but this physics is not oriented toward<br />
space propulsion or toward laboratory scale experiments.<br />
<br />
(2) Causality violations (where effect precedes cause) are unavoidable if<br />
faster-than-light travel is possible, but it is uncertain whether causality<br />
violations are themselves physically prohibited.<br />
<br />
(3) A few experimental approaches are feasible to address the science<br />
associated with faster- than-light travel, including:<br />
<br />
(a) Search for evidence of wormholes using astronomical observations:<br />
look for a group of co-moving stars or for the visual distortions<br />
indicative of a negative mass hole entrance.<br />
<br />
(b) Measure the velocity of light inside a Casimir cavity (between<br />
closely spaced conductive plates) to search for evidence of negative<br />
space energy. This pertains to wormholes, tachyons, and the negative<br />
energy density issue.<br />
<br />
(c) Resolve the rest mass issue of the Neutrino, determining whether<br />
the unconfirmed experimental evidence of imaginary mass is genuine.<br />
<br />
(d) Study cosmic rays above the atmosphere, using scattering targets of<br />
know composition to look for characteristic evidence of tachyons and<br />
more general particle physics events.<br />
<br />
New ways to think of inertia and gravity: As mentioned earlier, the ideal<br />
interstellar drive would have the ability to manipulate the connection<br />
between mass and spacetime. One approach is to look for ways to use<br />
electromagnetism, a phenomenon for which we are technologically proficient,<br />
to control inertial or gravitational forces. It is known that gravity and<br />
electromagnetism are coupled phenomena. In the formalism of general<br />
relativity this coupling is described in terms of how mass warps the<br />
spacetime against which electromagnetism is measured. In simple terms this<br />
has the consequence that gravity appears to bend light, red-shift light and<br />
slow time. These observations and the general relativistic formalism that<br />
describes them have been confirmed (ref 9, 10). Although gravity's affects<br />
on electromagnetism have been confirmed, the possibility of the reverse, of<br />
using electromagnetism to affect gravity, is unknown.<br />
<br />
New perspectives on the connection between gravity and electromagnetism have<br />
just emerged. A theory published in February 1994 (ref 11) suggests that<br />
inertia is nothing but an electromagnetic illusion. This theory builds on an<br />
earlier work (ref 12) that asserts that gravity is nothing other than an<br />
electromagnetic side-effect. Both of these works rely on the perspective<br />
that all matter is fundamentally made up of electrically charged particles,<br />
and they rely on the existence of Zero Point Energy.<br />
<br />
Zero Point Energy (ZPE) is the term used to describe the random<br />
electromagnetic oscillations that are left in a vacuum after all other<br />
energy has been removed (ref 13). This can be explained in terms of quantum<br />
theory, where there exists energy even in the absolute lowest state of a<br />
harmonic oscillator. The lowest state of an electromagnetic oscillation is<br />
equal to one-half the Planck constant times the frequency. If all the energy<br />
for all the possible frequencies is summed up, the result is an enormous<br />
energy density, ranging from 1036 to 1070 Joules/m3. In simplistic terms<br />
there is enough energy in a cubic centimeter of the empty vacuum to boil<br />
away Earth's oceans. First predicted in 1948, ZPE has been linked to a<br />
number of experimental observations. Examples include the Casimir effect<br />
(ref 14), Van der Waal forces (ref 15), the Lamb-Retherford Shift (ref 10,<br />
p. 427), explanations of the Planck blackbody radiation spectrum (ref 16),<br />
the stability of the ground state of the hydrogen atom from radiative<br />
collapse (ref 17), and the effect of cavities to inhibit or enhance the<br />
spontaneous emission from excited atoms (ref 18).<br />
<br />
Regarding the inertia and gravity theories mentioned earlier, they take the<br />
perspective that all matter is fundamentally constructed of electrically<br />
charged particles and that these particles are constantly interacting with<br />
this ZPE background. From this perspective the property of inertia, the<br />
resistance to change of a particle's velocity, is described as a high-<br />
frequency electromagnetic drag against the Zero Point Fluctuations. Gravity,<br />
the attraction between masses, is described as Van der Waals forces between<br />
oscillating dipoles, where these dipoles are the charged particles that have<br />
been set into oscillation by the ZPE background.<br />
<br />
It should be noted that these theories were not written in the context of<br />
propulsion and do not yet provide direct clues for how to<br />
electromagnetically manipulate inertia or gravity. Also, these theories are<br />
still too new to have either been confirmed or discounted. Despite these<br />
uncertainties, typical of any fledgling theory, these theories do provide<br />
new approaches to search for breakthrough propulsion physics. Their utility<br />
and correctness remains to be determined.<br />
<br />
Another viewpoint on gravity and spacetime: As mentioned earlier, the ideal<br />
interstellar drive must not use propellant. Instead the ideal drive would<br />
have to use some means to push against spacetime itself. One of the major<br />
objections to this notion is the issue of conservation of momentum (ref 19).<br />
In order to satisfy conservation of momentum, something must act as a<br />
reaction mass. For rockets it is the expelled propellant; for aircraft it is<br />
the air. If one considers propelling against spacetime itself, then one must<br />
entertain the possibility that the fields of spacetime have an energy or<br />
momentum that can serve as a reaction mass. Although existing physics does<br />
not provide this perspective, a recent theory has emerged that might. A news<br />
article published in December 94 (ref 6) introduced a theory (ref 20) that<br />
is challenging Einstein's general theory of relativity. The theory is<br />
generating a bit of controversy because it claims that the Einstein field<br />
