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Origin: SNET - 0002 - CONSPIRACY
  From: [email protected]                Public
    To: ALL
  Date: 12/18/94 at 12:27
    Re: Schr0dinger's Radio v. 01
Xref: world alt.activism:78980 alt.conspiracy:70574 alt.mindcontrol:1835 alt.zines:7548
Path: world!bloom-beacon.mit.edu!uhog.mit.edu!sgiblab!swrinde!pipex!uunet!tezcat.com!tezcat.com!not-for-mail
From: [email protected] (Tezcat Online Publishing)
Newsgroups: alt.zines,alt.conspiracy,alt.activism,alt.mindcontrol
Subject: Schr0dinger's Radio v.3
Date: 18 Dec 1994 12:27:03 -0600
Organization: Tezcat.COM, Chicago
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Summary: new issue - biological warfare
Keywords: biological warfare, CBW, conspiracy, zines
X-Newsreader: TIN [version 1.2 PL2]

} _CUT HERE_ {

              \               *
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                    |................... |
                   | SCHR0DINGER'S RADIO  |
        ~           |^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^   |            ~
                   |                     |
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                           [ v.03 ]
                          [7 DEC 94]

                  - narrowcasting at 60 Hz. -
                "we are everywhere, and yet not"

                     Editor:  Bler DeVista
                     Contributing Editors:
                       Lou Menotti
                       Ezekiel Rothios

                +       +       +       +       +
        +       =       =       =       =       =       +

                    v.03 : BIOLOGICAL WARFARE

 The editor wishes to strongly recomend the book "A Higher Form of Killing:
 The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare" by Robert Harris and
 Jeremy Paxman (NY: Hill and Wang/Noonday Press, 1982) ISBN 0-8090-5471-X,
 which is extensively excerpted herein.  This book by a pair of British
 journalists is a superb history of CBW from its infancy into the 1980s.
 In an area where authoritative histories are rare, "A Higher Form of
 Killing" is simply indispensible.


srch-Ln#- title

 *5 -932- STRANGE FRUIT & THE ZOMBIE BUG:  Is the 'Flesh-Eating Bug' Bio
          Warfare?   (by Lou Menotti)
 *6 -1150- CHEM WAR IN SAN FRAN?    (Feb. 1994)
*10 -1309- Schr0dinger's Blab
*11 -1369- Directory

 * File ends with "-endfile."  Check for truncation.
 * [Remarks in brackets are by the editor(s) of this publication.]

---            *                 ^                  *                 ---
 This is v.03, 7 DEC 94.  Published at whim.  N 1994 Lobe Hatch.
 Permission to reproduce and distribute granted for non-commercial purposes
 only. See SCHR0DINGER'S BLAB at end for detailed information, plus info
 on subscriptions and archives. The ideas and opinions expressed within
 do not necessarily belong to anyone.
                 *      -        |      -        *
 In the current political atmosphere, the free exchange of information
 is vital.  In this spirit, it is the goal of SCHR0DINGER'S RADIO to serve
 as a research resource, providing interesting information on a wide range
 of subjects.  Unless otherwise noted, copyright resides with the author or
 their agent.  SCHR0DINGER'S RADIO does not operate for commercial gain,
 and all labor is donated.
                      *          |          *

                           CONTACTING US
  We are able to accept correspondance either via email or post.
  Our email address is:

  Also, our snail address is:

We can't always promise a reply, but we'll do the best we can!  (Sorry,
but we cannot return originals sent by post.)


                       SCHR0DINGER'S RADIO v.03

+       +       +       +       +       +       +       +       +       +


                       OPERATION ANTHROPOID:

[Excerpted and condensed from "A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story
of Chemical and Biological Warfare" by Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman
(NY: Hill and Wang/Noonday Press, 1982), pp. 88-94.]

According to his own account, Paul Fildes made his most spectacular
contribution to the Second World War on 27 May 1942 on a street corner in
Prague in Czechoslovakia.

Ever since the establishment of the bacteriological warfare wing at Porton
[Down], Fildes had been working on 'B T X' - the botulinal toxins, recently
described in a World Health Organization report as 'being among the most
toxic substances known to man.'  BTX, more commonly known as botulism,
generally appears as a particularly virulent form of food poisoning, with
an average mortality rate of 60 per cent.  Although there is no official
confirmation, by 1941 it appears that Fildes had succeeded in turning BTX
into a weapon; the British code-named it 'X'.

Chemical and biological weapons have long been favourite tools of spies:
the ties between Porton, Camp Detrick in America, and the wartime Special
Operations Executive (SOE) and Office of Stregic Services [OSS] were
extremely strong... Both Polish and Russian partisans used biological
weapons in sabotage operations against the Germans.  In December 1942, for
example, the Gestapo discovered a germ warfare arsenal in a four-roomed
Warsaw house used by the Polish underground.  They reported to Himmler the
discovery of 'three flasks of typhus bacilli.'  20 lb of arsenic had also
passed through the house.  A few days later, Himmler showed Hitler a
captured NKVD order instructing the Russian partisans to use arsenic to
poison German occupation troops.  The raids on the Warsaw house apparently
failed to prevent the Poles from continuing to use germ weapons.  The
Combined Chiefs of Staff learned from the Polish Liaison Officer in
Washington, Colonel Mitkiewiczm, that in the first four months of 1943
426 Germans had been poisoned by the Polish underground; that seventy-seven
'poisoned parcels' had been sent to Germany; and that 'a few hundred' Nazis
had been assassinated by means of 'typhoid fever microbes and typhoid fever

Against this background it is therefore not surprising that the British
Secret Service should have turned to Fildes for help when, in October 1941,
they began to plan Operation Anthropoid.  Its object:  the assassination of
Reinhard Heydrich.

It was an almost suicidal mission for those who undertook it, but one which
the British regarded as of overriding importance.  Heydrich had already
acquired a fearsome reputation as the ruthless head of the
SICHERHEITSDIENST (S.D.), the Nazi security service, through which he ran
the counter-intelligence operation against British agents in occupied
Europe.  He was said to be Hitler's personal choice as the man to succeed
him as Fuhrer, and in September 1941 he appointed him REICHSPROTECHTOR of
Bohemia and Moravia... The British Secret Service decided to have Heydrich

At ten o'clock on the night of 29 December 1941, a four-engined Halifax
bomber took off from Tempsford aerodrome.  To help it make the long,
hazardous flight over occupied Europe, the RAF laid on a diversionary
bombing raid to draw off German radar and fighter squardons.  Four and half
hours after take-off, seven Czechs, in semi-moonlight, parachuted into the
snow-covered hills near the small Bahemian town of Lidice.

