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EMF Vehicle Construction
« on: February 11, 2017, 04:29:29 pm »
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  Subjects [Image] Light Technology [Image] Anti-Gravitational Researching:
Anti-Gravity Researching of Townsend Brown [Image] EMF Vehicle Construction
                    [Image] Anti-Gravity in The Himalayas
          ---------------------------------------------------------

                          EMF Vehicle Construction

Len Bucuvalas ([email protected]) 17 Dec 92 writes:

   * How to Build a Flying Saucer After So Many Amateurs Have Failed
   * Nikola Tesla: Man Ahead Of His Time

Taken from KeelyNet BBS (214) 324-3501

Sponsored by

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How to Build a Flying Saucer After So Many Amateurs Have Failed

An essay in Speculative Engineering

by T. B. Pawlicki

At the end of the nineteenth century, the most distinguished scientists and
engineers declared that no known combination of materials and locomotion
could be assembled into a practical flying machine. Fifty years later
another generation of distinguished scientists and engineers declared that
it was technologically infeasible for a rocket ship to reach the moon.
Nevertheless, men were getting off the ground and out into space even while
these words were uttered.

In the last half of the twentieth century, when technology is advancing
faster than reports can reach the public, it is fashionable to hold the
pronouncements of yesterday's experts to ridicule. But there is something
anomalous about the consistency with which eminent authorities fail to
recognize technological advances even while they are being made. You must
bear in mind that these men are not given to making public pronouncements in
haste; their conclusions are reached after exhaustive calculations and
proofs, and they are better informed about their subject than anyone else
alive. But by and large, revolutionary advances in technology do not
contribute to the advantage of established experts, so they tend to believe
that the challenge cannot possibly be realized.

The UFO phenomenon is a perversity in the annals of revolutionary
engineering. On the one hand, public authorities deny the existence of
flying saucers and prove their existence to be impossible. This is just as
we should expect from established experts. But on the other hand, people who
believe that flying saucers exist have produced findings that only tend to
prove that UFOs are technologically infeasible by any known combination of
materials and locomotion.

There is reason to suspect that the people who believe in the existence of
UFOs do not want to discover the technology because it is not in the true
believer's self interest that a flying saucer be within the capability of
human engineering. The true believer wants to believe that UFOs are of
extraterrestrial origin because he is seeking some kind of relief from debt
and taxes by an alliance with superhuman powers.

If anyone with mechanical ability really wanted to know how a saucer flies,
he would study the testimonies to learn the flight characteristics of this
craft, and then ask, "How can we do this saucer thing?" This is probably
what Werner Von Braun said when he decided that it was in his self-interest
to launch man into space: "How can we get this bird off the ground, and keep
it off?"

Well, what is a flying saucer? It is a disc-shaped craft about thirty feet
in diameter with a dome in the center accommodating the crew and,
presumably, the operating machinery. And it flies. So let us begin by
building a disc-shaped airfoil, mount the cockpit and the engine under a
central canopy, and see if we can make it fly. As a matter of fact, during
World War II the United States actually constructed a number of experimental
aircraft conforming to these specifications, and photographs of the craft
are published from time to time in popular magazines about science and
flight. It is highly likely that some of the UFO reports before 1950 were
sightings of these test flights. See how easy it is when you 'want' to find
answers to a mystery?

The mythical saucer also flies at incredible speeds. Well, the speeds
believed possible depend upon the time and place of the observer. As stated
earlier, a hundred years ago, twenty-five miles per hour was legally
prohibited in the belief that such a terrific velocity would endanger human
life. So replace the propeller of the experimental disc airfoil with a
modern aerojet engine. Is mach 3 fast enough for believers?

But the true saucer not only flies, it also hovers. You mean like a
Hovercraft? One professional engineer translated Ezekiel's description of
heavenly ships as a helicopter-cum-hovercraft.

But what of the anomalous electromagnetic effects manifest in the space
surrounding a flying saucer? Well, Nikola Tesla demonstrated a prototype of
an electronic device that was eventually developed into the electron
microscope, the television screen, an aerospace engine called the Ion Drive.
Since World War II, the engineering of the Ion Drive has been advanced as
the most promising solution to the propulsion of interplanetary spaceships.
The drive operates by charging atomic particles and directing them with
electro-magnetic force as a jet to the rear, generating a forward thrust in
reaction. The advantage of the Ion Drive over chemical rockets is that a
spaceship can sweep in the ions it needs from its flight path, like an
aerojet sucks in air through its engines. Therefore, the ship must carry
only the fuel it needs to generate the power for its chargers; there is no
need to carry dead weight in the form of rocket exhaust. There is another
advantage to be derived from ion rocketry: The top speed of a reaction
engine is limited by the ejection velocity of its exhaust. An ion jet is
close to the speed of light. If space travel is ever to be practical,
transport will have to achieve a large fraction of the speed of light.