equations need a slight correction. Without this correction it is claimed<br />
that the Einstein equations can only predict the behavior of simple one-body<br />
problems (where only one gravitating mass exists whose affect on an<br />
inconsequential test particle is described). For two-body or n-body<br />
problems, this new theory shows that the Einstein equations are inadequate.<br />
The required correction is that another term must be added to the matter<br />
tensor, specifically a term for the stress-energy tensor of the<br />
gravitational field itself. This suggests that gravitational fields have an<br />
energy and momentum of their own. This may be a foundation to address the<br />
issue of a reaction mass for the ideal space drive.<br />
<br />
Like the previously mentioned theories, it is uncertain whether this theory<br />
is correct or not, but it is certain that this theory adds yet another<br />
research path to search for breakthrough propulsion.<br />
<br />
But wait, there's more: Another avenue to explore pushing against space is<br />
to examine the contents of the vacuum that may be indicative of a reaction<br />
mass. In addition to the items mentioned above, consider the following<br />
phenomena: Cosmic Background Radiation (ref 21), Virtual Pair Production<br />
(ref 22), and Dark Matter (ref 23). Whether any of these may constitute a<br />
reaction mass or may be evidence for a reaction mass is uncertain.<br />
<br />
In addition to these recent events, there have been occasional surveys by<br />
the Air Force and others to examine science that may be applicable to<br />
propulsion technology (refs 24-29). The options identified by these studies<br />
include assessments of the technological status of many popular ideas, such<br />
as light-sails, nuclear rockets, and antimatter rockets, plus they include<br />
mention of more speculative work. Many of the more speculative ideas, from<br />
alternative theories of gravity and electromagnetism through unconfirmed<br />
anomalous effects, would be relativity simple to test. Very few of these<br />
possibilities have been rigorously investigated.<br />
<br />
As you can see, there are a number of dangling loose ends in physics that<br />
may prove to be fruitful paths to the goal of creating the breakthroughs for<br />
practical interstellar travel. Pick your favorite idea and let us know what<br />
you discover.<br />
<br />
[[Category:Space]]</div>Netfreakhttps://preterhuman.net/docs/index.php?title=1992_seen_as_NASA%27s_most_productive_year_for_science_discoveries&diff=18101992 seen as NASA's most productive year for science discoveries2021-03-25T09:03:54Z<p>Netfreak: Created page with "<pre> Newsgroups: sci.space.news From: yee@atlas.arc.nasa.gov (Peter Yee) Subject: 1992 seen as NASA's most productive year for science discoveries [Release 92-228] (Forwarded..."</p>
<hr />
<div><pre><br />
Newsgroups: sci.space.news<br />
From: yee@atlas.arc.nasa.gov (Peter Yee)<br />
Subject: 1992 seen as NASA's most productive year for science discoveries [Release 92-228] (Forwarded)<br />
Message-ID: <1992Dec23.054547.2163@news.arc.nasa.gov><br />
Organization: NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA<br />
Date: Wed, 23 Dec 1992 05:45:47 GMT<br />
Lines: 1424<br />
<br />
David W. Garrett<br />
Headquarters, Washington, D.C. December 21, 1992<br />
(Phone: 202/358-1600)<br />
<br />
RELEASE: 92-228<br />
<br />
1992 SEEN AS NASA'S MOST PRODUCTIVE YEAR FOR SCIENCE DISCOVERIES<br />
<br />
It was a blockbuster year for NASA space science missions, with <br />
scientific discoveries ranging from the beginning of time to black <br />
holes to the innermost workings of the human cell.<br />
<br />
"Given the unprecedented return on science information and the <br />
robust launch record, 1992 was the most productive year in the <br />
history of space science," said Dr. Lennard A. Fisk, Associate <br />
Administrator for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications in <br />
Washington, D.C.<br />
<br />
"NASA is leading the way in a worldwide resurgence of space <br />
sciences and exploration with 31 space science missions in operation <br />
and returning science. This year is one for the record books," said <br />
NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin.<br />
<br />
"Because of the successes of our operational spacecraft and the <br />
new missions undertaken this year, we can look forward to an <br />
exciting and increasingly productive future," Goldin said.<br />
<br />
Highlighting 1992 were a number of major science discoveries as <br />
well as eight successful Space Shuttle missions providing an on-<br />
orbit life sciences and microgravity research facility.<br />
<br />
Environmental research included studies which indicated the <br />
1992 ozone hole was larger than any previously seen. International <br />
cooperation in space missions increased in 1992, and the the ninth <br />
NASA Administrator, Daniel S. Goldin, was appointed on April 1. <br />
<br />
Secrets Yielded<br />
<br />
The Big Bang -- the primeval explosion that began the universe <br />
15 billion years ago -- yielded some of its secrets to the Cosmic <br />
Background Explorer spacecraft in 1992. The orbiting observatory <br />
detected temperature variations within the glow from the initial <br />
expansion of the universe following the Big Bang.<br />
<br />
Astronomers came closer this year to understanding mysterious <br />
black holes when the Hubble Space Telescope uncovered evidence that <br />
there might be massive black holes in the core of two galaxies. The <br />
orbiting telescope also provided the first direct view of an immense <br />
ring of dust which may fuel a massive black hole at the heart of <br />
another galaxy.<br />
<br />
Six scientific spacecraft were launched during 1992 to explore <br />
the universe, the solar system, the Earth and the Earth-sun <br />
environment. Among these was the Mars Observer, America's first <br />
mission to the Red Planet since Viking 17 years ago.<br />
<br />
Five Spacelab missions aboard the Space Shuttle advanced human <br />
understanding of how to live and work in space. <br />
<br />
A number of microgravity experiments tested various methods of <br />
growing protein and zeolite crystals in space. The results could <br />
have major commercial potential and medical applications.<br />