The men had all trained at Cholmondely Castle in Cheshire and in an SOE
Special Training School in Scotland.  With them they carried British arms,
wireless and cipher equipment.  Two weapons in particular were handled with
extra care.  They were British No. 73 Hand Anti-tank grenades.  Normally
these were 9 1/2 inches long and weighed 4 pounds.  The grenades the Czechs
carried were special conversions, consisting of the top third of the
grenade, with adhesive tape thickly binding the open end.  The grenades
each weighed just over 1 pound.  It now seems likely that they had been
personally prepared by Fildes at Porton Down, and each contained a lethal
filling of X.

The 'Anthropoids', led by Jan Kubis and Josef Gabcik, went to earth with
the help of the Czech underground for five months, building up a detailed
picture of Heydrich's movements.  Astonishingly for so high a Nazi leader
he rarely travelled with an armed escort.  On 23 May 1942, by a stroke of
good fortune, the Anthropoids learned where Heydrich would be in four days'
time.  At 9:30 AM on the morning of the 27th they took up positions on a
hairpin bend near the Troja Bridge in a suburb of Prague on the busy route
to Heydrich's fortress HQ at Hardcany Castle.  Precise details of what
followed differ, but in all there were probably six assassins:  four men
armed with sub-machine guns and grenades, one with a mirror to flash a
signal when Heydrich's car rounded the bend, and Rela Fafek, Gradcik's
girlfriend, who was to drive a car ahead of Heydrich:  if he was coming
along unescorted she would wear a hat.

At 10:31, complete with hat, she drove round the corner.  Seconds later
came the mirror signal.  Grabcik strode into the middle of the road and
aimed his sub-machine gun at the bend.  Heydrich's open-topped green
Mercedes came sailing round the corner, but as Grabcik tried to open fire
his gun jammed.  As the car slowed, Herdrich screamed at his chauffeur to
put his foot on the accelerator, but the driver, a last-minute replacement,
kept slamming on the brakes.  It was at this point that Kubis hurled one of
Fildes' grenades.

Heydrich had just risen to his feet in the now-stationary car when the
grenade exploded with a force powerful enough to shatter all the windows in
a passing tram.  Although it missed the Mercedes, the blast tore off the
door.  Splinters from the grenade embedded themselves in Heydrich's body.
Like 'the central figure in a scene out of any Western' Heydrich leapt into
the road, shouting and screaming, then suddenly dropped his revolver.
Clutching his right hip he staggered backwards and collapsed.  The gunmen

Heydrich, in considerable pain and bleeding from his back, was driven,
fully conscious, in a commandeered van to the nearby Bulovka Hospital.  The
doctor on duty in the surgery department was Vladimir Snajdr.

        At first sight the wound did not seem dangerous... [he recalled]
        Professor Dick hurried in.  He was a German doctor whom the Nazis
        had appointed to our hospital...
          He tried to see whether the kidney was touched: no, all
        seemed well for Heydrich.  And the same applied to his spinal
        column... The X-ray showed something in the wound, perhaps a
        bomb splinter.  Or a piece of coachwork... The patient's state
        called for a full-scale surgical operation: one rib was broken,
        the thoracic cage was open, a bomb splinter was in the spleen,
        the diaphragm was pierced...
          I did not see him again.  But Dr. Dick said that he was coming
        along very well.  His death surprised us all...

Heydrich's sudden collapse--from apparently only minor injuries to coma and
subsequent death--may have baffled the doctors, but in retrospect matches
completely the symptomology of BTX poisoning.  After an initial period of
calm, lasting perhaps for a day or so, the victim lapses into a
progressive paralysis which fails to respond to treatment.  As X went to
work on Heydrich's central nervous system, the doctors could only stand by
helplessly as their famous patient succumbed to the clasic symptoms of
poisoning by BTX:

        a combination of extreme weakness, malaise, dry skin, dilated
        and unresponsive pupils, blurred vision, dry coated tongue and
        mouth, and dizziness when upright.  As the patient becomes worse,
        he develops a progressive muscular weakness with facial
        paralysis, and weakness of arms, legs and repiratory muscles.
        He may die of respiratory failure unless artifical respiration is
        applied.  There may be associated cardiac arrest or complete
        vasomotor collapse.

The patient generally either dies or recovers within seven days.  A week
after the ambush, on 4 June 1942, Heydrich died.  Dr. Snajdr recalled that
the offical diagnosis of the cause of Heydrich's death was septicaemia.

        Blood transfusions could do nothing.  Professor Hamperl, head
        of the German Institute of Pathology, and Professor Weyrich,
        head of the German Institute of Forensic Medicine, drew up a
        joint report on their medical conclusions.  Among other things
        it said, 'Death occurred as a consequence of lesions in the
        vital parenchymatous organs caused by _bacteria_and_possibly_
        _by_poisons_carried_into_them_by_the_bomb_splinters_ [author's
        italics] and desposited chiefly in the pleura, the diaphragm
        and the tissues in the neighborhood of the spleen, there
        agglomerating and multiplying.'
          That is all I can tell you.

Heydrich's coffin was borne in state in a black-creped train into Berlin,
escorted by Adolf Hitler's SS guard.  The Fuhrer laid a wreath on the grave
of 'the man with the iron heart'.  'The German intelligence service,' one
historian has written, 'would never really recover from the murder of

The Germans launched a period of terror.  The entire town of Lidice was
razed in reprisal:  its male population shot, its women and children
carried away in trucks.  10,000 Czechs were arrested.  The Anthropoids were
hunted down and eventually trapped in the crypt of a Greek Orthodox Church
in Prague.  Kubis and Gabcik were both killed.  Yet, wrote General Moravec,
one of the planners of the mission, 'our hope that the Czech people would
react to German pressure with counter-pressure did not materialise...'  On
the day that Heydrich died 'fifty thousand Czech workers demonstrated
against the British-inspired act in Prague.'