In 1972 the French journal Science et Avenir reported Franco- American
research into a method of ionizing the airstream flowing over the wings to
eliminate sonic boom, a serious objection to the commercial success of the
Concorde. Four years later a picture appeared in an American tabloid of a
model aircraft showing the current state of development. The photograph
shows a disc-shaped craft, but not so thin as a saucer; it looks more like a
flying curling stone. In silent flight, the ionized air flowing around the
craft glows as a proper ufo should. The last word comes from an engineering
professor at the local university; he has begun construction of a flying
saucer in his backyard.

To the true believer, the flying saucer has no jet. It seems to fly by some
kind of antigravity. As antigravity is not known to exist in physical theory
or experimental fact in popular science, the saucer is clearly alien and
beyond human comprehension. But antigravity depends upon what you conceive
gravity to be, doesn't it?

For all practical purposes, you do not have to understand what Newton and
Einstien mean by gravity. Gravity is an acceleration downward, to the center
of the earth. Therefore, antigravity is an acceleration upward. As far as
practical engineering is concerned, any means to achieve a gain in altitude
is an antigravity engine. An airplane; a balloon; a rocket; a stepladder;
all are antigravity engines. See how easy it is to invent an antigravity
engine?

There are three basic kinds of locomotive engines. The primary principle is
traction. The foot and the wheel are traction engines. The traction engines
depend upon friction against a surrounding medium to generate movement, and
locomotion can proceed only as far and as speedily as the surrounding
friction will provide. The second principle is displacement. The balloon and
the submarine rise by displacing a denser medium; they descend by displacing
less that their weight. The tertiary drive is the rocket engine. A rocket is
driven by reaction from the mass of material it ejects. Although a rocket is
most efficient when not impeded by a surrounding medium, it must carry not
only it's fuel but also the mass it must eject. As a consequence, the rocket
is impractical where powerful acceleration is required for extended drives.
In chemical rocketry, ten minutes is a long burn for powered flight. What is
needed for practical antigravity locomotion is a fourth principle which does
not depend upon a surrounding medium or ejection of mass.

You must take notice that none of the principles of locomotion required any
new discovery, they have all been around for thousands of years, and
engineering only implemented the principle with increasing efficiency. A
fourth principle of locomotion has also been around for thousands of years:
It is centrifugal force. Centrifugal force is the principle of the military
sling and the medieval catapult.

Everyone knows that centrifugal force can overcome gravity. If directed
upward, centrifugal force can be used to drive an antigravity engine. The
problem engineers have been unable to solve is that centrifugal force is
generated in all directions on the plane of the centrifuge. It won't provide
locomotion unless the force can be concentrated in one direction. The
solution of the sling, of releasing the wheeling at the instant the
centrifugal force is directed along the ballistic trajectory, has all the
inefficiencies of a cannon. The difficulty of the problem is not real,
however. There is a mental block preventing people from perceiving a
centrifuge as anything other than a flywheel.

A bicycle wheel is a flywheel. If you remove the rim and tire, leaving only
the spokes sticking out of the hub, you still have a flywheel. In fact,
spokes alone make a more efficient flywheel than the complete wheel; this is
because momentum only goes up only in proportion to mass but with the square
of speed. Spokes are made of drawn steel with extreme tensile strength, so
spokes alone can generate the highest level of centrifugal force long after
the rim and tire have disintegrated. But spokes alone still generate
centrifugal force equally in all directions from the plane of rotation. All
you have to do to concentrate centrifugal force in one direction is remove
all the spokes but one. That one spoke still functions as a flywheel, even
though it is not a wheel any longer.

See how easy it is once you accept an attitude of solving one problem at a
time as you come to it? You can even add a weight to the end of the spoke to
increase the centrifugal force.