<br />
Space technology research in 1992 stressed new methods that <br />
robots and humans may eventually use to explore the moon and Mars, <br />
including "telepresence" technology that lets a person, wearing a <br />
video headset, see remote locations through cameras mounted on a <br />
robot. The technology could be used by future astronauts to control <br />
robotic explorers on planetary surfaces.<br />
<br />
International cooperation was highlighted by the flight of the <br />
first Swiss astronaut and the first Italian payload specialist on <br />
STS-46 and the first Japanese payload specialist flew on the STS-47 <br />
Spacelab mission.<br />
<br />
Also, NASA signed a contract with the Russian firm, NPO <br />
Energia, focusing on possible use of the Russian Soyuz-TM vehicle as <br />
an interim Assured Crew Return Vehicle for space station astronauts.<br />
<br />
Dr. Mae C. Jemison became the first African American female <br />
astronaut to fly in space in September aboard STS-48.<br />
<br />
These subjects and other 1992 NASA activities are covered in <br />
the following background release.<br />
<br />
- end general release -<br />
<br />
EDITORS NOTE: The annual NASA yearender provides a comprehensive <br />
review of all major space and aeronautics programs. The entire 1992 <br />
document can be obtained by calling the NASA Headquarters newsroom <br />
at 202/358-1600.<br />
<br />
NASA MANAGEMENT<br />
<br />
Daniel S. Goldin became the ninth Administrator of NASA on <br />
April 1, appointed by President Bush to succeeded Richard H. Truly. <br />
Prior to joining the agency, Goldin was Vice President and General <br />
Manager of the TRW Space & Technology Group which built 13 <br />
spacecraft during his tenure.<br />
<br />
The new Administrator assumed command at a time of shrinking <br />
financial resources caused by the recession, the deficit reduction <br />
effort and growing demands in other areas such as education, medical <br />
care and housing. <br />
<br />
Forecasts indicted that NASA would not receive appropriations <br />
sufficient to support outyear development of projects initiated <br />
prior to the recession, when the outlook for funds was more <br />
positive.<br />
<br />
Goldin initiated a series of efforts to respond to this <br />
situation with the goal of preserving essential space exploration <br />
and aeronautics research programs despite necessary cost reductions, <br />
while permitting the nation to undertake new projects in both areas. <br />
<br />
Simultaneously, he launched campaigns to reform the agency's <br />
procurement process, introduce greater cultural diversity into the <br />
workforce and contracting, renew the NASA's commitment to quality <br />
and stimulate public support for the program.<br />
<br />
"Cheaper, Faster, Better"<br />
<br />
Constantly urging NASA employees and contractors alike to do <br />
things "cheaper, faster and better," the Administrator created a <br />
group of blue and red teams to review major NASA projects and their <br />
organizational settings.<br />
<br />
The blue teams consisted of persons who would examine their <br />
own programs for creative ways to reduce cost without compromising <br />
safety or science. The red teams were composed of people <br />
unconnected with programs who might bring fresh insights or insure <br />
that none were stiffled.<br />
<br />
This review began in May and has led to significant changes in <br />
a number of major projects, with a 17 percent reduction in costs <br />
thus far. The process is intended to be on-going.<br />
<br />
In a closely related effort, Goldin constantly stressed the <br />
adoption of the approaches and tools of Total Quality Management <br />
(TQM) which calls for a continuous effort to improve quality, reduce <br />
cost and speed production. <br />
<br />
NASA, he declared in a talk to employees, is a "world class" <br />
organization whose people must meet the most stringent standards for <br />
excellence measured on a worldwide basis. They were responsible, he <br />
said, for increasing efficiency, saving money, improving quality and <br />
shortening the time to project fruition - all without compromising <br />
safety. <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
A "Shared Vision" of the Future<br />
<br />
Soon after the formation of the blue and red teams, Goldin <br />
called on NASA employees to submit their ideas for a NASA "shared <br />
vision of what we, as a nation, should strive to accomplish in <br />
space." Closely coupled with this was a series of well-attended <br />
"town meetings" held in cities throughout the country to give the <br />
general public the opportunity to state its view about the future of <br />
the space program.<br />
<br />
Goldin said the ultimate goal of these activities was to <br />
produce a vision of America's future in space that would be shared <br />
and support by NASA, Congress, the President and executive branch, <br />
academia, the space community and the general public.<br />
<br />
In another major effort aimed at insuring quality and <br />
controlling cost, the Administrator announced a series of <br />
procurement reforms. Awards would be made on the basis of well <br />
demonstrated adherence to quality, cost control and schedule <br />
maintenance. Award fees would be determined on the same basis, with <br />
opportuity for greater gain by staying on schedule and within <br />
estimates.<br />
<br />
The reforms placed substantial emphasis on opportunity for <br />
small and disadvantaged businesses, including culturally diverse <br />
businesses. The agency said it would step up deadlines for prime <br />
contractors to meet their quota of awards to subcontractors in this <br />
category. Incentive fees would stimulate the effort. Paperwork, <br />
which discouraged many small firms, was to be reduced substantially.<br />
<br />
The Administrator also underscored the need for greater <br />
cultural diversity in the agency's workforce, requiring the head of <br />
each NASA facility to submit a plan to increase minority hiring. "I <br />
am personally and deeply committed to making NASA a model for the <br />
nation in building a culturally diverse workforce at every level," <br />
he said in a speech. He said he wanted NASA to reflect the nation's <br />