...There is no *written* evidence of Fildes' involvement in Heydrich's
death.  The relevant official files are still closed.  When asked to
comment, Porton Down could only reply that they had no record of this
incident; if Fildes was involved, they added, they thought it highly
unlikely that any record would have been made. [FN: Authors' interview with
Dr. Rex Watson, 21 July 1981.]  We have therefore only the circumstantial
evidence which points to the use of biological weapon--and the claims of
Fildes himself.

The secret of X in Heydrich's murder might have died with the Anthropoids
themselves had it not been for Fildes.  The Times [of London] was right
when it spoke of a streak of vanity in his character:  he made a point of
telling a number of colleagues what he had done.  Two senior scientists
involved in Allied germ warfare have privately confirmed that Fildes told
them he 'had a hand' in the death of Heydrich.  To a young American
biologist, Alvin Pappenheimer--later Professor of Microbiology at
Harvard--Fildes was even more melodramatic.  Heydrich's murder, he told
Pappenheimer, 'was the first notch on my pistol.'


*2      ////////S/C/H/R/0/D/I/N/G/E/R/S//////R/A/D/I/O////////


[Excerpted and condensed from "A Higher Form of Killing: The Secret Story
of Chemical and Biological Warfare" by Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman
(NY: Hill and Wang/Noonday Press, 1982), pp. 155-171.]

[In the late 1940s and early 1950s, to discover whether attacks of gas
sprayed from ships or aircraft] were practical propositions, the British,
Canadians and Americans collaborated in a succession of experiments.  After
preliminary meterological research to discover how clouds of bacteria might
behave at altitude, they began a series of mock attacks.

The details of many of the experiments, which effected the lives of
millions of peole, are still classified.  It is known, however, that in 1948
the British War Office conducted an exercise known as Operation Pandora, to
determine the vulnerability of the United Kingdom to 'weapons of mass
destruction', the now accepted form of words for atomic and biological
weapons.  In the winter of the same year ships of the Royal Navy carrying
British, Canadian and American microbiologists were sent to the Caribbean
for Operation Harness.  Over thirty years later, the results of Operation
Harness are said to contain 'information, the disclosure of which is
presumed to cause identifiable damage to national security.'  Operations
Harness is commonly thought to have been an exercise in which harmless
bacteria were released to simulate a germ attack.  In fact real germ
weapons were used.  Nor was Operation Harness unique.  There were at least
two other exercises in the Caribbean in which real diseases were tested.
They were code-named Operations Ozone and Negation and took place in the
winters of 1953 and 1954.  Several thousand animals were brought from
Porton Down [the British CBW facility first opened during World War I] and
tethered to rafts at sea some miles off the Bahamas, which was then a
British colony.  The microbiologists watched through binoculars, as from
upwind clouds of bacteria were released to drift over the animals.  The
diseases tested are thought to have included anthrax, brucellosis and
tularemia.  The corpses of the infected animals were burned at sea.

While these tests showed the relative virulence of the diseases under
examination, they did not solve the central problem of how easy it would be
to attack a large city or military base.  Experiments with harmless
bacteria soon after the war had shown how easy it was for germs to
penetrate the interior of a sealed ship, but now attacks were needed
against civilian targets.  Over the next two decades there would be over
200 experiments in the United States alone in which military and civilian
targets, including whole cities, would be attacked with imitation
biological weapons.  The tests were conducted in total secrecy.  If
inquisitive officials asked questions they were told the army was
conducting experiments with smokescreens to protect the city from radar
detection.  The targets of the attacks ranged from isolated rural
communities to entire cities, including New York and San Francisco.

One of the earliest experiments took place in San Francisco in 1950.  The
Pentagon believed it might be possible for a Soviet submarine to slip into
an American harbour, release a cloud of bacteria, and disappear before the
victims of the attack had even begun reporting to hospital.  San Francisco,
the headquarters of the Sixth Army and much of the Pacific fleet, seemed a
likely target for such an attack.  Between 20 and 26 September 1950, the
theory was tested by two US Navy minesweepers steaming up and down outside
the Golden Gate Bridge.  On board the naval vessels' crewmen released
clouds of a spray contaminated with BACILLUS GLOBIGII and SERRATIA
MARCESCENS, two supposedly harmless bacteria.  The Serratia marcescens
strain, code-named '8 UK' had been developed at Porton Down during the
Second World War because when incubated it turned red, making it very
easily identifiable when used in biological warfare experiments.

There were six mock attacks on the city.  In their report later the
scientists concluded that 117 square miles of the San Francisco area had
been contaminated, and that almost everyone in the city had inhaled the
bacteria.  'In other words,' they wrote, 'nearly every one of the 800,000
people in San Francisco exposed to the cloud at normal breathing
rate...inhaled 5000 or more particle.  Any other area having a steady wind
and a degree of atmospheric stability comparable to San Francisco is
vulnerable to a similar type of atack, and there are many such areas in the
US and elsewhere.'  The point had been proved.

But the San Francisco test was only one of many.  In 1951, American Navy
personnel deliberately contaminate ten wooden boxes with Serratia
marcescens, Bacillus globigii and ASPERGILLUS FUMIGATUS before they were
shipped from a supply depot in Pennsylvania to the navy base in Norfolk,
Virginia.  The tests were designed to establish how easily disease might be
spread among the people employed to handle the boxes atthe supply depot.
Of the three infectious bacteria, Aspergillus fumigatus had been
specificaly chosen because black workers at the base would be particularly
susceptible to it.

In 1953, after further tests spraying supposedly harmless chemicals and
bacteria off the United States coast, the Chemical Corps travelled north to
spray the Canadian city of Winnepeg.  City officials were told that 'an
invisible smokescreen' was being laid over the city.  (A similar excuse had
been used in tests in Minneapolis, where councillors were told that a
smokescreen was being laid to protect the city from radar detection.)
There were further tests at Stony Mountain Manitoba, where the
experimenters ran into unexpected problems.  According to their report,
'cattle in the area levelled many of the sampler stakes, and considerable
time was lost in relocating them...(and) there was no adequate defense
against the hoardes of mosquitoes present in this rural area.'  How the
scientists survived this biological attack is not recorded.

The British contribution to an understanding of how germ attacks might be
carried out was considerable, although Porton Down carried out far fewer
such tests.  Much of the early American work on how clouds might drift over
cities was based on the results of experiments conducted by Porton
scientists in which they released smoke clouds in built up areas of
Salisbury, Wiltshire, just down the road from the Microbiological Research
Establishment, and at Southampton in Hampshire.