But our centrifuge still generates a centrifugal force acceleration in all
directions around the plane of rotation even though it doesn't generate
acceleration equally in all directions at the same time. All we have managed
to do is make the whole ball of wire wobble around the common center of mass
between the axle and free end of the spoke. To solve this problem, now that
we have come to it, we need merely to accelerate the spoke through a few
degrees of arc and then let it complete the cycle of revolution without
power. As long as it is accelerated during the same arc at each cycle, the
locomotive will lurch in one direction, albeit intermittently. But don't
forget that the piston engine also drives intermittently. The regular
centrifugal pulses can be evened out by mounting several centrifuges on the
same axle so that a pulse from another flywheel takes over as soon as one
pulse of power is past it's arc.

The next problem facing us is that the momentum imparted to the centrifugal
spoke is carries it all around the cycle with little loss of velocity. The
amount of concentrated centrifugal force carrying the engine in the desired
direction is too low to be practical. Momentum is half the product of mass
multiplied by velocity squared. Therefore, what we need is a spoke that has
a tremendous velocity with minimal mass. They don't make spokes like that
for bicycle wheels. A search through the engineers' catalog however, turns
up just the kind of centrifuge we need. An electron has no mass at rest (you
cannot find a smaller minimum mass than that); all it's mass is inherent in
its velocity. So we build an electron raceway in the shape of a doughnut in
which we can accelerate an electron to a speed close to that of light. As
the speed of light is approached, the energy of acceleration is converted to
a momentum approaching infinity. As it happens, an electron accelerator
answering our need was developed by the University of California during the
last years of World War II. It is called a betatron, and the doughnut is
small enough to be carried comfortably in a man's hands.

We can visualize the operation of the Mark I from what is known about
particle accelerators. To begin with, high energy electrons ionize the air
surrounding them. This causes the betatrons to glow like an annular neon
tube.

Therefore, around the rim of the saucer a ring of lights will glow like a
string of shining beads at night. The power required for flight will ionize
enough of the surrounding atmosphere to short out all electrical wiring in
the vicinity unless it is specially shielded. In theory, the top speed of
the Mark I is close to the speed of light; in practice there are many more
problems to be solved before relativistic speeds can be approached.

The peculiar property of microwaves heating all material containing the
water molecule means that any animal luckless enough to be nearby may be
cooked from the inside out; vegetation will be scorched where a saucer
lands; and any rocks containing water of crystallization will be blasted.
Every housewife with a microwave knows all this; only hard-headed scientists
and soft-headed true believers are completely dumbfounded. The UFOnauts
would be cooked by their own engines, too, if they left the flight deck
without shielding. This probably explains why a pair of UFOnauts, in a
widely published photograph, wear reflective plastic jumpsuits. Mounting the
betatrons outboard on a disc is an efficient way to get them away from the
crew's compartment, and the plating of the hull shields the interior. At
high accelerations, increasing amounts of power are transformed into
radiation, making the centrifugal drive inefficient in strong gravitational
fields. The most practical employment of this engineering is for large
spacecraft, never intended to land. The flying saucers we see are very
likely scouting craft sent from mother ships moored in orbit. For brief
periods of operation, the heavy fuel consumption of the Mark I can be
tolerated, along with radiation leakage - especially when the planet being
scouted is not your own.

When you compare the known operating features of particle centrifuges with
the eyewitness testimony, it is fairly evident that any expert claiming
flying saucers to be utterly beyond any human explanation is not doing his
homework, and he should be reexamined for his professional license.

For dramatic purpose, I have classified the development of the flying saucer
through five stages:

   Mark I    - Electronic centrifuges mounted around a fixed disc,
              outboard.
   Mark II  - Electronic centrifuges  mounted  outboard  around  a
              rotating disc.
   Mark III  -  Electronic centrifuges mounted outboard  around  a
              rotating disc,  period  of cycles tuned to harmonize
              with ley lines, for jet assist.
   Mark IV  - Particle centrifuge tuned to modify time coordinates
              by faster than light travel.
   Mark V    -  No centrifuge.   Solid  state  coils  and  crystal
              harmonics transforms  ambient  field   directly  for
              dematerialization and      rematerialization      at
              destinations in time and space.

Now that the UFO phenomenon has been demystified and reduced to human ken,
we can proceed to prove the theory. If your resources are like those of the
PLO, you can go ahead and build your own flying saucer without any further
information from me, but I have nothing to work with except the junk I can
find around the house.