"wonderful mosaic of diverse people," and to signal opportunity to <br />
young people of all races. <br />
<br />
In October, Goldin announced a series of structural changes in <br />
the agency's organization designed to focus greater attention on <br />
certain projects critical to the nation's future. Mission to Planet <br />
Earth to aid the environment would become an individual office, as <br />
would planetary science and astrophysics, or Mission From Planet <br />
Earth, to explore the solar system and look beyond into the <br />
universe. <br />
<br />
Concern About America's Aeronautics Industry<br />
<br />
Aeronautics and space technology development, which were <br />
combined in a single office, were to be separated. Goldin stated in <br />
a speech that the nation's aeronautics industry was loosing ground <br />
to aggressive foreign competitiors to such a degree that it was in a <br />
crisis. He declared that NASA would place substantially greater <br />
emphasis on aeronautics and that this would be the sole <br />
responsibility of the Aeronautics Office.<br />
<br />
Technology was joined to the commercial development function <br />
in a "one-stop shopping" concept to serve both NASA and private <br />
industry. The goal is speed the introduction of new technology <br />
throughout the space program and to enhance the process of spinoff <br />
to American industry which, in the past, has led to thousands of new <br />
commercial products and processes.<br />
<br />
Goldin maintained an aggressive schedule of speaking <br />
throughout the country on a large variety of subjects. Of <br />
particular prominence was the effort to explain and win support for <br />
a return to the moon and exploration of Mars; to win anew <br />
congressional funding for Space Station Freedom; to explain the <br />
value of the space program as a national investment to rebuild <br />
technological leadership and hone a competitive edge, and to <br />
proclaim the need for far greater international cooperation in space <br />
to continue the exploration of the universe beyond planet Earth.<br />
<br />
In the latter regard, the Administrator represented the nation <br />
in signing historic new agreements with the Soviet Union that will <br />
expand considerably space cooperation between the two nations. The <br />
agreements provide for the exchange of astronauts and cosmonauts on <br />
space flights, study of a Russian vehicle for possible emergency <br />
crew return from Space Station Freedom, a Shuttle-Mir Space Station <br />
link-up, and life sciences and robotic exploration activities. <br />
<br />
SPACE SCIENCE<br />
<br />
EXPLORING THE UNIVERSE<br />
<br />
NASA's astrophysics program delivered new and important results <br />
about the fundamental nature of the cosmos in 1992. Discoveries <br />
throughout the year increased human understanding of the origin and <br />
fate of the universe, the laws of physics and the evolution of <br />
galaxies, stars and planets. <br />
<br />
Highlights of 1992 discoveries made by the Hubble Space <br />
Telescope (HST), Compton Observatory, Cosmic Background Explorer <br />
(COBE), Roentgen Satellite (ROSAT), Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer <br />
(EUVE) are listed below, by astronomical object. <br />
<br />
Planets<br />
<br />
* Conducting long-term observations of global weather changes on <br />
Mars (HST).<br />
<br />
* Measured the extent of the atmosphere of the Jovian moon Io <br />
and looked for surface changes (HST).<br />
<br />
Stellar Evolution<br />
<br />
* Provided the first clear view of one of the hottest known <br />
stars (360,000 degrees Fahrenheit), which lies at the center of the <br />
Butterfly Nebula, NGC 2440 (HST).<br />
<br />
Star Clusters<br />
<br />
* Discovered a cataclysmic variable star in the core of globular <br />
cluster 47 Tucanae, the first known optical counterpart to an x-ray <br />
source in a globular cluster (HST).<br />
<br />
<br />
Stars<br />
<br />
* Detected several sources of extreme ultraviolet light through <br />
interstellar gas and dust, including the corona of a star, a white <br />
dwarf companion star and red dwarf stars (EUVE).<br />
<br />
* Discovered unexpected "gamma ray afterglow" on the sun. A <br />
strong emanation of high-energy gamma rays persisted for more than 5 <br />
hours after a solar flare explosion (Compton).<br />
<br />
Pulsars<br />
<br />
* Solved 20-year old mystery about the power source of Geminga, <br />
a gamma ray pulsar, which was found to be a 300,000 year-old <br />
rotating neutron star (ROSAT, Compton).<br />
<br />
Galaxies<br />
<br />
* Uncovered circumstantial evidence for the presence of a <br />
massive black hole in the core of the neighboring galaxy M32 as well <br />
as the giant elliptical galaxy M87 (HST).<br />
<br />
* Provided the first direct view of an immense ring of dust <br />
which may fuel a massive black hole at the heart of the giant <br />
elliptical galaxy NGC 4261 and the spiral galaxy M51 (HST).<br />
<br />
* Detected for the first time high-energy gamma rays from a <br />
class of active galaxy similar to quasars and possibly powered by a <br />
black hole (Compton).<br />
<br />
* Found three new gamma-ray quasars, detected more than 200 <br />
cosmic gamma ray bursts and captured the best ever observation of <br />
the glow of gamma radiation from the disk of the Milky Way galaxy <br />
(Compton).<br />
<br />
Cosmology<br />
<br />
* Detected the long-sought variations within the glow from the <br />
Big Bang -- the primeval explosion that began the universe 15 <br />
billion years ago. This detection is a major milestone in a 25-year <br />
search and supports theories explaining how the initial expansion <br />
happened (COBE).<br />
<br />
* Determined more accurately the expansion rate of the universe <br />
by detecting 27 "Cepheid variable" stars in a faint spiral galaxy <br />
called IC 4182. Cepheid variables are used to estimate distances to <br />
galaxies (HST).<br />
<br />
EXPLORING THE SOLAR SYSTEM<br />
<br />
Mars Observer<br />
<br />
"Launched Sept. 25 aboard a Titan III ELV, "Mars Observer will <br />
examine Mars much like Earth satellites now map our weather and <br />
resources," said Dr. Wesley Huntress, Director of NASA's Solar <br />