The extreme secrecy which characterizes British defense matters makes it
impossible at this stage to build up a full picture of British tests, since
many are still classified.  However, it is known that in 1952 ships of the
Royal Navy released clouds of bacteria off the west coast of Scotland...
During the summer of 1952, and again during 1953, the Ben Lomond, a Royal
Navy tank transport vessel based in the port of Stornaway on the Isle of
Lewis, regularly set off for a point some six miles off the coast.

But unlike the San Francisco experiments in which supposedly harmless
bacteria were used, the Ben Lomond carried canisters of disease.  The
patterns of the Scottish tests, code-named Operations Cauldron and
Hesperus, was similar to those carried out in the Bahamas [i.e.-using
animals on rafts]... Several thousand guinea-pigs, mice, rabbits, and about
one hundred monkeys were killed during these tests, which continued for
weeks at a time...

Details of these experiments are still not publicly available, and so
nothing is known of the particular diseases under investigation...

In the United States similar experiments continued throughout the sixties.
Perhaps the most spectacular simulated attack took place in 1966 when the
Chemical Corps Special Operations Division [based at Fort Detrick] decided
to mount a biological attack on New York City.  The attack was carried out
in strictest secrecy, the experimenters carrying false letters certifying
that they represented an industrial research organization.  The plan was to
discover how easy it would be to poison a city by releasing germs into the
underground railway tunnels.  Army agents positioned themselves on the
pavement above the gratings in the roofs of the New York Subway and sprayed
'harmless bacteria' into the stations.  Occassionally the clouds would fall
onto passengers waiting for trains, but 'when the clouds engulfed people,
they brushed their clothes, looked up at the grating, and walked on', one of
the agents recalled [FN: Documents quoted in Washington Post, 23 April 1980.]

The army agents concentrated on the Seventh Avenue and Eighth Avenue
subway lines, while other team members were sent with sampling devices to
the extremities of the underground railway network.  Within minutes the
turbulence caused by the trains would carry the bacteria thorughout the
tunnel system.  Another technique used by the Special Operations menwas to
travel on sobway trains carrying an apprently normal light bulb which was
in fact filled with bacteria.  When no-one was looking, the light bulb
would be dropped onto the tracks in the middle of a darkened tunnel.  They
reported later that this was 'an easy and effective method for covert
contamination of a segment of a subway line.'  the research team concluded
that if anyone chose to carry out such an attack on New York, or any of the
cities of the Soviet Union, Europe or South America with an underground
railway network, thousands, possibly millions would swamp the hospitals and
bring the health service to a standstill...

The last tests took place in November 1969.  During their entire twenty
year duration, little or nothing had been admitted about their true

...In October 1950 the Secretary for Defense accepted a proposal to build a
factory to manufacture disease.  Congress secretly voted ninety million
dollars, to be spent renovating a Second World War Arsenal near the small
cotton town of Pine Bluff, in the mid-west [sic] state of Arkansas.  The
new biological warfare plant had ten storeys, three of them built
underground.  It was equipped with ten fermentors for the mass production
of bacteria at short notice, although the plant was never used to capacity.
Local people in the town of Pine Bluff had some idea of the purpose of the
new army factory being built down the road, but in general there was, as
the Pentagon put it later, 'a reluctance to publicize the program.'

The first biological weapons [to be produced there] were ready the
following year, although they were designed to attack not humans but

The United States had established the first peace-time biological weapon
production line... [T]he main objective was the development of a weapon to
kill people.  The ideal biological agent had changed little from the days
of Allied research during the Second World War.

It should be a disease against which there is no natural immunity.  It
should be highly infectious, and yet the enemy should not be able to
produce the enemy should not be able to produce a vaccine against it or be
able to cure the disease with the medical facilities available to him.  And
from a military point of view, it should be a disease which was easy to
reproduce, yet hardy enough to survive and reproduce itself outside the

Four diseases looked the most suitable as weapons:

  ANTHRAX: The wartime tests carried out by the Britsh and Americans had
shown anthrax to be an extremely hardy agent:  the entire island of
Gruinard [site of wartime testing of British anthrax bombs] was likely to
be contaminated for the rest of the century.  Although not necessarily
fatal, there was still no effective immunization available.  Originally
coded 'N'.

  BRUCELLOSIS:  Otherwise known as Undulant Fever, by the end of the war,
Brucellosis had been in advanced stages of development.  Since it was
rarely fatal, it was now considered as a possible 'humane' biological
weapon. Orginally coded 'US'.

  TULAREMIA:  Like Brucellosis, which primarily affects cattle, tularemia
(also known as 'rabbit fever') is not normally fatal to humans.  It was
considered, however, that the chills, fever and general weakness the
disease produced would disable an enemy for two to three weeks.  Orginally
code-named 'UL'.

  PSITTACOSIS:  Sometimes known as 'parrot fever', this disease was
considered the most powerful of the 'incapacitant' weapons, since it would
produce a high fever, rather like typhoid fever, which could later develop
into pneumonia.  Death could be expected in about 20 per cent of those
afflicted.   Originally coded 'SI'.

Later many other diseases would be developed for use as weapons, including
plague, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Rift Valley fever, Q fever and
various forms of encephalomyelitis.  But in 1950 these four looked the most
promising potential germ weapons.  During the next two decades over seven
hundred million dollars would be spent on the development of such weapons
on the United States, and hundreds of millions more in research and testing
projects in America, Britain and Canada.

As to how these disease were to be used in a future war, the Chemical Corps
had a list of targets for the Strategic Air Force.  The first priority
should be major cities. 'The morale of the people in these targets is an
all important factor, and will certainly affect a nation's will to fight.
Attack on these targets should be directed toward achieving maximum
anti-personnel effect with the least amount of destruction.'  The attacks
should be carried out on a massive scale, to saturate enemy medical
facilities.  The element of surprise would be enhanced, the Chemical Corps
had decided, by the 'insidious nature of the attack as regards detection,
and the period of incubation before symptoms appear.'...

[By the late 1950s, U.S. CBW scientists] had tested the [primary CBW]
diseases on laboratory animals, but soon the scientists needed to discover
whether what killed a mouse or a monkey would also kill a human.  Many of
them believed thatthe Russians might already be testing *their* biological
weaons on people, and the Chemical Corps were keen to do likewise.