I found an old electric motor that had burned out, but still had a few turns
left in it. I drilled a hole through the driving axle so that an eight inch
bar would slide freely through it. I mounted the motor on a chassis so that
the bar would rotate on an eccentric cam. In this way the end of the bar was
always extended in the same direction while the other end was always pressed
into the driving axle. As both ends had the same angular velocity at all
times, the end extending out from the axle would always have a higher
angular momentum. This resulted in a concentration of centrifugal
acceleration in one direction. when I plugged the in the motor, the sight of
my brainchild lurching ahead - unsteadily, but in a constant direction, -
gave me a bigger thrill than my baptism of sex - lasted longer, too. But not
much longer. In less than twenty seconds the burned-out motor gasped its
last and died in a puff of smoke; the test run was broadcast on radio
microphone but the spectacle was lost without television. Because my
prototype did not survive long enough to run in two directions I had to
declare the test inconclusive because of mechanical breakdown. So, what the
hell, the Wright brothers didn't get far off the ground the first time they
tried either. Now that I know the critter will move, it is worthwhile to put
a few bucks in to a new motor, install a clutch, and gear the transmission
down. One problem at a time is the way it goes.

A rectified centrifuge small enough to hold in one hand and powered by solar
cells, based on my design, could be manufactured for about fifty dollars
(depending on production and competitive bids). Installed on Skylab, it
would be sufficient to keep the craft in orbit indefinitely. A larger
Hyperspace Drive (as I call this particular design) will provide a small but
constant acceleration for interplanetary spacecraft that would accumulate
practical velocities over runs of several days.

It is rumored that a gentleman by the name of Dean invented another kind of
antigravity engine sometime during the past fifty years, but I have been
unable to track down any more information except that its design consists of
wheels within wheels. A gentleman in Florida, Hans Schnebel, sent me a
description of a machine he built and tested that is similar in principle to
the Dean drive. Essentially, a large rotating disk has a smaller rotating
disc on one side of the main driving axle. The two wheels are geared
together so that a weight mounted on the rim of the smaller wheel is always
at the outside of the larger wheel during the same length of arc of each
revolution, and always next to the main axle during the opposite arc. What
happens is that the velocity of the weight is amplified by harmonic
coincidence with the large rotor during one half of its period of
revolution, and diminished during the other half cycle. This concentrates
momentum in the same quarter continually, to rectify the centrifuge. The
result is identical to my Hyperspace Drive, but has the beauty of
continuously rotating motion. Now, if the Dean drive is made with a huge
main rotor, - like about thirty feet in diameter - there is enough room to
mount a series of smaller wheels around the rim, set in gimbals for attitude
control, and Mr. Dean himself has himself a model T Flying Saucer requiring
no license from the AEC.

In 1975, Professor Eric Laithwaite, Head of the Department of Electrical
Engineering at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London,
England, invented another approach to harnessing the centrifugal force of a
gyroscope to power an antigravity engine - well, he almost invented it, but
he did not have the sense to hold onto success when he grasped it. Professor
Laithwaite is world-renowned for his most creative solutions to the problems
of magnetic-levitation-propulsion systems, and the fruit of his brain is
operating today in Germany and Japan, his railway trains float in the air
while traveling at over three hundred miles per hour. If anyone can present
the world with a proven anti gravity engine, it must be the professor.

Laithwaite satisfied himself that the precessional force causing a gyroscope
to wobble had no reaction. This is a clear violation of Newton's Third Law
of Motion as 'generally conceived'. Laithwaite figured that if he could
engage the precessional acceleration while the gyroscope wobbled in one
direction and release the precession while it wobble in other directions, he
would be able to demonstrate to a forum of colleagues and critics at the
college a rectified centrifuge that worked as a proper antigravity engine.
His insight was sound but he did not work it out right. All he succeeded in
demonstrating was a 'separation between action and reaction,' and his engine
did nothing but oscillate violently. Unfortunately, neither Laithwaite or
his critics were looking for a temporal separation between action and
reaction, so the loophole he proved in Newton's Third Law was not noticed.
Everyone was looking for action without reaction, so no one saw anything at
all. Innumerable other inventors have constructed engines essentially
identical to Laithwaite's, including a young high school dropout who lives
across the street from me.