System Exploration Division, Washington, D.C.<br />
"It will give us a vast amount of geological and atmospheric <br />
information covering a full Martian year. At last we will know what <br />
Mars is actually like in all seasons, from the ground up, pole to <br />
pole," Huntress said.<br />
<br />
On Aug. 24, 1993, the spacecraft will begin orbiting the planet <br />
Mars. Mars Observer will provide scientists with an orbital <br />
platform from which the entire Martian surface and atmosphere will <br />
be examined and mapped by the seven science instruments on board. <br />
The measurements will be collected daily from the low- altitude <br />
polar orbit, over the course of 1 complete Martian year -- the <br />
equivalent of 687 Earth days.<br />
<br />
High Resolution Microwave Survey (HRMS)<br />
<br />
Initiated on Columbus day, 500 years after the explorer landed <br />
in America, the HRMS project began searching for signals transmitted <br />
by other civilizations. The search will be conducted in two modes -<br />
- a sky survey that will sweep the celestial sphere for signals and <br />
a targeted search that will look at about 800 nearby "sunlike" <br />
stars. NASA's Deep Space Network, in Goldstone, Calif., and the <br />
Aericibo Observatory in Puerto Rico will conduct most of the survey.<br />
<br />
Cassini<br />
<br />
A comprehensive examination of the Cassini spacecraft and <br />
mission, was successfully completed Dec. 11. Cassini is scheduled <br />
for launch in Oct. 1997 with an arrival at Saturn in June 2004. <br />
Cassini will fly by Venus and twice by Earth and Jupiter before <br />
arriving at Saturn to begin a 4-year orbital tour of the ringed <br />
planet and its 18 moons.<br />
<br />
In addition to the 12 instruments aboard the orbiter, the <br />
Huygens probe, built by the European Space Agency, will penetrate <br />
the thick atmosphere of Titan (the largest of Saturn's moons) in <br />
Nov. 2004.<br />
<br />
Ulysses<br />
<br />
The Ulysses spacecraft received a gravity assist as it flew by <br />
Jupiter on Feb. 8 at 280,000 miles from the planet's center. <br />
Ulysses, designed to study the sun's magnetic field and solar wind, <br />
used Jupiter's gravity assist to gain the momentum needed to break <br />
out of the plane of the ecliptic and into a solar polar orbit. <br />
During the hazardous Jupiter fly-by, scientists investigated the <br />
interaction of the giant planet's magnetic field and the solar wind.<br />
<br />
Pioneer Venus<br />
<br />
As expected, after the Pioneer Venus orbiter's maneuvering fuel <br />
ran out, it made a fiery entry into Venus' upper atmosphere on Oct. <br />
8. Pioneer Venus had been orbiting the planet since 1978 and over <br />
the past 14 years, has returned numerous data about Venus' <br />
atmosphere and surface topography.<br />
<br />
The first topographic maps of the cloud-shrouded surface of the <br />
planet were made using the radar instrument on Pioneer Venus.<br />
<br />
Magellan<br />
<br />
The Magellan spacecraft, mapping the hidden surface of Venus <br />
with radar since August 1990, lowered its closest altitude to Venus <br />
on Sept. 14, when it began a full 243-day cycle of gravity mapping.<br />
<br />
Magellan has completed three cycles of mapping with its radar, <br />
covering 99 percent of the surface of Venus. The objective of cycle <br />
4, which extends to May 15, 1993, is to obtain a global map of the <br />
Venus gravity field from the elliptical orbit. <br />
<br />
Galileo<br />
<br />
NASA's Galileo spacecraft flew by the Earth on Dec. 8 at an <br />
altitude of 189 miles (304 kilometers) above the South Atlantic <br />
Ocean, completing a 3-year gravity-assist trajectory.<br />
<br />
This latest gravity-assist added about 8,300 miles per hour <br />
(13,300 kilometers per hour) to the spacecraft's speed in its solar <br />
orbit and changed its direction slightly, to put it on an elliptical <br />
trajectory directly to the orbit of Jupiter, about 480 million miles <br />
(780 million kilometers) from the sun. The spacecraft will arrive <br />
at Jupiter on Dec. 7, 1995.<br />
<br />
At Jupiter, Galileo will relay data from a probe launched into <br />
the planet's atmosphere to obtain direct measurements of that <br />
environment for the first time. Over a 23-month period, the <br />
spacecraft will fly ten different elliptical orbits of Jupiter, <br />
making at least two close passes by each of its four major <br />
satellites and carrying out extended observations of the planet <br />
atmosphere and magnetosphere.<br />
<br />
UNDERSTANDING THE EARTH - SUN ENVIRONMENT<br />
<br />
SAMPEX<br />
<br />
The Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer was <br />
launched July 2, is the first of a new series of Small Explorer <br />
missions which will enable scientists to develop less costly <br />
astronomy and space science experiments in a shorter period of time.<br />
<br />
The spacecraft's peculiar 342-by-419-mile-high elliptical orbit <br />
will enable the onboard instruments to use the Earth as a giant <br />
magnetic shield. By doing this, the 4 instruments can determine if <br />
particles are coming from the sun, from the Milky Way Galaxy, or <br />
whether they are the anomalous cosmic rays. <br />
<br />
SAMPEX is expected to contribute new knowledge and improve <br />
understanding of the evolution of the sun, solar system and <br />
galaxies.<br />
<br />
Geotail<br />
<br />
Launched July 24, 1992, Geotail is investigating the <br />
interactions of the solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere, <br />
providing scientists with new information on the flow of energy and <br />
its transformation in the region called the magnetotail.<br />
<br />
The Geotail mission -- a joint U.S./Japanese project -- is the <br />
first in a series of satellites in an international program to <br />
better understand the interaction of the sun, the Earth's magnetic <br />
field and the Van Allen radiation belts. <br />
<br />
The solar wind, interacting with the Earth's magnetic field, <br />
can cause disruptions in short-wave radio communications and power <br />
surges in long transmission lines.<br />
<br />
LIVING AND WORKING IN SPACE<br />
<br />
During the past year, several opportunities to work in a <br />