During the Vietnam War, the Fort Detrick [Maryland] researchers found a
ready source of human subjects for their experiments in Seventh Day
Adventist soldiers, who, because of their conscientious objections, served
in the United States army as non-combatants.  In one series of tests
Seventh Day Adventist soldiers were exposed to airborne tularemia.

According to one report, 'all control subjects developed acute tularemia
between two to seven days after exposure', although all were said to have
recovered later.  This experiment was unusual in that it was written up for
public consumption.  But the willingness of some at least of the Seventh
Day Adventists to take part in such tests was beyond doubt... Numerous
other experiments took place with volunteers, and although little is known
about their nature, it seems fair to assume that many were more concerned
with developing effective vaccines than with testing the power of the
bacteriological weapons themselves.

Evidence as to the use of human volunteers in experiments at Porton Down is
harder to come by.  Service volunteers were regularly requested during the
fifties and sixties, but they are said to have been used only for the
testing of defensive precautions like vaccines.

However, between 1960 and 1966 scientists from the Porton Down
Microbiological Research Establishment took part in a series of tests in
which terminal cancer patients were treated with two rare viruses, at least
one of which was then being considered as a possible biological weapon.

The experiments took place at St. Thomas's Hospital, one of London's
leading medical schools.  According to a report which later appeared in the
British Medical Journal, terminal cancer patients were infected with Langat
Virus and Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus by two doctors from St. Thomas's
Hospital and two scientists from Porton Down.  The interest appears to have
been in developing a potential vaccine against other diseases transmitted by
ticks.  The scientists reported that all thirty-three patients died, two of
them after contracting encephalitis, an infection causing inflammation and
swelling of the brain.  'Transient therapeutic benefit was observed in only
four patients', they reported... [FN:  Webb, Wetherley-Mein, Gordon Smith
and McMahon  "Leukaemia and Neoplastic Proces treated with Langat and
Kyasanur Forest Disease Viruses:  a clinical and laboratory study of 28
patients", British Medical Journal (29 January 1966), pp. 258-66.]

...[I]n the United States, the biological warfare work continued unabated.
To many military scientists there the very arguments which made the idea
of protecting the population impossible made bacteria increasingly
attractive weapons for use against an enemy.

At the start of the so-called 'Camelot' era of the presidency of John F.
Kennedy, a thorough-going review of 150 areas of American defense was
ordered.  Project 112 arrived in the offices of the Joint Chiefs of Staff
in May 1961, requesting an assessment of American preparations for
biological and chemical warfare. ...Not surprisingly their report found
that American preparations were inadequate, but that with the expenditure
of four thousand million [four billion] dollars, they could be improved...

An initial twenty million dollars was immediately set aside for expanding
the biological weapons plant in Arkansas [Pine Bluff Arsenal].  A new
testing center was established.  [The Deseret Test Center in Utah.]  Money
was spent developing new weapons to attack plants.  And two new debilitating
diseases, Q-fever and tularemia, entered the inventory of American
biological weapons....

The results of the continuing research could be seen in the maps of Dugway
Proving Ground in Utah, parts of which were marked 'permanent
bio-contaminated area', after anthrax experiments in the mid-sixties.  In
the Pacific more tests were carried out with 'hot' agents--the jargon for
real biological weapons--on a number of deserted islands.  The results of
these tests are still classified on the grounds that they reveal weaknesses
in American defenses.  By March 1967 Fort Detrick had developed a
bacteriological warhead for the Sergeant missile, capable of delivering
disease up to 100 miles behind enemy lines.


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                          by Terry Allen

[From CovertAction Quarterly N. 43 (Winter 1992-93), p. 14.]

When the 1975 Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) came into force, the
whole world should have issued a collective sigh of relief.  It was, after
all, a "model treaty," the first international agreement to ban to
possession, as well as the use, of a whole class of weapons of mass
dectruction.  The BWC was completed in 1972.  By 1991, 114 countries,
including the US, were parties and an additional 23 had signed but not yet
ratified.  The treaty categorized biological warfare (CBW) as "repugnant to
the conscience of mankind."[1]

But as the possible use of anthrax as a weapon in Zimbabwe only three years
later illustrates, the conscience of the world is flexible.  After all, the
sheer cost-effective utility of CBW agents for spreading death, economic
devastation, intimidation, and terror is hard to resist.  And, truth be
told, from the beginning, the banning of CBW has less to do with morality
than with the fact that this class of weapons is cheap, deadly, and within
the technological and economic reach of the less, as well as the more,
technically developed nations.

On November 26, 1969, while using napalm and Agent Orange in Indochina, the
US suddenly began advocating a ban on BW.  "Biological weapons,"[2] said
President Nixon, "have massive, unpredictable, and potentially
uncontrollable consequences.  They may produce global epidemics and impair
the health of future generations."[3]

It is likely that the Nixon declarations against CBW were made less from
humanitarian concern than from reasons of military strategy.[4]  In the
1970s, the Pentagon was advancing the doctrine that while these agents were
not militarily useful to the United States, they could proliferate to
become the "poor man's atomic bomb."  In ther words, Third World nations
could produce biological weapons of mass destruction more cheaply than
nuclear, chemical, or even many conventional weapons.

Recent advances in technology have increased the danger of BW.  Genetic
engineering provides the potential to develop highly sophisticated
biological agents, possibly including organisms with specific racial
predilections.[5]  "It is now possible to synthesize BW agents tailored to
military specification.  The technology that makes possible 'designer
drugs' also makes possible 'designer BW,'" testified Douglas J. Feith,
deputy assistant secretary of defense for negotiations policy, to the House
Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence in 1986.[6]

Recognizing the potential threat to its national security, the US has
become increasingly concerned that other countries might be conducting
prohibited research and developing new genetically engineered organisms or
toxins.  The political selectivity of this concern was evident during the
Gulf War when the US launched a major propaganda campaign against possible
Iraqi use of both chemical and biological weapons, including anthrax,
against US troops.  When chemical attacks had been aimed at unarmed Kurdish
villages by Iraq, the US had remained virtually silent.  But after "US ally
Saddam" was transformed overnight into "another Hitler Saddam," the use of
chemical weapons "against his own people" became an issue.