Another invention described is U.S. Patent disclosure number 3,653,269,
granted to Richard Foster, a retired chemical engineer in Louisiana. Foster
mounted his gyroscopes around the rim of a large rotor disc, like a two
cylinder flying saucer. Every time the rotor turns a half cycle, the
precessional twist of the gyros in reaction generates a powerful force.
During the half cycle when Foster's gyros were twisting in the other
direction, his clutch grabbed and transmitted the power to the driving
wheels. During the other half cycle, the gyros twisted freely. Foster claims
his machine traveled four miles per hour until it flew to pieces from
centrifugal forces. After examining the patents, I agreed that it looked
like it would work, and it certainly would fly to pieces because the bearing
mounts were not nearly strong enough to contain the powerful twisting forces
his machine generated. Foster's design, however, cannot be included among
antigravity engines because it would not operate off the ground. He never
claimed it would, and Foster always described his invention truthfully as
nothing more than an implementation of the fourth principle of locomotion.

What Laithwaite needed was another rotary component, like the Dean drive,
geared to his engine's oscillations so that they would always be turned to
drive in the same direction. As it happens, an Italian by the name of
Todeschini recently secured a patent on this idea, and his working model is
said to be attracting the interest of European engineers.

When the final rectifying device is added to the essential Laithwaite
design, all the moving parts generate the vectors of a vortex, and the
velocity generated is the axial thrust of the vortex. Therefore I call
inventions based on this design the Vortex Drive.

By replacing the Hyperspace modules of the Mark I Flying Saucer with Vortex
modules, still retaining the essential betatron as the centrifuge,
performance is improved for the Mark II. To begin with, drive is generated
only when the main rotor is revolving, so the saucer can be parked with the
motor running. This eliminates the agonizing doubt we all suffered when the
Lunar Landers were about to blast off to rejoin the command capsule: Will
the engine start? This would explain why the ring of lights around the rim
of a saucer is said to begin to revolve immediately prior to lift off. A
precessional drive affords a wider range of control, and the responses are
more stable than a direct centrifuge. But the most interesting improvement
is the result of the 'structure' of the electromagnetic field generated by
the Vortex drive. By amplifying and diminishing certain vectors
harmonically, the Mark III flying saucer can ride the electromagnetic
current of the Earth's electromagnetic field like the jet stream. And this
is just what we see UFO's doing, don't we, as they are reported running
their regular flight corridors during the biennial tourist season. Professor
Laithwaite got all this together when he conceived of his antigravity engine
as a practical application of his theory of "rivers of energy running
through space"; he just could not get it off the drawing board the first
time.

The flying saucer consumes fuel at a rate that cannot be supplied by all the
wells in Arabia. Therefore we have to assume that UFO engineers must have
developed a practical atomic fusion reactor. But once the Mark III is
perfected, another fuel supply becomes attainable, and no other is so
practical for flying saucer. The Moray Valve converts the Mark III into a
Mark IV Flying Saucer by extending its operational capabilities through
'time' as well as space. The Moray Valve, you see, functions by changing the
direction of flow of energy in the Sun's gravitational field. It is the
velocity of energy that determines motion, and motion determines the flow of
time. We shall continue the engineering of flying saucers in the following
essays.

My investigation into antigravity engineering brought me a technical report
while this typescript was in preparation. Dr. Mason Rose, President of the
University for Social Research, published a paper describing the discoveries
of Dr. Paul Alfred Biefeld, astronomer and physicist at the California
Institute for Advanced Studies, and his assistant, Townsend Brown. In 1923
Biefeld discovered that a heavily charged electrical condensor moved toward
its positive pole when suspended in a gravitational field. He assigned Brown
to study the effect as a research project. A series of experiments showed
Brown that the most efficient shape for a field propelled condensor was a
disc with a central dome. In 1926 Townsend published his paper describing
all the construction features and flight characteristics of a flying saucer,
conforming to the testimony of the first flight witnessed over Mount Rainer
twenty-one years later and corroborated by thousands of witnesses since.
(The Biefeld-Brown Effect explains why a Mark III rides the electromagnetic
jet stream.)

We may speculate that flying saucers spotted from time to time may not only
include visitors from other planets and travelers through time, but also
fledglings from an unknown number of cuckoo's nests in secret experimental
plants all over the world. The space program at Cape Canaveral may be
nothing more than a supercolossal theatre orchestrated by Cecil B. Demille
to reassure Americans that they are still 'numero uno' after Russia beat our
atomic ace by putting Sputnik into orbit. We need not doubt that the Apollo
spaceships got to the Moon, but we may wonder if Neil Armstrong was the
first man to land there. The real space program may have been conducted in
secret as a spin-off from the Manhattan Project since the end of World War
II, and Apollo 13 may have been picked up by a sag wagon to make sure our
team scored a home run every time they went to bat. The exploration of space
is the most dangerous enterprise ever taken on by a living species. Don't
you ever wonder why the Russians are losing men in space like a safari being
decimated in headhunter country, while nothing ever happens to our boys
except accidents during ground training?