laboratory in space, perform life and material sciences experiments <br />
and learn more about how humans adapt to the space environment have <br />
afforded scientists with vital information that may lead to useful <br />
commercial and medical applications on Earth.<br />
<br />
Microgravity Science<br />
<br />
Three spacelab missions were flown to explore the effects of <br />
space on protein crystals, electronic materials, fluids, glasses and <br />
ceramics and metals and alloys.<br />
<br />
Missions flown aboard the Space Shuttle this year include the <br />
International Microgravity Laboratory, flown in January; United <br />
States Microgravity Laboratory-1, June, and United States <br />
Microgravity Platform-1, October. The September flight of Spacelab-<br />
J, the Japanese Spacelab, also included NASA-sponsored microgravity <br />
experiments. <br />
<br />
A total of 45 NASA sponsored microgravity experiments flew on <br />
these missions. They were exposed to the microgravity environment <br />
for an average of approximately 10-days. These flights represented <br />
more peer-reviewed, hands-on microgravity research than had been <br />
conducted by the United States since Skylab in 1974-75.<br />
<br />
Life Sciences<br />
<br />
The International Microgravity Laboratory-1 carried 29 life <br />
sciences experiments and Spacelab-J, the Japanese Spacelab, seven. <br />
The United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) mission, <br />
although dedicated to microgravity science, supported a series of <br />
medical investigations as part of the Extended Duration Orbiter <br />
Medical Project.<br />
<br />
The longest Space Shuttle mission to date, USML-1 proved to be <br />
an excellent laboratory for these investigations. Many of the other <br />
Space Shuttle missions also included life sciences experiments.<br />
<br />
During the winter of 1992, life sciences experiments were <br />
conducted in the most unearthly place on the planet -- Antarctica. <br />
NASA and National Science Foundation sponsored several unique <br />
science and technology projects developed under a joint effort <br />
called the Antarctic Space Analog Program. <br />
<br />
NASA also is participating in a cooperative life sciences <br />
mission with Russia. Late in December, Russia will launch COSMOS <br />
'92 "biosatellite," a recoverable, unpiloted spacecraft that carries <br />
plant and animal experiments.<br />
Flight Systems<br />
<br />
In March, the ATLAS-1 mission used two Spacelab pallets to <br />
conduct investigations into the sun's energy output, the chemistry <br />
of the Earth's atmosphere, space plasma physics and astronomy. A <br />
core set of six instruments will fly repeatedly to study the <br />
interaction of the Sun and the Earth's atmosphere. <br />
<br />
In cooperation with the Office of Aeronautics and Space <br />
Technology, the division managed NASA's contribution to the national <br />
High-Speed Computing and Communications program. <br />
<br />
In October, 29 supercomputing proposals were selected to <br />
advance substantially how computers can be used to study problems <br />
ranging from the environment to the evolution of the universe. <br />
These projects will use "parallel processing" computers, machines <br />
that use up to thousands of processors to work simultaneously on a <br />
problem.<br />
<br />
In January, the NASA Science Internet (NSI) helped implement <br />
the world's first high-speed computer network link to Antarctica, <br />
providing voice and data links between the continental United States <br />
and the U.S. base at McMurdo Sound. In November, NSI staff set up <br />
the first video link between Antarctica and the United States to <br />
transmit images between the Ames Research Center and a remotely <br />
operated vehicle maneuvering under ice-covered lakes.<br />
<br />
In January, the National Space Science Data Center's Data <br />
Archive and Dissemination System became operational. User interest <br />
in these electronically available astrophysics and space physics <br />
data sets has been high, with recent access rates running at 700 <br />
remote user sessions per month.<br />
<br />
UNDERSTANDING THE EARTH<br />
<br />
In its first full year, NASA's Mission to Planet Earth <br />
encompassed three flight programs, a series of ground-based and <br />
airborne expeditions and ongoing research and analysis to better <br />
understand the Earth as a global environmental system.<br />
<br />
TOPEX/POSEIDON<br />
<br />
The U.S.-French satellite TOPEX/POSEIDON, launched in August, <br />
will help define the relationship between the Earth's oceans and <br />
climate. By measuring the sea-surface height with unprecedented <br />
accuracy, TOPEX/POSEIDON will provide scientists with global maps of <br />
ocean circulation. <br />
<br />
The oceans transport heat from the Earth's equator toward the <br />
poles, and TOPEX/POSEIDON data will provide a better understanding <br />
of how this mechanism works. TOPEX/POSEIDON is a joint mission <br />
between NASA and CNES, the French space agency.<br />
<br />
LAGEOS II<br />
<br />
A passive satellite, the Italian LAGEOS II is covered with <br />
reflectors that send laser beams back to the ground stations that <br />
sent the beams. Measurements over the years and over wide <br />
geographic areas show how the techtonic plates that make up the <br />
Earth's crust are moving. Since most earthquakes and volcanoes <br />
occur where these plates meet, LAGEOS II will help geologists <br />
understand how these cataclysmic events occur and where they are <br />
likely to happen.<br />
<br />
Earth Observing System<br />
<br />
The centerpiece of Mission to Planet Earth, the Earth Observing <br />
System (EOS) continued to progress to the launch of its first <br />
satellite in June 1998. Internal teams reviewed the program with <br />
the goal of reducing funding requirements through FY 2000 by <br />
approximately 30 percent while retaining the essence of the <br />
instrument complement and science plan.<br />
<br />
Ozone Research<br />
<br />
Continuing its leading effort in the study of ozone depletion, <br />
NASA cooperated with NOAA and other organizations to mount the <br />
second Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition from November 1991 <br />
through March 1992. <br />
<br />