Assessing charges--including those lodged by Cuba and Nicaragua against the
US--of biological weapons use are problematic since the agents cause
naturally-occurring diseases.  Cuba charged that the US used various
biological warfare agents against it, including dengue fever against
humans, other agents against the tobacco and sugar crops, and African swine
fever against pigs--500,000 of which had to be slaughtered in 1971 to
prevent spread of the disease.  Several unnamed CIA employees and Cuban
refugees provided details of the transfer of Swine Fever from the US into
Cuba.[7]  In 1985, Nicaragua claimed the US had deliberately spread dengue
fever virus as part of its war effort.[8]

In the case of the 1978-80 Zimbabwe anthrax epidemic, there exists a highly
sugestive body of evidence supported by epidemiological research, and by
the logic of the historical and political context.  It points to an
extensive, coordinated campaign of anthrax dissemination by the Zimbabwean
government.  If this conclusion is correct, the sigh of relief from those
around the treaty table will be lost once again in the cries of those who
succumbed no less horribly because the cause of death was a violation of
international standards.

[1] From the text of Biological Warfare Convention, completed on April 10,
  1972, and signed and ratified by the US and dozens of other nations in
[2] The use of living organisms or their biologically active products to
  cause illness or death in humans, animals, or plants.
[3] W.J. Stoessel, et al., "Report of the Chemical Warfare Commission,"
  Appendix E (Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office,1985), pp. 90-91.
[4] Raymond Zilinskas, "Verification of the Biological Weapons Convention,"
  in Ernhard Geissler, "Biological and Toxic Weapons Today," (Oxford: Oxford
  University Press, 1986), p. 87.
[5] Charles Piller and Keith Yamamoto, "Gene Wars: Military Control Over
  the New Genetic Technologies," (New York: Beech Tree Books, 1988), pp.
  99-100; Carl A. Larson, "Ethnic Weapons," Military Review (Fort
  Leavenworth, Kan.), November 1970, pp. 3-11; and Tim Beardsley, "New View
  From the Pentagon," Nature, September 4, 1986, p. 5.
[6] Piller and Yamamoto, op. cit., p. 16.
[7] Drew Featherston and John Cummings, "CIA Linked to 1971 Swine Virus in
  Cuba," Washington Post, January 9, 1977 p. 2; and Piller and Yamamoto, op.
  cit. pp. 49-50, 72.
[8] Jeanne McDermott, "The Killing Winds," (New York: Arbor House, 1987),
  pp. 16, 17, 155-56.


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                        AFTER 10-YEAR HIATUS

[From "Censored: The News That Didn't Make the News--And Why", The 1994
Project Censored Yearbook (NY: Four Walls Eight Windows, 1994) pp. 63-67]


The Salt Lake City Tribune
 Dates: 1/27/93; 7/28/93
 Titles: "Army Resumes Biological-Agents Tests at Dugway After 10-Year
      Cessation"; "Duway to test disease-causing agents at remote lab".
 Author: Jim Woolf

[Name of paper obscured]
 Date: 9/21/93
 Title: "Dugway Base Cited for 22 Waste Violations"
 Author: Laurie Sullivan

High Country News
 Date: 8/9/93
 Title: "Biowarfare is back"
 Author: Jon Christensen

High Desert Advocate
 Date: 9/15/93
 Title: "Utah biowarfare oversight group wants to do its work behind
      closed doors"

SYNOPSIS:  Although few people outside of Dugway, Utah, are aware of it,
the US Army has brought biological warfare back to a site it declared
unsafe a decade earlier.

Ten years ago, residents of western Utah breathed a healthy sigh of relief
when the Army discontinued testing biological warfare agents at its Dugway
Proving Ground.  The reason given was that the Army's testing facility was
getting old, and its safety--its ability to prevent potentially deadly
diseases from escaping into the air outside the facility and thence to the
rest of the world--could no longer be guaranteed.  Now the deadly bugs are

Military scientists are testing a device called the Biological Integrated
Detection System (BIDS) at the renovated Dugway facility.  BIDS is
described as a defensive weapon, designed to detect the presence of
biological agents in time to allow soldiers to put on protective clothing.

A Dugway representative said the tests, which include organisms such as
anthrax, botulism, and the plague, would initially be liquid, not aerosol,
tests.  Aerosol tests are the most hazardous form of testing because they
involve spraying biologicl agents into the air inside a sealed chamber.
One tiny air leak could result in a catastrophic release of deadly
diseases.  It was precisely this hazard that led to the closing of the
Dugway facility in 1983.  The biowarfare lab has been renovated since then
and Army experts claim their elaborate safety precautions will prevent such
a leak.

Nonetheless, new safety concerns were raised in September 1993, when the
Dugway Proving Ground was cited for 22 violations of state hazardous-waste
regulations, ranging from inadequate record-keeping to improper dumping of
poisonous chemicals.  Notices of violations and orders for compliance were
issued to the Army base by the Utah Department of Environmental Quality.

Critics also point out that it was the Army that denied for a year that it
was responsible for the 1968 accidental release of nerve gas from Dugway
that killed some 6,000 sheep in the area.

Finally, public information about what was happening at Dugway suffered a
serious setback in September 1993, when the biowarfare oversight committee
that advises the governor of Utah on biological defense testing matters at
Dugway voted to make itself off-limits to the public.  Reasoning that they
could obtain more information from the Army if confidentiality could be
assured, the oversight group also voted to disengage from its parent
organization, the State Advocacy Council on Science and Technology.  The
committee had been frustrated by its inability to get timely information
from Dugway.

Critics doubt the committee will have access to any more information than
it has received in the past and that the net result only further distances
the Army from accountability and the public from the truth.

[By] SSU Censored Researcher:
Jesse Boggs

COMMENTS:  Jim Woolf, environmental writer for The Salt Lake Tribune, said
he was surprised by the lack of attention this story generated.  "It was
treated as a local story that had little significance to the general
public," Woolf said, adding, "I disagree."

Woolf felt the general public should know more about this story for at
least three reasons:

 "1. This is an important local story.  Military scientists near my home
are conducting tests with some of the most deadly disease causing organisms
and natural toxins ever identified.  What if some of these 'bugs' escape
into the environment or are carried by workers into my community?  Are
local doctors trained to recognize and deal with this threat?  Has the Army
taken all prudent steps to reduce the risk?  Has the public been told the
full scope of testing being carried out by the Army?