-T.B. Pawlicki

  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

Vangard Notes

I had the pleasure of meeting Tom at the 1987 Global Sciences Congress in
Denver. He is as fascinating in person as his writings indicate. Tom has
also written 2 excellent books, "How to Build a Flying Saucer" and
"Hyper-Space". We have kept in contact since that time by mail.

You may write Tom at :

   T. B. Pawlicki
   843 Fort Street
   Victoria, B.C.
   V8W 1H6
   Canada

If you have comments or other information relating to such topics as this
paper covers, please upload to KeelyNet or send to the Vangard Sciences
address as listed on the first page. Thank you for your consideration,
interest and support.

Jerry W. Decker, Ron Barker, Chuck Henderson
Vangard Sciences/KeelyNet

  ------------------------------------------------------------------------

The following article was published as a two part series in the February and
March issues of "The UFO Enigma". This is the newsletter of the UFO Study
Group of Greater St. Louis, Inc. This article could be placed under more
than one catagory. Comments anyone???

KEN HANKE

NIKOLA TESLA, MAN AHEAD OF HIS TIME

(or How To Build a UFO)

By Bill Jones

Nikola Tesla, inventor of alternating current motors, did the basic research
for constructing electromagnetic field lift-and-drive aircraft/space craft.
From 1891 to 1893, he gave a set of lectures and demonstrations to groups of
electrical engineers. As part of each show, Tesla stood in the middle of the
stage, using his 6' 6" height, with an assistant on either side, each 7 feet
away. All 3 men wore thick cork or rubber shoe soles to avoid being
electrically grounded. Each assistant held a wire, part of a high voltage,
low current circuit. When Tesla raised his arms to each side, violet colored
electricity jumped harmlessly across the gaps between the men. At high
voltage and frequency in this arrangement, electricity flows over a surface,
even the skin, rather than into it. This is a basic circuit which could be
used by aircraft / spacecraft.

The hull is best made double, of thin, machinable, slightly flexible
ceramic. This becomes a good electrical insulator, has no fire danger,
resists any damaging effects of severe heat and cold, and has the hardness
of armor, besides being easy for magnetic fields to pass through.

The inner hull is covered on it's outside by wedge shaped thin metal sheets
of copper or aluminum, bonded to the ceramic. Each sheet is 3 to 4 feet wide
at the horizontal rim of the hull and tapers to a few inches wide at the top
of the hull for the top set of metal sheets, or at the bottom for the bottom
set of sheets. Each sheet is separated on either side from the next sheet by
1 or 2 inches of uncovered ceramic hull. The top set of sheets and bottom
set of sheets are separated by about 6 inches of uncovered ceramic hull
around the horizontal rim of the hull.

The outer hull protects these sheets from being short-circuited by wind
blown metal foil (Air Force radar confusing chaff), heavy rain or
concentrations of gasoline or kerosene fumes. If unshielded, fuel fumes
could be electrostatically attracted to the hull sheets, burn and form
carbon deposits across the insulating gaps between the sheets, causing a
short-circuit. The space, the outer hull with a slight negative charge,
would absorb hits from micro-meteorites and cosmic rays (protons moving at
near the speed of light). Any danger of this type that doesn't already have
a negative electric charge would get a negative charge in hitting the outer
hull, and be repelled by the metal sheets before it could hit the inner
hull. This wouldn't work well on a very big meteor, I might add.

The hull can be made in a variety of shapes; sphere, football, disc, or
streamlined rectangle or triangle, as long as these metal sheets, "are of
considerable area and arranged along ideal enveloping surfaces of very large
radii of curvature," p. 85. "My Inventions" , by Nikola Tesla.

The power plant for this machine can be a nuclear fission or fusion reactor
for long range and long-term use to run a steam engine which turns the
generators. A short range machine can use a hydrogenoxygen fuel cell to run
a low-voltage motor to turn the generators, occasionally recharging by
hovering next to high voltage power lines and using antennas mounted on the
outer hull to take in the electricity. The short-range machine can also have
electricity beamed to it from a generating plan on a long-range aircraft /
spacecraft or on the ground.

(St. Louis Post-Dispatch, Nov. 24, 1987, Vol 109, No. 328, "The Forever
Plane" by Geoffrey Rowan, p.D1, D7.)