The campaign discovered record-high levels of chlorine <br />
monoxide, a key chemical in the ozone depletion cycle, over Eastern <br />
Canada and New England. This finding was complemented by data from <br />
the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), which observed high <br />
concentrations of chlorine monoxide over Europe and Asia.<br />
<br />
In the Antarctic, the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, which <br />
has been observing global ozone levels for 14 years, indicated the <br />
1992 ozone hole was 15 percent larger in area than any previously <br />
seen. Earlier, UARS had observed chemicals involved in ozone <br />
depletion in the Antarctic atmosphere as early as June, 3 months <br />
before significant ozone depletion begins.<br />
<br />
NASA's ozone research expanded with the first of a new series <br />
of Space Shuttle missions in April. Titled the ATLAS program, these <br />
missions study the sun's energy output and the atmosphere's chemical <br />
makeup, and how these factors affect ozone levels. ATLAS' <br />
instruments are precisely calibrated before and after flight, <br />
providing a check on data gathered by similar instruments on free-<br />
flying satellites.<br />
<br />
To distinguish natural global change from human-induced change <br />
and to understand how humans are changing their environment, Mission <br />
to Planet Earth provides scientists with data on how the Earth's <br />
large environmental components - air, water, land and life - <br />
interact. Several NASA-sponsored airborne and ground expeditions <br />
studied these complex relations.<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Search and Rescue<br />
<br />
NASA's Earth Science and Application program also was involved <br />
in a technology test that already has significant down-to-Earth <br />
dividends. A hand-held transmitter, used in conjunction with <br />
Search-and-Rescue equipment flying aboard NASA-developed weather <br />
satellites, allowed rescuers to locate an Alaska hunter immobilized <br />
by abdominal cramps on Alaska's largely uninhabited North Slope.<br />
<br />
EXPENDABLE LAUNCH VEHICLES<br />
<br />
For the fifth consecutive year, NASA's expendable launch <br />
vehicles provided 100-percent successful launches. Five expendable <br />
vehicles were launched this year. <br />
<br />
The first was on June 7, when a Delta 2 placed the Extreme <br />
Ultraviolet Explorer, an astrophysics satellite, into low-Earth <br />
orbit. On July 3, a Scout placed SAMPEX, a small-explorer class <br />
space physics satellite, into low-Earth orbit. <br />
<br />
A Delta 2 carried the Japanese Geotail satellite into space on <br />
July 24. On Sept. 25, a Titan III lifted the Mars Observer into <br />
Earth orbit where the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) ignited, sending <br />
the spacecraft on to Mars. This was the maiden flight of the TOS. <br />
The final launch of the year was on Nov. 21 when a Scout placed a <br />
Strategic Defense Initiative Office payload into orbit.<br />
<br />
OFFICE OF SPACE FLIGHT <br />
<br />
Space Shuttle<br />
<br />
This was a banner year for the Shuttle program as it <br />
demonstrated its maturity and reliability in the missions flown, a <br />
reduction in the program's operational costs, and the addition of <br />
significant hardware upgrades that improved the overall system.<br />
<br />
In January, the manifest showed eight flights scheduled and at <br />
year's end, all eight had been flown. Seven of the eight mission <br />
launched on the day set at the flight readiness review and the <br />
eighth was 1 day late. The Shuttle system flew so trouble free that <br />
two missions were extended for additional science gathering. This <br />
year also saw the longest mission ever flown to date, STS-50, which <br />
lasted 14 days.<br />
<br />
Highlighting the missions conducted was Endeavour's maiden <br />
voyage in May on the STS-49 mission. The crew rescued a wayward <br />
satellite and in the process, set three new records for space flight <br />
- 4 spacewalks on a single mission, the longest spacewalk ever <br />
conducted (8 hours, 29 minutes) and the first 3-person spacewalk <br />
ever performed.<br />
<br />
Three Shuttle missions, STS-42 in January, STS-50 in June and <br />
STS-47 in September, carried the pressurized spacelab module. <br />
Experiments conducted on those flights previewed the activities that <br />
will be undertaken on Space Station Freedom. <br />
<br />
The Shuttle system showed its versatility though out the year. <br />
In March it served as an orbiting observatory for the STS-45/ATLAS <br />
mission. The STS-46 mission in July demonstrated new technology in <br />
space with the Tethered Satellite System payload. Columbia and the <br />
STS-52 crew in October showed the orbiter's ability to fly a <br />
combination mission as they deployed the LAGEOS satellite and then <br />
conducted microgravity research with the United States Microgravity <br />
Payload.<br />
<br />
The year also saw the last dedicated Department of Defense <br />
mission flown by the Shuttle during the STS-53 flight in early <br />
December.<br />
<br />
Safety remained the Shuttle program's top priority. Space <br />
Shuttles Columbia and Discovery completed major structural <br />
inspections and modifications. Structural inspections and <br />
modifications of Space Shuttle Atlantis, including work to allow it <br />
to dock with the Mir Space Station, began in October. When Atlantis <br />
returns to flight status in 1993, all of NASA's orbiters will have <br />
incorporated modifications to the braking system and drag chutes.<br />
<br />
During the year, a detailed budget review resulted in <br />
significant cost reductions. The total reduction achieved for <br />
fiscal year (FY) 1992 was $368 million or 9 per cent of the FY 1992 <br />
baseline budget. A budget reduction plan is in place that will <br />
result in over a billion dollars in cost savings in FY 1996, again, <br />
as compared to the FY 1992 baseline budget.<br />
<br />
A new class of 19 astronaut candidates was named in March. <br />
During the year astronauts Vance D. Brand, Bruce E. Melnick, John O. <br />
Creighton, Kathryn D. Sullivan, David C. Hilmers, James C. Adamson, <br />