 "2. Biological and chemical weapons have been described as the 'poor man's
atomic bomb.'  They are relatively easy to produce and could have
devastating consequences in battle.  Several of our enemies are known or
suspected t ohave these weapons.  All announced testing at Dugway focuses
on developing systems to protect America troops from these weapons.  (The
development or testing of OFFENSIVE biological or chemical systems is
prohibited under international treaties.)  Work in this field would be of
general interest to military families and others who may feel threatened by
this category of weapon.

 "3. The resumption of testing and plans to build an upgraded research
laboratory at Dugway could have important consequences for America's
international relations.  Critics claim there is no clear line dividing
defensive from offensive testing--the scientific knowledge gained at Dugway
can be used for either good or bad.  Does the resumption of this testing
send a message to other ocuntries that the United States is interested in
bio-chem warfare?  Will it prompt other countries to upgrade their test
facilities and lead to an escalation in the race to produce
ever-more-deadly weapons?"

Woolf felt the interests of several groups were served by thelimited
coverage given the resumption of biowarfare testing.

"The Army was pleased.  Military scientists want freedom to study whatever
they want, no matter how dangerous or far-fetched the potantial threat may
be.  The last thing they want are questions from the public or elected

"Congress was served because members were not required to confront another
potentially controversial issue.  A handful of members interested in
military issues are responsible for most of the funding decisions in this
area.  If there is no controversy, no one else has to confront the
difficult questions surrounding this topic.

"Certain economic interests in Utah and elsewhere were served.  Dugway
provides jobs in a remote area of the state.  If biological testing were
eliminated or scaled back, the Army would have fewer reasons to maintain
the base.  Also, a handful of comapanies are developing products and
services related to biological-defense.  None would like to see their
income potential reduced."

Woolf notes that the resumption of biological testing has been a difficult
issue in Utah and concludes with a chilling question.

"The presence of these deadly agents so close to our community is a source
or concern, but we watched on CNN the terror in Israel during the Iraq war
when no one knew whether the bombs that were falling contained chemical or
biological weapons.  We understand the need to improve our defenses, but
wonder why it has to be done in our backyard, whether there are safer
alternatives, and whether all safety precautions have been taken.

"We're also frightened that the Army may not be telling the whole truth--
that in times of emergency they will cover their operations with the
national security veil and do whatever they think is right, regardless of
the threat to their neighbors.  Utahns learned this lesson living downwind
from the nuclear-weapons tests at the Nevada Test Site.

"Will the clouds of radioactive material be followed by the plague?"

Jon Christensen, Great Basin Regional Editor for the High Country News,
areed that there hadn't been sufficient coverage of this issue.  "The only
papers to cover the story adequately were The Salt Lake tribune and the
High Desert Advocate, in Wendover, Nevada."  Without their coverage,
Christensen felt that we all might have missed this story about the
resumption of biowarfare testing at Dugway, Utah.  He feels it is important
for people to know about this issue since they "might better understand the
domestic costs and risks of preparing for war, many of which are borne by
remote, rural Western communities (among others).  Also, our stockpile of
dangerous chemical weapons and biological agents must be stored and
destroyed safely.  The public needs to know how."  Christensen emphasized
that "The regional media deserve credit for following this story.  Without
them, we would all be in the dark about this?"


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                  STRANGE FRUIT & THE ZOMBIE BUG
               Is the "Flesh-Eating Bug" Bio Warfare?

                         by Lou Menotti

[Editor's Note:  Though this article was written in June of this year,
recent events have brought the Flesh Eating Bug back into the public
eye.  Canada's Prime Minister contracted the disease within the last
few weeks.  Doctors had to amputate nearly his entire left leg in a
desperate attempt to stop the spread of the horrific disease.  They then
discovered the bacteria was also present in his chest.  At press time,
it is unclear what his exact prognosis is, although Canadian officials
are trying to put a hopeful face on the story.  In view of these events,
and the thesis of Menotti's article, we decided it was high time to run

In May 1994, press reports began to emerge in the British press about
12 cases of the "Flesh Eating Bug".  The victims, all British nationals,
had contracted a "mutant strain" of the strep bacteria which ate their
flesh and muscle.  All of the victims died within 2-3 weeks of contracting
the strep.

Strep is one of the most common bacteria found on or in the
human body.  One strain of strep causes the common sore throat.  The
highest concentrations are in the throat, although 45% of pregnant
women have strep bacteria in their vaginas.

For this very reason, health officials, including the Center for Disease
Control (CDC) in Atlanta, Ga., were quick to say that these cases were
freak incidents and most people need not even worry about contracting it.
They did, however, concede that the growing number of mutant strep cases
were a source of mystery.

A wave of public concern naturally swept the US and Britain (although
there was no major reporting from the rest of Europe, or the former
Soviet Block and Asia).  As news coverage continued, little new information
emerged, and health officials continued to push their "don't worry"

What has not been widely reported is that there have been at least six
(possibly more) cases of the Flesh-Eating Strep in the US.  National
news coverage has been highly selective and strangely compartmentalised
on the matter.  For example, a New York Times summary article on the
mutant strep published June 8, 1994 (a few weeks into the coverage)
neglected to mention no less than four cases of Flesh Eating Strep which
had apparently been SUCCESSFULLY TREATED.  The four cases were all
treated at the University of Washington Medical Center in Seattle, WA.
It had been front page news there, complete with color photograph.

In odd parallel, an edited version of the same NYT wire story which
appeared in the Seattle Post-Intelligencer on the same day omitted
case reports from Michigan and Connecticut.

These omissions show peculiar editorial judgement.  Why would the
New York Times, probably -the- paper of record, not include in an
article summarizing the latest developments at least a passing
mention of four cases which had all been successfully treated when
up to then had no known cure?  A desire to minimize national panic
might explain the obscurity of the Michigan and Connecticut cases.
However this would not explain the lack of Seattle coverage.

A closer look at the strange strep mutation, its symptoms and
epidemiology raises only further questions.  There are also
odd and disturbing parallels to other "superbugs", such as HIV,
which some have claimed are actually germs engineered for use
in biological warfare.

There are two strains of strep which eat human tissue, and it is
mutant strains of these which have suddenly appeared in the news.
These two germs, each favoring a different kind of tissue, are a
type of Group A Strep.  (There are several classes of streptococcus
bacteria:  Groups A, B, C, D, and E.)