("Popular Science", Vol 232, No. 1, Jan. 1988, "Secret of Perpetual Flight?
Beam Power Plane," by Arthur Fisher, p. 62-65, 106)

One standard for the generators is to have the same number of magnets as
field coils. Tesla's preferred design was a thin disc holding 480 magnets
with 480 field coils wired in series surrounding it in close tolerance. At
50 revolutions per minute, it produces 19,400 cycles per second.

The electricity is fed into a number of large capacitors, one for each metal
sheet. An automatic switch, adjustable in timing by the pilot, closes, and
as the electricity jumps across the switch, back and forth, it raises it's
own frequency; a switch being used for each capacitor.

The electricity goes into a Tesla transformer; again, one transformer for
each capacitor. In an oil tank to insulate the windings and for cooling, and
supported internally by wood, or plastic, pipe and fittings, each Tesla
transformer looks like a short wider pipe that is moved along a longer,
narrower pipe by an insulated non-electric cable handle. The short pipe, the
primary, is 6 to 10 windings (loops) of wire connected in series to the long
pipe. The secondary is 460 to 600 windings, at the low voltage and frequency
end.

The insulated non-electric cable handle is used through a set of automatic
controls to move the primary coil to various places on the secondary coil.
This is the frequency control. The secondary coil has a low frequency and
voltage end and a maximum voltage and frequency end. The greater the
frequency the electricity, the more it pushes against the earth's
electrostatic and electromagnetic fields.

The electricity comes out of the transformer at the high voltage end and
goes by wire through the ceramic hull to the wide end of the metal sheet.
The electricity jumps out on and flows over the metal sheet, giving off a
very strong electromagnetic field, controlled by the transformer. At the
narrow end of the metal sheet, most of the high-voltage push having been
given off, the electricity goes back by wire through the hull to a circuit
breaker box (emergency shut off), then to the other side of the generators.

In bright sunlight, the aircraft / spacecraft may seem surrounded by hot
air, a slight magnetic distortion of the light. In semi-darkness and night,
the metal sheets glow, even through the thin ceramic outer hull, with
different colors. The visible light is a by-product of the electricity
flowing over the metal sheets, according to the frequencies used.

Descending, landing or just starting to lift from the ground, the
transformer primaries are near the secondary weak ends and therefore, the
bottom set of sheets glow a misty red. Red may also appear at the front of
the machine when it is moving forward fast, lessening resistance up front.
Orange appears for slow speed. Orange-yellow are for airplane-type speeds.
Green and blue are for higher speeds. With a capacitor addition, making it
oversized for the circuit, the blue becomes bright white, like a
searchlight, with possible risk of damaging the metal sheets involved. The
highest visible frequency is violet, like Tesla's stage demonstrations, used
for the highest speed along with the bright white. The colors are nearly
coherent, of a single frequency, like a laser.

A machine built with a set of super conducting magnets would simplify and
reduce electricity needs from a vehicle's transformer circuits to the point
of flying along efficiently and hovering with little electricity.

When Tesla was developing arc lights to run on alternating current, there
was a bothersome high-pitched whine, whistle, or buzz, due to the electrodes
rapidly heating and cooling. Tesla put this noise in the ultrasonic range
with the special transformer already mentioned. The aircraft / spacecraft
gives off such noises when working at low frequencies.

Timing is important in the operation of this machine. For every 3 metal
sheets, when the middle one is briefly turned off, the sheet on either side
is energized, giving off the magnetic field. The next instant, the middle
sheet is energized, while the sheet on either side is briefly turned off.
There is a time delay in the capacitors recharging themselves, so at any
time, half of all the metal sheets are energized and the other half are
recharging, alternating all around the inner hull. This balances the
machine, giving it very good stability. This balance is less when fewer of
the circuits are in use.

Fairly close, the aircraft / spacecraft produces heating of persons and
objects on the ground; but by hovering over an area at low altitude for
maybe 5 or 10 minutes, the machine also produces a column of very cold air
down to the ground. As air molecules get into the strong magnetic fields
that the machine is transmitting out, the air molecules become polarized and
from lines, or strings, of air molecules. The normal movement of the air is
stopped, and there is suddenly a lot more room for air molecules in this
area, so more air pours in. This expansion and the lack of normal air motion
make the area intensely cold.