James F. Buchli and Daniel M. Brandenstein left the agency.<br />
<br />
OFFICE OF SPACE SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT<br />
<br />
Space Station Freedom<br />
<br />
Moving ever-closer to the first element launch of Space Station <br />
Freedom, 1992 was the year of the critical design review (CDR). <br />
CDRs for each individual work package, leading to a design review <br />
for the entire human-tended configuration, are on schedule to be <br />
completed by June 1993. Completion of the CDR marks the point at <br />
which the design is 90 percent completed and the contractor is given <br />
authority to proceed with development of the flight hardware. <br />
<br />
At the Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Ala., prime <br />
contractor Boeing Defense and Space Group began a series of hardware <br />
tests demonstrating how space station components will be joined in <br />
orbit. Among the tests were "berthing" tests of a full-size <br />
pressurized module to a node. Other tests included thermal and <br />
structural loads simulating conditions the hardware will be exposed <br />
to in space.<br />
<br />
At the Johnson Space Center, Houston, responsible for major <br />
space station systems, several milestones were achieved in the Work <br />
Package 2 program. Nineteen detailed design reviews examining the <br />
JSC-managed space station subsystems have been completed with the <br />
remaining 15 scheduled for completion prior to the April 1993 Work <br />
Package 2 CDR.<br />
<br />
More than 400 pieces of development hardware now exist and 50 <br />
percent of prime contractor McDonnell Douglas' development test <br />
program is complete. Examples include development of the pre-<br />
integrated truss (PIT) segments 1 and 2 used in underwater testing <br />
at JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility which allows the <br />
astronauts to conduct critical assessment of orbital replacement <br />
unit positioning. <br />
<br />
Integrated truss assembly segments S1 and S2 vibroacoustic and <br />
thermal vacuum test articles were built and tested for use in <br />
assessing structural integrity during launch operations and exposure <br />
to the space environment. The propulsion module development unit <br />
was constructed and tested under similar conditions and the test <br />
article is currently undergoing cold and hot-flow tests at the White <br />
Sands Test Facility in New Mexico. <br />
<br />
The segment-to-segment attach systems development test was <br />
conducted verifying the connections required to join the individual <br />
PIT segments on-orbit. In the Data Management System, DMS kits, an <br />
integrated set of electronic units functionally equivalent to the <br />
station's data management system, were delivered to the Johnson <br />
Space Center and to the Kennedy Space Center. Releases of DMS <br />
software were delivered to NASA on or ahead of schedule.<br />
<br />
At the Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, responsible for the <br />
system that supplies Freedom's electrical power, nearly one-half of <br />
the critical design reviews for the various components that comprise <br />
the Photovoltaic Module and the Power Management and Distribution <br />
System were completed. Development testing of the solar array <br />
panels and extensive fault current tests also were successfully <br />
completed. <br />
<br />
"More than 24,000 flight solar cells have been delivered (75 <br />
percent of an array) and cell production is proceeding quite well," <br />
said Lewis's Space Station Freedom Project Manager Ron Thomas. <br />
Battery testing is underway with this year's accumulation giving 3 <br />
years of cycle testing on some cells.<br />
<br />
In the power management and distribution area, Work Package-4 <br />
engineers have completed the first three phases of system tests in <br />
the Solar Power Electronics Laboratory at prime contractor <br />
Rocketdyne's facility in Canoga Park, Calif. These included steady-<br />
state, transient, stability, battery control and communications <br />
tests.<br />
<br />
In addition to the manufacturing and testing activities, <br />
construction began on modifications to Lewis's Power Systems <br />
Facility. The modifications are necessary to support the <br />
integration, checkout and assembly of the flight hardware before it <br />
is shipped to the launch site at the Kennedy Space Center, Fla.<br />
<br />
Preparations for on-orbit assembly and maintenance were <br />
highlighted by several neutral buoyancy tests of the PV module cargo <br />
element mockup as well as robotic tests on replacement of several <br />
orbital replacement unit boxes.<br />
<br />
In October, Administrator Goldin announced changes to Space <br />
Station Freedom management that would "ensure NASA's top talent is <br />
working on the program." <br />
<br />
<br />
<br />
Marty Kress, previously the Assistant Administrator for <br />
Legislative Affairs, was named Deputy Program Manger for Policy and <br />
Management. Tom Campbell was named Chief Financial Officer for <br />
Freedom. Campbell had been serving as the NASA Comptroller.<br />
<br />
In December, NASA announced plans to consolidate management of <br />
the Space Station Freedom program in Reston, Va. "Reston will <br />
remain the focal point for the space station program for the <br />
foreseeable future," said Associate Administrator for Space Systems <br />
Development Arnold Aldrich.<br />
<br />
The Space Shuttle continued to play a critical role in paving <br />
the way for space station assembly, utilization and operations in <br />
1992. <br />
<br />
Four Space Shuttle missions carried up Spacelab hardware, <br />
demonstrating human interaction in the conduct of science in space <br />
and bridging the gap between the first small steps taken in <br />
microgravity research in space started in Apollo to its full-blown <br />
maturity on Freedom. <br />
<br />
A number of space station precursor research facilities were <br />
flown on STS-50, the first United States Microgravity Laboratory, <br />
such as a glovebox and a crystal growth furnace. In addition, space <br />
station hardware - two foot restraints - were flown for evaluation <br />
by USML crew members. <br />
<br />
On STS-49, the maiden