*Necrotising fasciitis* strep eats flesh.  *Myositis* eats muscle
tissue.  As gruesome as that sounds, these Group A Strep (GAS) germs
are usually fairly harmless to humans under normal conditions.  Symptoms
of infection by mutant GAS germs typically include a fatal drop in blood
pressure, toxic shock and organ failure, plus special symptoms specific
to each strain of GAS (such as the eating of flesh and muscle).

The New york Times reported that "Thirty to fifty percent of those
infected with the severe, invasive GAS die... (O)thers who survive often
require amputations or the removal of large areas of flesh to stop
the bacteria's spread."  [Gina Kolata, "Bacteria strain makes a deadly
comeback"; New York Times, 6/8/94.]

The CDC in Atlanta reported that five years ago the flesh eating strain
of GAS "was almost nonexistent."  The lethal variety of GAS first
appeared in 1987.  There was a drop in cases during 1991 and 1992 for
unknown reasons.  There has been an equally inexplicable jump in deadly
GAS cases in the last year or so.

But the rash of recent deaths has been caused by a mutant strain of
necrotising fasciitis and myositis.  The bacteria have themselves
become infected with a virus.

The New York Times reported "The bacteria that cause the disease
resemble the common strep that live in almost everyone's throat...
But the deadly strains of these bacteria are infected with a virus
that directs them to make a toxin.  And it is the toxin that converts
the strep bacteria from fairly benign to deadly."  [Gina Kolata,
"Bacteria strain makes deadly comeback"; NYT wire story, Seattle
Post-Intelligencer, 6/8/94, p. A3.]

A virus can be likened to a sort of microscopic mosquito which, instead
of drawing blood, injects copies of its own DNA into the nucleus of the
target cell.  The invading viral DNA literally takes over the resident
DNA of the infected cell.  The cell is thus forced to make more copies
of the virus, whose population in the host body explodes exponentially.

This writer has yet to locate accurate information on the incidence
of such viral infections of bacteria (especially in bacteria which
is already hostile to the human system), though it seems rather freakish.

But there is evidence that the mutant necrotising fasciitis and
myositis is more widespread than government and health officials
would have us believe.

The CDC estimates that 25-50% of GAS patients have Necrotising
fasciitis (the flesh eating strep).  The CDC's figures show 10-15,000
cases of GAS in the United States last year.  This would mean a
total of 2,500 - 7,500 cases of the flesh eating strep alone.  (This
does not include myositis, the muscle eating strep.  Figures on
the incidence of myositis have not been published in the press as
of this writing.)

Two thousand and five hundred cases in a year is a great deal more
than the 18 cases reported in the press.  Yet health officials, via the
mainstream press, are at the very least tacitly endorsing this widespread
dissemination of false information.  Why?

Two figures have emerged as quoted experts on the killer strep:
        DR. PATRICK SCHLIEVERT heads the "national testing" site for
strep at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.
        "A lab in Minnesota" played a key role in the Yellow Rain
biowarfare hoax.  The lab, along with the biowarfare (BW) lab at
Fort Detrick, Maryland (which is sardonically known as "Camp Health")
provided the first (and ultimately false) evidence of what the Pentagon
claimed was the use of tricothecenes by the Soviets in Southeast Asia.
[Edward S. Herman, "The Wall Street Journal as Propaganda Agency:
Yellow Rain and the El Mazote Massacre", CovertAction Quarterly, No.
43, Winter 1992-93, p. 39.]  Allegedly, the Yellow Rain was actually
a carrier for the deadly toxin.
        Tricothecenes are a type of mycotoxin (poison from a fungus).
Samples of water, rock and soil allegedly were covered with fusaria,
a white fungus which contains three such mycotoxins.  The labs (and
the government) maintained that the tricothecenes appeared in
concentrations "up to twenty times higher than any recorded natural
outbreak".  [Robert Harris and Jeremy Paxman "A Higher Form of Killing:
The Secret Story of Chemical and Biological Warfare", NY:  Noonday
Press, 1982, p. 236.]
        Tricothecenes are known in BW circles as T2 toxins.  They had been
studied since the 1930s.  Published Russian accounts spoke of victims
suffering from a burning feeling in the mouth and stomach, followed
by headaches, dizziness and convulsions before they began to spew blood
from every orifice.  [Ibid.]
        That a secret Minnesota lab provided test results relating to
BW, especially evidence so perfectly tailored to Pentagon specifications,
indicates that there is BW being done in the state.  Indeed, the entire
city of Minneapolis had been subjected to a BW test during the 1950s.
A chemical and bacteria cloud was sprayed over the city, although the
US Navy's Chemical Corp lied to councillors, telling them that a
"smokescreen" was being laid to protect the city form radar detection.
The BW test was just one of over 200 ultra-secret experiments conducted
over two decades in the US alone in which military and civilian targets
(including San Francisco, New York City, and Winnepeg, Canada) were attacked
with "imitation" biological weapons.
        The University of Minnesota is almost certainly involved with
current secret US BW research.  Dr. Schlievert would be a strong
candidate for such a program.
        DR. DENNIS STEVENS at the University of Washington in Seattle
is "a leading expert on the disease and heads the infectious disease
section at Veterans Affairs Hospital in Boise (Idaho)."  [Seattle Post-
Intelligencer]  Boise is only a few hours by car from the Dugway Proving
Grounds in Utah.  Itself only 60 some miles southwest of Salt Lake City,
Dugway Proving Grounds is a bio-chemical warfare testing area for the
US military, nestled alongside two other massive military proving
grounds.  The Dugway facility is over 40 times the size of the British
CBW lab at Porton Down.  During WWII, replicas of German and Japanese
houses were constructed and caves dug into the mountains to see how
well they could withstand CBW attack.  Experiments in high altitude
spraying of mustard gas from the air were also conducted by the US
Army Air Force.  [Richard Harris and Jeremy Paxman, op. cit., p. 117.]
        Members of the military have long been used as guinea pigs in
lethal experiments by the Pentagon.  Thousands of soldiers have been
exposed to high doses of radiation, chemical weapons, and military
biological agents in a litany of experiments spanning decades.  Most
recently, veterans of the Gulf War have had to struggle for official
recognition of "Gulf War Syndrome", which some theorize may have been
at least partially caused by exposure to biological weapons of some
sort.  Interestingly enough, although the Pentagon has begrudingly