This is also the reason that the aircraft / spacecraft can fly at supersonic
speeds without making sonic booms. As air flows over the hull, top and
bottom, the air molecules form lines as they go through the magnetic fields
of the metal sheet circuits. As the air molecules are left behind, they keep
their line arrangements for a short time,long enough to cancel out the sonic
boom shock waves.

Outside the earth's magnetic field, another propulsion system must be used,
which relies on the first. You may have read of particle accelerators, or
cyclotrons, or atom smashers. A particle accelerator is a circular loop of
pipe that, in cross-section, is oval. In a physics laboratory, most of the
air in it is pumped out. The pipe loop is given a static electric charge, a
small amount of hydrogen or other gas is given the same electric charge so
the particles won't stick to the pipe. A set of electromagnets all around
the pipe loop turn on and off, one after the other, pushing with one
magnetic pole and pulling with the next, until those gas particles are
racing around the pipe loop at nearly the speed of light. Centrifugal force
makes the particles speed closer to the outside edge of the pipe loop, still
within the pipe. The particles break down into electrons, or light and other
wavelengths, protons or cosmic rays, and neutrons if more than hydrogen is
put in the accelerator.

At least 2 particle accelerators are used to balance each other and counter
each other's tendency to make the craft spin. Otherwise, the machine would
tend to want to start spinning, following the direction of the force being
applied to the particles. The accelerators push in opposite directions.

As the pilot and crew travel in space, outside the magnetic field of a
world, water from a tank is electrically separated into oxygen and hydrogen.
Waste carbon dioxide that isn't used for the onboard garden, and hydrogen
(helium if the machine is using a fusion reactor) is slowly, constantly fed
into the inside curves of both accelerators.

The high speed particles go out through straight lengths of pipe, charged
like the loops and in speeding out into space, push the machine along. Doors
control which pips the particles leave from. This allows very long range
acceleration and later deceleration at normal (earth) gravity. This avoids
the severe problems of weightlessness, including lowered physical abilities
of the crew.

It is possible to use straight-line particle accelerators, even as few as
one per machine, but these don't seem as able to get the best machine speed
for the least amount of particles pushed out.

Using a constant acceleration of 32.2 feet per second per second provides
earth normal gravity in deep space and only 2 gravities of stress in leaving
the earth's gravity field. It takes, not counting air resistance, 18
minutes, 58.9521636 seconds to reach the 25,000 miles per hour speed to
leave the earth's gravity field. It takes about 354 days, 12 hours, 53
minutes and 40 seconds (about) to reach the speed of light - 672,487,072.7
miles per hour. It takes the same distance to decelerate as it does to speed
up, but this cuts down the time delay that one would have in conventional
chemical rocketry enormously, for a long journey.

A set of superconducting magnets can be charged by metal sheet circuits,
within limits, to whatever frequency is needed and will continue to transmit
that magnetic field frequency almost indefinitely.

A shortwave radio can be used to find the exact frequencies that an aircraft
/ spacecraft is using, for each of the colors it may show whole a color
television can show the same overall color frequency that the nearby, but
not extremely close, craft is using This is limited, as a machine traveling
at the speed of a jet airliner may broadcast in a frequency range usually
used for radar sets.

The craft circuits override lower frequency, lower voltage electric circuits
within and near their electromagnetic fields. One source briefly mentioned a
1941 incident, where a shortwave radio was used to override automobile
ignition systems, up to 3 miles away. When the shortwave radio was turned
off, the cars could work again. How many UFO encounters have been reported
in which automobile ignition systems have suddenly stopped?

I figure that things would not be at all pleasant for drivers of modern cars
with computer controlled engine and ignition systems. Computer circuitry is
sensitive to small changes in voltage and a temporary wrong-way voltage
surge may wipe the computer memory out. It could mean that a number of
drivers would suddenly be stranded with their cars not working should such a
craft fly low over a busy highway. Only diesel engines, already warmed up,
and Stanley Steamer type steam engine cares are able to continue working in
a strong electromagnetic field. In May, 1988, it was reported that the U.S.
Army had lost 5 Blackhawk helicopters and 22 crewmen in crashes caused by
ordinary commercial radio broadcasting overriding the computer control
circuits of those helicopters. Certainly, computer circuits for for this
aircraft / spacecraft can and must be designed to overcome this weakness.

One construction arrangement for this craft to avoid such interference is
for the metal sheet circuits to be more sharply tuned. Quartz or other
crystals can be used in capacitors; in a very large number of low-powered,
single frequency circuits, or as part of a frequency control for the metal
sheet circuits.

          ---------------------------------------------------------

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